P2 Presentation_EJdeVisser_June2011

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P2 Presentation_EJdeVisser_June2011

  1. 1. E.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  2. 2. CONTENTIntroduction• Motive• Theoretical framework• Context: Haiti• Research question• Delineation• MethodResearch• Climate analysis• Haitian architecture• Sustainable building materials• Fieldwork Haiti• Proposed final resultE.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  3. 3. MOTIVE INTRODUCTIONEcological footprint buildingPressure on natural environment• (Nonrenewable) Natural resources are being depleted• Sustainability is a popular word• Measuring sustainabilityE.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  4. 4. MOTIVE INTRODUCTIONEcological footprint buildingPressure on natural environment• Renewable forms of energy are widely available• Pressure by materials and the indoor environment becomes largestE.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  5. 5. MOTIVE INTRODUCTIONJanuary 12th 2010Léogâne a 7.0 M Earthquake • An estimated 220.000 casualties • 1.000.000 homeless • 250.000 buildings severely damaged > A high need for resilient housingE.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  6. 6. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK INTRODUCTION Post-disaster development Resilience Urban Metabolism Vulnerability Material flow analysis Bioclimatic designThe objective is through sustainable use of materials in a bioclimatic and resilient (natural hazards) design, where passive thermal strate-gies are used, to achieve a higher level of urban resilience in the post-disaster development process.E.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  7. 7. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK INTRODUCTIONUrban metabolism • Cities • Analyses flows of input and output of energy and ma- terials Objective: to reduce the city’s use of natural resources and production of wastes while simultaneously improv- ing its livabilityExtended metabolism model of human settlementSource: Newman, 1999E.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  8. 8. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK INTRODUCTIONBioclimatic design Architecture Architecture Biology Biology Technology Building Climate Technology Climate context Climate responsive design Bioclimatic design Source: Hyde, 2000 Architecture • Focuses on the synthesis and the selection of cli-Biology • Starts with an analysis of the climate and then mate responsive strategies to meet design objectives move to design synthesis Design > Look for suitable climate strategy Climate analysis > Design Climate TechnologyE.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | JuneBuilding | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti 17th 2011 context
  9. 9. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK INTRODUCTIONResilience Natural environment The capability to prepare for, respond to, and recover from significant multi-hazard threats with Spatially varied, with unequal distributionminimum damage to public safety and health, the economy, and security. of opportunities and hazardsSource:Wilbanks (2007) Opportunities, Hazards affecting locations and human activities resources for e.g. floods, drought, human activities, earthquakes,• Measured by community vulnerability e.g. agricultural hurricanes,• Disaster risk R: land, water, miner- als, energy sources, volcanic eruptions, diseases sites for construc- tion, places to live RaH= HaH x Ea x VaH Source: Unesco and work H = type of risk (man-made, natural) a = geographic area affected by ‘h’ Social processes determine unequal access to opportunities and unequal exposure to E = exposure, number of people in ‘a’ hazards V = vulnerability, ability to cope with ‘h’ in ‘a’ Class - Gender - Ethnicity - Age group -• A tool to visualize risks is GIS (Geospatial Information System) Disability - Immigration status Social systems and power relations Social causation of disasters Political and economic systems at national and international scales Source:Wisner, 2003E.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  10. 10. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK INTRODUCTIONPost-disaster development Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Emergency relief Rehabilitation Reconstruction 0-6 months 6 months-2 years 5 years Saves lives by: Providing essential ser- Objective is to build a • deliver food and clean vices by analysing the safer and sustainable water needs. lifelihood. • improve sanitation • social and other infra- • provide medical atten- structures are restored tion and shelter • economy is revitalized • prevent or minimize • clearance of debris outbreaks of diseases • support livelihoods through cash-for-work programsE.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  11. 11. HAITI INTRODUCTION Population • Country: 9.719.932 (July 2011 est.) • Port-au-Prince: 2.143 million (2010)E.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  12. 12. HAITI INTRODUCTIONProblems HaitiSeverely affected by outside influences and interests. ScaleEcological• Deforestation, loss of biodiversity National• Floodings, soil erosion, loss of fertile ground National/regionalPublic safety and health• Lack of clean water National• Indecisive government National• Low life expectancy (women 55 years, men 53 years)• Lack of resilient housing City/neighbourhoodEconomical• Poorest counrty in Western hemisphere• High unemployment rates National• Dependent on import of resources National• 78% of Haitians live on less than $2/day• Adult illiteracy is about 38%E.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  13. 13. RESEARCH QUESTION INTRODUCTIONIn the context of urbanized Haiti, can locally available building materials in combination with passive thermal strate-gies provide in a comfortable and resilient community?Sub-questions:• Which building materials, in the categories reusable, renewable, recyclable and biodegradable, are locally available or can be produced?• Which passive thermal strategies are suitable for the urban setting (high density) in both the design of the neighbourhood and the house?• Which natural hazards combined with the contextual cause a high risk?• How can the design be resilient to natural hazards?• Which construction joints can be made with sustainable materials?Objectives: Scale• Create employment/entrepreneurship National/neighbourhood• Diminish solid waste flow by using sustainable building materials City• Improve resilience of built environment Neighbourhood/House• Improve street/outdoor climate Neighbourhood• Improve indoor climate by using passive thermal strategies HouseE.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  14. 14. RESEARCH QUESTION INTRODUCTIONIn the context of urbanized Haiti, can locally available building materials in combination with passive thermal strate-gies provide in a comfortable and resilient community?Why urbanized Haiti?• Highest need for resilient housingWhy use local available or producible materials?• To stimulate the economy by providing employment• To restore the ecologyWhy use passive thermal strategies?• No energy useE.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  15. 15. DELINEATION INTRODUCTION Urban Metabolism • Diminish the solid waste flow by changing the building material input into reusable, re- newable, recyclable and biodegradable materialsE.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  16. 16. DELINEATION INTRODUCTION Architecture Architecture Biology Biology Urban Metabolism • Diminish the solid waste flow by changing the building material input into reusable, re- newable, recyclable and biodegradable materials Technology Contextual bioclimatic design Building • Using passive thermal strategies in Technology relation to sustainable material use Climate Climate context Architecture Biology Climate Technology Building contextE.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  17. 17. DELINEATION INTRODUCTION Architecture Architecture Biology Biology Urban Metabolism • Diminish the solid waste flow by changing the building material input into reusable, re- newable, recyclable and biodegradable materials Technology Contextual bioclimatic design Building • Using passive thermal strategies in Technology relation to sustainable material use Climate Climate context Resilience • Create a resilient community • A design that is resilient to natural hazards Architecture Biology Climate Technology Building contextE.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  18. 18. DELINEATION INTRODUCTION Architecture Architecture Biology Biology Urban Metabolism • Diminish the solid waste flow by changing the building material input into reusable, re- newable, recyclable and biodegradable materials Technology Contextual bioclimatic design Building • Using passive thermal strategies in Technology relation to sustainable material use Climate Climate context Resilience • Create a resilient community • A design that is resilient to natural hazards Post-disaster development • A resilient community Phase 1 Architecture Phase 2 Phase 3 Emergency relief Rehabilitation Reconstruction 0-6 months Biology 6 months-2 years 5 years Saves lives by: Providing essential ser- Objective is to build a • deliver food and clean vices by analysing the safer and sustainable water needs. lifelihood. • improve sanitation • social and other infra- Climate Technology • provide medical atten- structures are restored tion and shelter • economy is revitalized • prevent or minimize • clearance of debris Building outbreaks of diseases • support livelihoods context through cash-for-work programsE.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  19. 19. METHOD INTRODUCTION• Steps towards the final goal of 1.the design Classify local climate• Generic method 2a. 2b. 2c. Indigenous passive Building typologies Sustainable materi- thermal strategies and materials use als produced and material use similar climatic similar climatic region region 2d. 3. 4. 2e. Literature Passive thermal Design Sustainable Literature strategies materials data- base 5. Contextual inputE.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  20. 20. LOCATION:VILLA ROSA, PORT-AU-PRINCE INTRODUCTIONVilla Rosa• Informal settlement, no landuse rights• Built on one side of the hill, other side is St Marie (church com-munity)• High densityE.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  21. 21. CLIMATE CONTEXTGeneral climate class Haiti:Hot and humidBiomes:1. Tropical&subtropical moist broadleaf forests and > Hispaniolan moist forest2. Tropical&subtropical coniferous forests > Hispaniolan pine forestE.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  22. 22. CLIMATE CONTEXTHaitian Geology Hispaniola fault• 5 mountain ranges• Seismic activity• Northeastern mountain range cuts of tradewinds Lowlands Mountains Plateau Northeast tradewinds 1-3 months of rain; less 7-9 months of rain; than 750 mm annualy; very 1000-2000 mm annualy; dry sufficient 4-6 months of rain; 10-11 months of rain; 12 months of rain; more 750-1000 mm annualy; dry 1500-2000 mm annualy; than 2000 mm annualy; humid very humidE.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  23. 23. CLIMATE CONTEXTLocal climate Villa Rosa (Port-au-Prince) Mean min. Temp. [°C] Mean max. Temp. [°C] Precipitation [mm] Humidity [%] at 07.00h Humidity [%] at 13.00h Humidity [%] Mean Wind [m/s] Sun [h/day] Rad [MJ/m²/day] January 22,5 30,8 31,6 74 46 65 3,1 8,8 16,8 February 21,7 31,3 46,4 74 46 63 3,2 9 18,5• Almost constant temperatures throughout the year March 22,4 32,3 72,6 73 47 64 3,2 9 19,6 April 22,8 32,9 168,3 74 50 68 2,9 8,5 20,8• Two rainy seasons: April-June and August-October May 23,4 33,4 215,8 76 52 73 2,8 8,1 20,6• Yearly precipitation: 1322 mm June July 24,2 25,1 34,5 35 98,6 80,5 73 71 48 46 68 64 3,3 3,5 8,1 8,8 22,3 22,5• Almost constant relative humidity 65-75 % August September 24,4 24,1 35,1 34,1 151,2 166,7 75 79 50 52 68 73 3,1 2,8 8,7 7,8 21,5 19,2• Windspeed of around 3 m/s October 23,7 33,2 171,3 80 54 76 2,4 7,3 17,3 November 23,2 32,2 85,8 78 52 72 2,6 8,2 15,9• Between 7,5 - 9 hours sun a day December 22,3 31,2 32,9 75 48 68 2,7 8,2 15,7 1321,7• Hurricane season from June-October Climograph Port-au-Prince 250 40 35 200 Percipitation [mm] Temperature [°C] 30 150 25 20 Precipitation [mm] 100 15 Min. Temp. [°C] 10 50 Max. Temp. [°C] 5 0 0E.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  24. 24. HAITIAN ARCHITECTURE CONTEXT Short history of Haiti • Inhabited by Taíno Indians from around 600 AD • Discovered by Columbus in 1492 • Colonized by Spanish, later the French • 1804 Independence, Haiti Lakou A compound whereImplementations of Cailles DIASPORA AFRICAN several families live and share a Characteristics: common space.- Front porch - Materials: wood, metal, stucco walls > what is available RURAL Traditional lakous revolve around -aCreole decorations (woodcarving, color) Vodou temple. - Gabled roof - One storey Mud, straw, wood and thatch Mud, straw, wood and thatch A thin, narrow building with a A thin, narrow building with a gabled entrance, with plastered, gabled entrance, with plastered, SLAVERY stucco walls, a thatched roof, stucco walls, a thatched roof, and shuttered windows. and shuttered windows. Shotgun Yoruba Cailles Shotgun Cailles (Mississippi (Mississippi (Haiti) (West Africa) (Haiti) delta) delta) Gingerbread house (late 1800s and early 1900s)Plantation house Bricks are used in construction of the walls. The Plantation house Adaptations of French and Victorian architectural Bricks are used in construction ofIt exhibits a combination of Spanish colonial features and French house rests directly on the ground. styles to Haitis Caribbean milieu. intricate lattice- It exhibits a combination of Spanish colonial features and French house rests directly on the groun COLONIAL URBANarchitectural sophistication. The plan of the house fits entirely work, shiplap siding and ornamental voodoo patterns of the house fits entirely architectural sophistication. The planwithin Spanish colonial tradition. The core module was symmetri- within Spanish colonial tradition. The core module was symmetri-cal with a near-square salle in the center and narrow chambres of Many of the houses feature high ceilings for in the center and narrow chambres of cal with a near-square salleequal width on each end. enhanced ventilation in the Haitian heat, four-sided equal width on each end. roofs to better resist hurricane winds and expert Spanish gold and silver French tobacco, indigo, cotton, and cacao carpentry that allows more flexibility in earthquakes. Bohio hut Primary structure: wood Bohio hut Primary structure: wood INDIGENIOUS The general population resided in a circular building with a tall The general population resided in a circular building with a tall Deforestation central pole surrounded by an arrangement of shorter posts. It central pole surrounded by an arrangement of shorter posts. It Roof: straw and palm leaves to reflect Roof: straw and palm leaves housed about 10-15 men and their whole families. In addition the housed about 10-15 men and their whole families. In addition the typical Taino village contained a flat court in the center of the heat typical Taino village contained a flat court in the center of the heat village. It was a hierarchical society, with one cacique (rectangular village. It was a hierarchical society, with one cacique (rectangular building) who was paid a tribute (tax) to oversee the village. building) who was paid a tribute (tax) to oversee the village. Taíno General population CaciquesAD 600 1492 1502 1697 1804 1825 Treaty with French 1915 1923 1934 1980 2006 2011 2031 HISPANIOLA SAINT DOMINGUE HAITI Occupation by USA HISTORICAL TIMELINEOLOGIES BUILDING MATERIALS BUILDING TYPOLOGIES HISTORICAL TIMELINE BUILDING MA E.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  25. 25. HAITIAN ARCHITECTURE CONTEXTTaíno, Bohio hutCaciques (leader) house• Rectangular shaped with a small porch• Main structure by wooden poles• Roofing with woven straw and palm leaves to reflect the heat• High ceilingsGeneral people house• Circular shaped• Main structure by wooden poles, one main pole in the centre• Roofing with woven straw and palm leaves to reflect the heat• High ceilings• A hierarchical society• Houses were built around a centre courtE.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  26. 26. HAITIAN ARCHITECTURE CONTEXTPlantation houses• Main structure made of wood• After the independence war almost all plantationhouses were lostE.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  27. 27. HAITIAN ARCHITECTURE CONTEXTAfrican slaves, Cailles• Typology coming from West Africa (Yoruba)• Adjusted to the Haitian climate and materials • Porch was added for shading • Walls of mud and wattle• Thatched roofs and shuttered windowsLakouA compound whereseveral families liveand share acommon space.Traditional lakousrevolve around aVodou temple. A thin, narrow building with a gabled entrance, with plastered, stucco walls, a thatched roof, and shuttered windows. Yoruba Cailles Shotgun (Mississippi (West Africa) (Haiti) delta) Plantation house It exhibits a combination of Spanish colonial features and FrenchE.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | fits entirely UE Haiti architectural sophistication. The plan of the house Platform within Spanish colonial tradition. The core module was symmetri- cal with a near-square salle in the center and narrow chambres of
  28. 28. HAITIAN ARCHITECTURE CONTEXTRural HaitiCailles• Roof of metal sheeting• Entrance doors on the sides of the houseWattle and daub• Wooden main structure• Roof of palm leaves or metal sheeting• One roomMaterials• Varying per region depending on availability: rock, wattle and daubwith mud or lime exteriors, palm leaves and local hardwoodsE.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  29. 29. HAITIAN ARCHITECTURE CONTEXTGingerbread houses• A vernacular typology in the urban area• A melange of international influences and uniquely Haitian that began in 1881• A timber frame as main structure, filled with brick and adorned with carved wood• High ceilings and large openings onto vast porches • Provide natural cross-ventilation• In 925 the style of gingerbread houses came to an end when the mayor ordered all buildings to be made of masonry, reinforced con-crete, or iron to prevent fireE.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  30. 30. SUSTAINABLE BUILDING MATERIALS CONTEXT Input from: Database properties SUSTAINABLE BUILDING MATERIALS DATABASE • fieldwork Reusables Product name/specie • literature about • Application solid waste Haiti Rubble from earthquake • Mechanical properties • Product name or specie • Brick • Production time • Application Solid waste • Plastics • Producing period • Mechanical properties Input from: • biomes Renewables • climatic region • literature about Hispaniolan moist forest agricultural waste Hispaniolan pine forest Similar climatic region Input from: • fieldwork Recyclables • climatic region Input from: • literature BiodegradablesE.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  31. 31. FIELDWORK HAITI CONTEXTOn site information Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Visiting other projectsWhat Exploring VR Mapping VR1. Building typology and climatic information of reference projects: • Climate strategy WEEK 1 • Building materials used and structure 2d climate measuring VR 2d climate measuring VR • Climatic behaviour2. Building typology of Villa Rosa: Visiting other projects • Climate strategy Mapping VR • Building materials used and structure WEEK 2 • Climatic behaviour Preparing WS WS Processing data WS3. Diurnal local climate, indoor and outdoor 2d climate measuring VR 2d climate measuring VR 2d climate measuring VR4. Comfort value of residents5. Ranking of certain aspects of a house by importance (where do they want to spend Visiting other projectsmoney on) Mapping VR WEEK 3How:1. Measuring with a portable meter, sketching and making photo’s 2d climate measuring VR 2d climate measuring VR 2d climate measuring VR2. Measuring with a portable meter, sketching and making photo’s3. 24 hour measurement with data logger Visiting other projects Processing data4. Through a questionary Mapping VR Processing data5. Through a workshop WEEK 4 2d climate measuring VR 2d climate measuring VR Processing dataE.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  32. 32. PROPOSED FINAL RESULT CONTEXTNational scale resource management todayE.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  33. 33. PROPOSED FINAL RESULT CONTEXTEffects of design Resources sustainable building materialsNational scale renewables agricultural solid waste• Creating employment waste (rubble)• Reforestation against soil Locally produced building materialserosion (forest, plantations)City scale Economical effects• Diminishing solid waste by a Employment Entrepreneurshipsustainable use of materials Ecological effectsNeighbourhood scale Reforestation (plantations)• A more resilient community Diminish solid wastes Through crop diversity, fertile ground• A better outdoor climate(temperature, wind) with urban housing typology using passive thermal control Sociological effects Improvement thermal comfort (indoor and street)House scale• Resilient to future naturalhazards• A thermally comfortablespaceE.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  34. 34. PROPOSED FINAL RESULT CONTEXTReference projectQuinta Monroy residential developmentdesigned by Chilean architect Alejandro Aravena of ElementalE.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti
  35. 35. QUESTIONS? URBAN METABOLISM ECODESIGN RESILLIENCE THEORY general INDOOR COMFORT OUTDOOR COMFORT IN SLUMS PRACTICE ClLIMATE AND SUSTAINABLE BUILD- GEOLOGY ING MATERIALS climate region HUMID TROPICAL PASSIVE TECHNIQUES BUILDING TYPOLOGIES Location specific (Sub)tropical regions SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS DATA- BASE country BUILDING TYPOLOGIES AND MATERIALS Loriane, Bob van Ursum RISK MAP Through GIS ENTREPENEURSHIP BUILDING MATERI- ALS city Repairing/extending RESILLIENT AND SUSTAINABLE DESIGN FOR VILLA ROSA USER PHASE DEMOLITION ANALYSING VILLA ROSA VISITING OTHER PROJECTS MAPPING VILLA ROSA (GIS) NEIGHBOURHOOD Neighbourhood composition + Density (FSI, OSR, GSI) + Family structure neighbourhood CORDAID AREA MANAGER Gabriella PARTICIPATORY WORKSHOP PERCEPTION PREPARATION PARTICIPA- Local people ranking most valuable TORY WORKSHOP aspects for a house (electricity, comfort- able, sanitation,...) RESILLIENT AND SUSTAINABLE DESIGN FOR A RESIDENTIAL HOUSE house LOCAL CLIMATE ANALYSIS + Measuring different building typologies (material use) + Measuring also the neighbourhood (narrow streets) + Interview residentsSCALE TIME E.J. de Visser | P2 Presentation | June 17th 2011 | Green Building Innovation | Platform UE Haiti

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