北京
                               Beijing




Socio-spatial transformation
Lei Qu, RP&S, Urbansim
Social production of urban space is fundamental
to the reproduction of society
Henri Lefebvre, The Production of Space



...
Questions

• Driving forces behind socio-spatial transformation?
• New spatial strategies?
• Globalization:

•   1   Economic transformation:
•   1.a Decomposition and re-composition of world economy: New accumula...
Flow of capital


                                 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in China 1983-2002

                   ...
Employment Structure in China(%)




Industrial structure changes in Beijing: 1997 VS 2001
Flow of people: Internal Immigrants
Rural Immigrants




                   Knowledge Immigrants
Socio-Spatial Transformation Processes in
Chinese Mega Cities: Metropolization
Inwards: Intensification, Densification, Ge...
Beijing



          Data:
          Metropolitan Area: 16807.8 km²
          Population:16.95 million (2008)
            ...
Limited land resource

                                          mountain area (62%)

                                    ...
Problems




-Overcrowded central urban area(traffic, function)
-Fast urban expansion
-Duality: The gap between the rich a...
-Overcrowded central urban area
Industrialization (1950S)
Debate on location of the “center”
Beijing in the period 1949 ~ 1978
socialist planned economy,
Housing shortage, strict (low) housing standard,
Urban recons...
Decay
Of
The
Inner
City
Housing renewal project (Dongnanyuan, 1980s)
Economically affordable Housing Projects (1990s)
Densification   (1990s)




1




2
Socio-spatial transformations led by housing
    renewal projects in Beijing inner city (1990s)




                      ...
city of 90s




    city of 80s




city of 50s-70s
Mobility
 Road System
-Fast urban expansion
Housing construction/ housing consumption/ household size
Limited land in central urban area

Expenses for relocation and resettlement kept increasing

Tax and fees kept increasing...
Rural                     Urban


      Rural
                           Urban


              Periphery                  ...
Conurbation due to Urban expansion




         1975           2002
-The gap between urban and rural areas
Economic development in suburban area




Gap between urban and rural area
                 Income and consumption gap bet...
New Spatial Concepts
• Regional Level:    Regional Networks, comparative advantages

• Urban Level:   new centralities, la...
Regional development/
    Regional cooperation
     Jing-Jin-Ji Region/
        Bohai Bay Region
              Core area:
...
From mono-centric to
polycentric spatial structure

 Beijing Master Plan

 1993
Changing relationship between city and periphery
New strategies of economic development for Beijing suburban areas

1) Hig...
Railroad System Planning   Accessibility
Large Urban Projects




                       39
CBD
Transformation of Land Use
Beijing Olympic 2008
International Sports Event & Urban Development




                                            42
Distribution of Stadiums and Gymnasiums of Olympic
Image upgrading




Image upgrading




Image upgrading
Urban Renewal Shichahai
Urban Renewal Nanchizi
Urban Renewal
Nanchizi
Strengths/Opportunities
   Booming economy, working opportunities, image upgrading,
           infrastructure improvement,...
social, economic and environmental   Sustainability




      Economic                                    Economic




   ...
Social production of urban space is
fundamental to the reproduction of society
                            Henri Lefebvre,...
P01 l01 c-qu_lei_-_socio-spatial_transformation
P01 l01 c-qu_lei_-_socio-spatial_transformation
P01 l01 c-qu_lei_-_socio-spatial_transformation
P01 l01 c-qu_lei_-_socio-spatial_transformation
P01 l01 c-qu_lei_-_socio-spatial_transformation
P01 l01 c-qu_lei_-_socio-spatial_transformation
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P01 l01 c-qu_lei_-_socio-spatial_transformation

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Qu Lei - Beijing: Socio-spatial Transformation
20/04/2010
Faculty of Architecture
TU Delft, The Netherlands
qu,"lecture series",sichuan,"urban emergencies",lei

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P01 l01 c-qu_lei_-_socio-spatial_transformation

  1. 1. 北京 Beijing Socio-spatial transformation Lei Qu, RP&S, Urbansim
  2. 2. Social production of urban space is fundamental to the reproduction of society Henri Lefebvre, The Production of Space Natural space Social space Spatial Human Society Transformation Compactness Economic Land use Transformation Land condition Natural Environment Consumption Mobility Social Energy Driving Transportation Transformation forces condition
  3. 3. Questions • Driving forces behind socio-spatial transformation? • New spatial strategies?
  4. 4. • Globalization: • 1 Economic transformation: • 1.a Decomposition and re-composition of world economy: New accumulation geography / Global institutions/ Core, semi-periphery, periphery • 1.b Deconstruction and reconstruction of production/distribution system: Distribution chain / Global dispersion of network firms/ Intensification of production,trade and flows • 1.c Decentralization and centralization of financial capital: Capital flow / Privatization /Tertiarization / Labor flexibility/ Outsourcing/ JIT/ Maquilas • 2 Socio-cultural transformation: • 2.a Social transformation: Demographic changes / National and int. migration / Social differentiation / Social inequality /Absolute and relative poverty • 2.b Cultural transformation: Cosmopolitan changes of cultural entities / Cultural phenomenon / Multi ethnical diversity/ Creative city / Cultural production • 3 Spatial and environmental transformation: • 3.a Spatial transformation: Large agglomeration/ Conurbation/ Metropolisation / Sprawl / Network city • 3.b Environmental transformation: Environmental depletion / Non- renewed energy resources/ Environmental downgrading/ Urban-rural relations
  5. 5. Flow of capital Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in China 1983-2002 1800 FDI (hundred million U 1600 1400 1200 1000 Contracted FDI 800 Utilized FDI 600 400 200 0 97 99 01 91 93 95 89 85 87 83 20 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 Year
  6. 6. Employment Structure in China(%) Industrial structure changes in Beijing: 1997 VS 2001
  7. 7. Flow of people: Internal Immigrants Rural Immigrants Knowledge Immigrants
  8. 8. Socio-Spatial Transformation Processes in Chinese Mega Cities: Metropolization Inwards: Intensification, Densification, Gentrification Outwards: Deconcentration, Suburbanization, Urban expansion Changes of urban-rural relationship Formation of functional networks
  9. 9. Beijing Data: Metropolitan Area: 16807.8 km² Population:16.95 million (2008) urban population: 77.54% Density: 805 inh/km² Average Household Size: 3.21 GDP: US$ 34.07 billion Per capita GDP: US$ 3060 Source: Beijing Annual Statistics 2001 City Profile Historical city: > 3000 years’ city history < 800 years’ capital city Socio-economic transformation: from planned to market economy internationalization fast economic development
  10. 10. Limited land resource mountain area (62%) agriculture + urban (38%) Water: 1/8 national average level 1/30 world average level Water shortage
  11. 11. Problems -Overcrowded central urban area(traffic, function) -Fast urban expansion -Duality: The gap between the rich and poor/ urban and rural areas
  12. 12. -Overcrowded central urban area
  13. 13. Industrialization (1950S) Debate on location of the “center”
  14. 14. Beijing in the period 1949 ~ 1978 socialist planned economy, Housing shortage, strict (low) housing standard, Urban reconstruction
  15. 15. Decay Of The Inner City
  16. 16. Housing renewal project (Dongnanyuan, 1980s)
  17. 17. Economically affordable Housing Projects (1990s)
  18. 18. Densification (1990s) 1 2
  19. 19. Socio-spatial transformations led by housing renewal projects in Beijing inner city (1990s) 3 1 2
  20. 20. city of 90s city of 80s city of 50s-70s
  21. 21. Mobility Road System
  22. 22. -Fast urban expansion
  23. 23. Housing construction/ housing consumption/ household size
  24. 24. Limited land in central urban area Expenses for relocation and resettlement kept increasing Tax and fees kept increasing Urban expansion
  25. 25. Rural Urban Rural Urban Periphery Periphery a) Beijing: urban expansion under mono-centric urban structure Environment Economy Society Tranffic flows Network the models of urban-rural relationship
  26. 26. Conurbation due to Urban expansion 1975 2002
  27. 27. -The gap between urban and rural areas
  28. 28. Economic development in suburban area Gap between urban and rural area Income and consumption gap between Beijing urban and rural area Net Income (Per Capita) Increased Consumption (Per Capita) Increased Urban 15637.8 Yuan 12.6% 12200.4 Yuan 9.7% Rural 7172 Yuan 10.4% 4886 Yuan 5% Source: Beijing Statistic Bureau, 2005
  29. 29. New Spatial Concepts • Regional Level: Regional Networks, comparative advantages • Urban Level: new centralities, land use changes • Instruments: Large urban projects, Land management, PPP
  30. 30. Regional development/ Regional cooperation Jing-Jin-Ji Region/ Bohai Bay Region Core area: Beijing-Tianjin Corridor
  31. 31. From mono-centric to polycentric spatial structure Beijing Master Plan 1993
  32. 32. Changing relationship between city and periphery New strategies of economic development for Beijing suburban areas 1) High and New Technologies will be actively promoted through structural adjustment of the second industry sector: electronic communication, new materials, ecological engineering, new medication and so on. 2) The third industry sector of suburban area will be developed, with emphasis on fostering new types of services: cultural heritages and natural sights, landscape, production process and village culture, tourism integrated with restaurants, hotels, recreation and shopping as a industrial system. 3) Urbanization of countryside independent from the central urban area will be considered as an alternative way of urban growth. Satellite towns are the future economic centralities to be promoted, to partake urban functions like science and technology, education, culture, logistics and so on.
  33. 33. Railroad System Planning Accessibility
  34. 34. Large Urban Projects 39
  35. 35. CBD
  36. 36. Transformation of Land Use
  37. 37. Beijing Olympic 2008 International Sports Event & Urban Development 42
  38. 38. Distribution of Stadiums and Gymnasiums of Olympic
  39. 39. Image upgrading Image upgrading Image upgrading
  40. 40. Urban Renewal Shichahai
  41. 41. Urban Renewal Nanchizi
  42. 42. Urban Renewal Nanchizi
  43. 43. Strengths/Opportunities Booming economy, working opportunities, image upgrading, infrastructure improvement, urban growth… Weaknesses/Threats Social polorization, Gentrification, socio-spatial segregation, spatial fragmentation, urban expansion, energy consumption…
  44. 44. social, economic and environmental Sustainability Economic Economic Ecological Social Ecological Social
  45. 45. Social production of urban space is fundamental to the reproduction of society Henri Lefebvre, The Production of Space Natural space Social space Spatial Human Society Transformation Compactness Economic Land use Transformation Land condition Natural Environment Consumption Mobility Social Energy Driving Transportation Transformation forces condition
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