P01 l01 a-yawei_cheng_-_chinese_geopolitical_history_and_urban_context_(eastern_china)
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Yawei Chen - Chinese Geopolitical History and Urban Context (Eastern_China)

Yawei Chen - Chinese Geopolitical History and Urban Context (Eastern_China)
20/04/2010
Faculty of Architecture
TU Delft, The Netherlands

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P01 l01 a-yawei_cheng_-_chinese_geopolitical_history_and_urban_context_(eastern_china) P01 l01 a-yawei_cheng_-_chinese_geopolitical_history_and_urban_context_(eastern_china) Presentation Transcript

  • Chinese Geopolitical History and Urban Context (Eastern China) Urban development strategies in an era of global-local interaction presenter: Dr. Yawei Chen RE&H, Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology Urbanism, the Sichuan Summer School 20/04/2010 1 Vermelding onderdeel organisatie Real estate and Housing, Faculty of Architecture
  • Content I: China’s development path and urban transformation; II: Urban development and the development of urban mega project: Pudong as an example; III: Conclusion. 20-04-2010 2
  • China’d Development Path • Catalyst factor of globalisation; • Neoliberalisation of Chinese politics with Chinese characteristics; • Space accommodate urban revolution: from state-led industrialisation to urban-based accumulation. 20-04-2010 3
  • China’s Development Path Tokyo Seoul Shanghai Taipei Hong Kong Singapore 20-04-2010 4
  • Implication for Chinese Urban Development Process • Economic development as central theme; • Public sector as initiator; • Network strategy and coalition with the market; • Selective intervention. 20-04-2010 5
  • China’s Development Path Beijing-Bohai Beijing- Bay Region Yangtze River Delta Region Chengdu- Chengdu- Chongqing region Pearl Delta River Region 20-04-2010 6
  • Consequence of China’s Development Path • Dynamic, energetic, with diversified economic, social, and cultural activities; • Great social, economic, and spatial differentiation and inequalities; • Loosened registration system and unprecedented massive rural-urban migration; • Impact of foreign and domestic investment on urban economic production and consumption; • New pattern of housing development and urban community formation. 20-04-2010 7
  • II. Shanghai Pudong Development Pudong before 1990 20-04-2010 8
  • Shanghai Pudong Development Pudong 1900 Pudong 1990: 35000 ha 20-04-2010 9
  • Shanghai Pudong Development 2009 What development strategies are adopted in Shanghai Pudong New Area to transform a large-scale harbour industrial area into the economic powerhouse of Shanghai so rapidly? Pudong 2009: 121041 ha 20-04-2010 10
  • SWOT Analysis • Strength: market potential; high-rate economic growth; national economic engine; well-educated population; • Weakness: lack of investment; lack of advanced knowledge and know-how; urban decay and spatial deterioration; lack of accessibility and mobility; • Potential: political and social support; Chinese global business network; accessibility to global finance, information and know-how; • Threat: institutional barriers; interest conflicts. 20-04-2010 11
  • 20-04-2010 12
  • Vision • Change in initiatives: • Reducing the density of overcrowded Puxi; • Readjusting urban structure; • “Dragon head” of Yangtze Delta and Yangtze River Valley; • Goal: • Pudong: “reshape Shanghai as economic centre and international metropolitan” ; “Build an international- standard, multi-functional new district with open and modern image”. (Master Plan of Pudong 1992). 20-04-2010 13
  • Developmental Goal Waigaoqiao Free- trade Zone(10 km2) Jinqiao Export Processing Zone (24 km2) Zhangjiang High-tech Park (10 km2) Lujiazui Financial and Trade Zone (28 km2) 20-04-2010 14
  • Actor Synergy • Pudong as a Special Economic Zone: • Focus on service sector and high tech; • Preferential policies to attract FDI; • SEZ prestige status: more autonomy at local level; • Priority zones with priority functions. • Local state as an initiator, promoter, mediator and later an enabler; • Central state as facilitator and coordinator: force collaboration between different levels of governments for national interest; • Chinese global business network, global investors and FDI; • Multinational organisations, foreign governments; • Global architect firms and international design competition. 20-04-2010 15
  • Organisational & Administrative Efficiency • Development companies: • Main players; business oriented; • Subsidiaries handle different phases of land and infrastructure development: increase efficiency; • Institutional adaptation: • Revision of approval procedures: one stop system; • Legal adaptation: establish market-facilitating laws, regulation and policies; • Formal/informal communication channels; • Human resources: mobilize talented and expertise globally; • Gradual approach but result-oriented: test what work. 20-04-2010 16
  • Active Land Policy • Land as income generator: • Land owned by the state; • Land use right commercialized; • Development companies as organisational agency: e.g. : Shanghai Lujiazui FTZ Development (Group) Company Ltd (SLDC); • Land development: • Joint venture with private sector; • Bank loan with land as deposit; • Sell land use right to smaller developers; • Listing in securities; • Land banking. 20-04-2010 17
  • Accessibility Upgrading • Increase investment in infrastructure sector; • Development strategy: • Improve Pudong-Puxi connection; • Improve fast transportation networks within and beyond metropolitan region; • Improve linkage to the outside world; • Organisation structure. 20-04-2010 18
  • Transportation system 20-04-2010 19
  • Multi-channel Financial Mechanism Sources of investment in fixed asset in Pudong (1990-2004) 1000 900 800 Other sources 700 Fund-raising 600 Foreign investment 500 400 Domestic loans 300 State budgetary fund 200 100 0 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 90 91 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 19 19 20-04-2010 20
  • PPP/ Complex Global-local Connection Chinese global business network : Multinational organizations: Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, etc. ADB, World Bank, UNDP, etc. •Decision-making; Ministries •Land; Shanghai •Infrastructure; Pudong •Real estate; Region LG CG District Local Global •Finance. China International developer: Capitaland, Kerry; Foreign Chiatai Group; Morri Building; etc. governments: France, Japan, MNC: Hutchison Whampoa; Philips, GE, JVC; Germany, etc. Volvo; GM; Toyota; ABN-AMRO; etc. 20-04-2010 21
  • From Development to Urban Quality State Level Date Plann Devel- Invested in No of Contract investment Developme open ed oped area fixed assets proje (US$ millions) nt Zones area (sq. km) (million cts Foreign Non - Shanghai (sq. yuan) Shanghai km) Lujiazui 1990 28 14.50 1718.51 106 30.10 21.81 52.51 Jinqiao 1990 20 23.72 623.27 620 114.13 7.52 6.87 Waigaoqia 1990 10 8.50 263.74 8064 85.75 o Zhangjian 1992 25 17.00 587.26 938 78.76 8.50 13.98 g Total 83 63.72 3192.78 9728 435.73 37.83 73.36 20-04-2010 22 Key Development Zones in Pudong (1990-2004)
  • From Development to Urban Quality Emerging Strategy GDP grow th in Shanghai and sector division (1978-2008) 10 0 m i l l i o n Yu a n 14 000,00 12 000,00 10 000,00 8 000,00 Tertiary industry 6 000,00 Secondary industry 4 000,00 Primary industry 2 000,00 0,00 1978 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008 Year 20-04-2010 23
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  • World Expo 2010, Shanghai 20-04-2010 25
  • Pudong’s Urban Strategy • Urban strategies: • Developmental goal; • Actor synergy; • Organizational and administrative efficiency; • Active land policy; • Multi-channel financial mechanism; • Local-global articulation: information and financial flow • Selective strategy; • Strategies in transition: bold and creative! • Local-global articulation: • information flow; • financial flow. 20-04-2010 26
  • China amazes you! Enjoy your trip… 20-04-2010 27