2011 03-30 thorste.schuetze-water.and.sanitation
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2011 03-30 thorste.schuetze-water.and.sanitation 2011 03-30 thorste.schuetze-water.and.sanitation Document Transcript

  • 3/31/11
 Integrate Urban Resource Management Water and Sanitation Towards sustainable urban water management Household centered planning approach1 March 31, 2011 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Structure of the lecture•  The imperative of IURM•  The Global Situation•  Current Water and Sanitation Systems•  Sustainable Water & Sanitation2 March 31, 2011 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 1

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 The imperative for IURM Resources, Emissions and Biodiversity play a central role in sustainable development (CIB: International Council for Research and Innovation in Building Construction, W82, “Future Studies in Construction”)3 March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze The imperative for IURM •  Contribution of the building sector [according to: UNEP – Industry and Environment, Vol. 26 No. 2-3, 2006]4 March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 2

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 The imperative for IURM Ecological Footprint: •  Demands (for processes & production) are converted into a measure of land area used in global hectares (gha) per capita. [Best foot forward] •  Today the average is 2,3 gha (1.2 worlds) 4 planets! •  Average footprint gha per capita (2003) : •  USA: 9.5 gha •  Switzerland: 4 gha •  China: 1.5 gha, Shanghai: 7 gha •  UK: 5.6 gha, London: 6.63 ghaMining, processing, consumption, freshwater use, biodiversity services & loss of bio-capacity from therelease of wastes have been omitted = underestimation of footprint [Wackernagel et al. 2002]5 March 31, 2011 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze The imperative for IURM •  Non renewable resource and energy consumption •  Final energy demand to grow by 95% between 2005-2050 (reference scenario) [World Primary Energy Outlook, reference scenario, International Energy Agency 2006 & 2008]6 March 31, 2011 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 3
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 The imperative for IURM •  Easy available oil production peaked already in 2006 •  As a result prices have to rise in long term •  Energy dependency: Korea 96%, Japan 90%, USA 60%, Europe 50% [The worldwide crude oil production, Energy Watch Group, 2007] 7 March 31, 2011 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze The imperative for IURM •  The world is losing fertile top soil 10 to 20 times faster than it is replenishing it. •  Phosphorous production is expected to peak at 2040. Currently estimated minable Phosphorous reserves will be depleted in 70 – 100 years.Peak Phosphorous Curve [Cordell, 2009] 8 March 31, 2011 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 4
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 The imperative for IURM •  World energy consumption, world fossil resources and annual solar energy potential (Krauter 2006, p.2; adapted from Greenpeace) 9 March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze The challenge of IURM Natural resources are the base for life for past, present and future generations10 March 31, 2011 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 5

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 The challenge of IURMFrom linear … … to circular urban metabolism! [Girardet & Mendonca 2009] 11 March 31, 2011 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze The challenge of IURM •  Reduction of environmental impact by “living better on less” requires increase in efficiency and effectiveness, particularly of resource management systems. Ten principles for global sustainable living on the local level [One Planet Living in Girardet & Mendonca 2009] 12 March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 6

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 The challenge of IURM Apply the Three Step Strategy for resource management (for instance for “energy”, “water & sanitation” and “material & waste”) 1.  Reduce demand and quantity of consumed resources without losses regarding social and economic aspects (demand management) 2.  Use renewable resources as much as possible, including (solar, wind, water, geothermal, bio, …) 3.  Use non renewable resources as efficient & effective as possible (optimization, innovation, reuse & recycling, …) Use the local potential and apply this strategy also in the already built environment!13 March 31, 2011 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Introduction - The Global Situation Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 7

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 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Climate Conditions and Water Availability•  Averaged monthly rainfall and precipitation in millimetres (1971 – 2000) over the period of one year in the Netherlands.•  The summer water deficit is in more than 50% of the years exceeding the average value of 122 mm.•  In 45% of the years it is up to approx. 280 mm, while in 5% of the years it is even exceeding this height.16 March 31, 2011 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 8

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 Climate Conditions and Water AvailabilityAveragePrecipitation andEvaporation per jan feb mar apr may jun jul aug sep oct nov dec yearPrecipitation 63.9 44.7 58.7 42.1 55.1 67.4 65.4 58.1 72.1 75.9 78.6 72 754Evapo -562.ration -8.3 -15.7 -32.9 -56.4 -85.1 -90.2 -95.1 -83.1 -50.3 -27.8 -11.5 -6.5 9 17 March 31, 2011 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Precipitation in the Netherlands – extreme years •  1998: 1240 mm •  2003: 613 mm 18 March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 9

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 Fresh surface water•  73% of the fresh surface water in the Netherlands originates from the Rhine (approx. 65%) and the Meuse (approx. 8%). The remaining 27% are originating from smaller rivers and from precipitation.•  The water use is water supply (for drinking water, agriculture, industry and cooling water) as well as for transport (shipping) and recreation. Middelkoop, 199919 March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Water Resources & Withdrawal•  Total renewable water resources: 89.7 cu km (2005)Total Freshwater withdrawal:•  8.86 cu km/yr•  Domestic: 6%•  Industrial: 60%•  Agricultural: 34%•  per capita: 544 m3/yr (2001) Middelkoop, 199920 March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 10

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 Water and Water Supply Policy•  The total drinking water produced in the Netherlands origins to approx. 60% from groundwater and 40% of surface water.•  High population densities and intensive farming practices cause a continuing increase of pollution and potentially hazardous substances in fresh water resources.•  15 – 20% of the delivery costs for drinking water are often spent for the tracing and treatment of pesticides.•  Collected river water is purified by sedimentation, aeration and the adding of iron-sulphur (elimination of phosphate), before it is either infiltrated in dunes for artificial groundwater recharge or stored in lakes.21 March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Drinking Water from river water•  Nature-orientated purification by the “river-dune” or “river- lake” method (100 days holding time)•  Further treatment in form of:•  softening in a reactor,•  treatment with activated carbon (for the elimination of pesticides and a better taste) and finally•  sand filtration Duinwaterbedrijf Zuid Holland, 200822 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 11

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 Water Import Dependence•  The ratio between the water footprint of a countrys imports and its total water footprint yields.•  (Beef 1/13500, Soybean 1/2750, Rice 1/1400, Milk 1/790) Selected Countries, 1997-2001, Chapagain and Hoekstra, Water International, March 2008 / World Water Council23 March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Climate change – low flows and drought•  The rising sea level and more frequent low river discharges during the summer will allow the salty sea water to flow further inland.•  The salination of the river water will cause problems for the freshwater supply for drinking and regional agriculture.•  Especially in case of salination of the Hollandsche IJssel, the Haringvliet and the Spui. Rijkswaterstaat, 200724 March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 12

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 Climate change – water stress25 March 31, 2011 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Sustainable Water Management •  Sustainable urban water management is including the different sections of the urban water cycle: •  water supply & distribution •  water use & saving •  Water reuse and recycling •  water storage and augmentation UNEP IETC DTIE & TU DELFT, (2008, in print) Every Drop Counts, Environmental Sound Technologies for water use efficiency in the urban and domestic environment.26 March 31, 2011 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 13

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 Sustainable Water Management Focus: •  Efficient use of ESTs •  Efficient is: optimizing the balance between demand and safe and sufficient supply •  Efficient and fit: selection and combination technologies that fit in with sustainable perspectives for the local situation 27 March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Environmentally Sound Technologies in the Urban Water Cycle•  Technological Description•  Construction, operation and maintenance•  Relative Costs•  When appropriate technological approach•  Advantages, disadvantages and constrains•  Cultural acceptability•  Extent of use•  References, Links and Literature 28 March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 14

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 Storage and Augmentation ESTs•  Ponds and Reservoirs•  Artificial recharge of Groundwater•  Water Tanks•  Rainwater runoff in surface water•  Rainwater runoff in groundwater•  Rainwater runoff in tanks•  Effluent in surface water•  Effluent in ground water29 March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Supply and distribution ESTs•  Surface water abstraction•  Groundwater abstraction•  Water supply reservoirs (tanks)•  Transfer of water•  Single pipeline systems (one quality)•  Dual pipeline systems (two qualities)•  Water containers (bottles, tanks)•  Centralised treatment systems•  Point of use treatment systems30 March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 15

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 Use and Saving ESTs•  Waterless toilets (compost- and dry-)•  Water saving toilets•  Water saving urinals•  Waterless urinals•  Water saving taps•  Water saving showerheads•  Pressure reducers•  Water saving household appliances•  Economised water use: personal hygiene•  Economised water use: cleaning & watering31 March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Reuse, recycle & disposal ESTs quality and treatment issues•  Domestic rainwater use•  On-site treatment of grey water•  Constructed wetlands•  On-site and near-site treatment of black water and mixed sewage•  Separating rainwater from sewer systems•  Environmentally sound centralized sewage treatment in developing countries32 March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 16

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 The urban water system 33 March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Sustainable Sanitation•  Every month, water-related diseases kill more than 250,000 individuals (1 individual every 10 seconds, or 1 plane crash every hour)•  More than 1.1 billion people worldwide, or one-sixth of the global population, do not have access to safe drinking water, and•  nearly 2.6 billion lack access to basic sanitation, according to the World Health Organization Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 17

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[www2.gtz.de] Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 18

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Dr.-Ing. Thorsten SchuetzeDr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 19

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Source: waterboard Valei en Eem Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze50 % dump21% incineration24 % composting5 % agriculture Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 20

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Dr.-Ing. Thorsten SchuetzeDr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 21

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 Outgoing Waterstreams of a building Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Composition wastwaterVolume proportion•  Black water 30 %•  Grey water 70 % Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 22

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 IURM related to water and sanitation Simplified example for existing city[Sustainable Sanitation Alliance, 2008] 45 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze IURM related to water and sanitation Simplified example for enhanced sanitation in a city[Sustainable Sanitation Alliance, 2008] 46 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 23

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 IURM related to water and sanitation IURM approach for periphery or new urban developments ?[Sustainable Sanitation Alliance, 2008] 47 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze IURM related to water and sanitation Food faeces urine greywater drinking water IURM approach applied e.g. in Africa, India, Latin America... [Sustainable Sanitation Alliance, 2008] 48 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 24

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 IURM related to water and sanitation IURM approach for residential areas ?[Sustainable Sanitation Alliance, 2008] 49 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze IURM related to water and sanitation IURM approach applied e.g. in Sweden, India, Africa, Latin America 50 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 25

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 IURM related to water and sanitation IURM approach for downtown areas ?51 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze IURM related to water and sanitation IURM applied e.g. in Germany52 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 26

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 IURM related to water and sanitation Better after implementation of IURM?53 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze IURM related to sanitation and water54 March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 27

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 IURM related to sanitation and water55 March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze decentralized water system1 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 28

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decentralized water systems 2 and 3 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 29

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 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze•  Rainwater collection and utilization•  in many countries allowed for service water purpose•  Possible drinking water source in areas with polluted fresh water resources (e.g. Arsenic, Fluor, Tin, etc.) Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 30

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 Decentralized Water Management Potsdamer Platz Berlin61 March 31, 2011 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Supportive regulations for rainwater utilization62 March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 31

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 Rainwater utilization in Australia63 March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Rainwater utilization in Australia•  On average, the collected rainwater from 10.1% of all installations (2.5% of all households) is used for drinking.•  In South Australian households this percentage is even 22% (Rodrigo, Adelaide 2009).64 March 31, 2011 Assist. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 32

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65 March 31, 2011 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 33

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 Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Sellected Decentralized Wastewater treatment systems•  Aerated compact systems (Bioreactor etc.)•  Anaerobic Digestion•  Constructed Wetlands•  Living machine Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 34

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 Criteria wastewater system•  Existing Infrastructure•  Culture & Social Acceptance•  Management/ Maintenance structure•  Treatment performance in relation to location•  Reuse options•  Available space•  Costs Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Greywater recycling Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 35

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Greywater recycling Dr.-Ing. Thorsten SchuetzeGreywater recycling Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 36

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Black- or brownwater-treatment Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Membrane Bio Reactor Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 37

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 Microfiltration Dr.-Ing. Thorsten SchuetzeFrom Filtration to Reverse Osmosis Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 38

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 Urine SeparationPrecondition for the separated collection of yellow water / urine is the installation of urine separating toilets. Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Urine Separation [ Johansson, M., VERNA Ecology; „Urine Separation“; Stockholm, Sweden, 2001] Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 39

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 Anaerobic digestion Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Natural sound systemse.g. constructed wetland (Reedbed) Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 40

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 Natural sound systems:e.g. constructed wetland (Reedbed) Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Free Water Surface Wetlands Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 41

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 Horizontal Flow Wetlands Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Vertical Flow Wetlands•  Black and/or grey water•  3 - 6 m² per person•  Integration in landscape•  Simple and robust Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 42

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Dr.-Ing. Thorsten SchuetzeDr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 43

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Dr.-Ing. Thorsten SchuetzeDr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 44

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Reedbed for rainwater in Amsterdam Dr.-Ing. Thorsten SchuetzeNatural sound and technical systems: Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 45

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 Zoo, Emmen Dr.-Ing. Thorsten SchuetzeEsalen Institute California Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 46

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 Sustainable management of water and waste •  Prevent needles use •  Use renewable sources IN •  Use limited resources optimally •  Reuse resources •  Prevent waste OUT •  Recycle waste •  Process waste in a clean way Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze •  Water saving toilet•  Prevent waste •  Compost toilet •  Reuse nutrients•  Recycle waste •  Reuse effluent •  Separation toilet•  Process waste in a clean way •  Separate streams Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 47

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 Average Basic Conditions Greywatertreatment: Earth-Filter Dipping Trickling Filter / Activated Membrane Bioreactor Sludge (MBR)Application Area/ Size - > 50 Inhabitants - > 200 Inhabitants - > 50 Inhabitantsmax. energydemand - 2 kWh/m³ -  MBR 3 – 5 kWh/m³ -  3 – 5 kWh/m³ (incl. pumping) -  Dipping Trickling Filter < 2 kWh/m³ -  < 2 kWh/m³ -  SBR-Belebung 1,5 kWh/m³Space Demand - 1 - 2,5 m²/Inhabitant - 0,1 - 0,3 m²/Inhabitant - 0,05 - 0,3 m²/Inhabitant•  Anaerobic Digestion requires an additional centralized blackwater storage (7 litres per person and day) as well as space for facilities like Biogas reactor, gas storage, and vacuum facility, approx. 0.22 m2 x 2m (0,44 m3 per person and day) Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze Average Basic Conditions Grey/ Blackwatertreatment: Facility Type Membrane Trickling Filter Constructed Wetland Sequency Batch Bioreactor Reactor (MBR) (SBR) Application Area/ Size 4 – 500 4 – 1.000 4 – 1.000 4 – 5.000 Inhabitants Inhabitants Inhabitants Inhabitants Investment costs High very low High low (reuse and savings) (low energy and service cost) Sludge Treatment per 500 l/Inh. 500 l/Inh. 300 – 1.500 l/Inh. Dependent on size Year Space demand per 0,5 m² 0,5 m² 3 - 6 m² 0,3 m² Inhabitant Purification capacity Service water class 1 - 2 class 2 - 5 class 3 Use of effluent (capacity Always possible Not possible Not possible Not possible of receiving waters) (also in water (only in strong (but possible in (but possible in protection areas) receiving waters) sensitive receiving sensitive receiving waters) waters) Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 48

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 Thank you for your attentionDr.-Ing. Thorsten Schuetze 49