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  • 1. Methodology Action learning Action research Action planning
  • 2. Action learning Action research Action planning Diagnosing Learning Planning Evaluating Action
  • 3. IMPACT RISK AND VULNERABILITY TIMEFRAME FREQUENCY AND INTENSITY (INTER)NATIONAL MONETARY AND HUMANITARIAN RESPONSE AID A natural disaster is an event in which people suffer from following: land movement (earthquakes, landslides, volca- Despite the risk, people are drawn to disaster prone The impact of natural disasters is highly related to their The singular disaster can have a bigger impact as people media and international donor agencies. The emer- Given developing countries are more vulnerable than to the inability of the system to cope with these events according to their own aid vision and strategy. the effects of a natural hazard. It is a moment in which noes), water abundance (flood, tsunami), and weather areas by social, economical and cultural factors that intensity and frequency. Cyclones, landslides, floods, may not be prepared, and hence may be more vulnerable gence can therefore develop into an emergency if ade- more economically developed countries, the effects of effectively. Under these circumstances, responses driven two forces come together. First there is the risk of the (cyclones, typhoons). For this research, the focus on outweigh the threat of disaster. The totality of the spa- earthquakes, volcanoes and tsunamis all have different im- than those used to living with recurrent disasters. The quate aid is not available. the disaster can be greater. For multiple disaster events, by foreign organizations such as NGOs often become The solution-oriented approach, due to the emer- hazard to occur, which is the probability of its occurrence. drought has been limited as it generates a ‘slow’ disaster tial relationship must be seen in the entire context plications in time. While the repetitiveness of the floods scale of this impact often leads to large international people are often incapable of regenerating directly after the only means of recovery and redevelopment. gency, creates many parallel approaches. This redeve- And secondly, there is the vulnerability of a population to with less acute urban consequences. that ties people to place. The pull forces of livelihood in Ghana is part of a yearly cycle, the magnitude and rarity media attention and response. The rebuilding may be less The different phases of redevelopment are associated the event. As a result, the disaster becomes an obstruc- lopment aid occurs within a spectrum of top-down to this specific hazard. Combined, these forces define the and the push forces of land scarcity all attribute to the of the tsunami in Indonesia caught a society unprepared. focused on dealing with a similar disaster in the future. with the frequency of the disaster. Areas of frequent tion for development. A vicious circle becomes apparent, In general the NGO and foreign aid is voluntary and pro- bottom-up approaches, and varies from governmental impact of a natural hazard, which is the effect of the Vulnerability increases when people, or a society, don’t spatial condition. ¬The growth of continuous, multiple or recurring Areas dealing with more frequent disasters focus more disaster rebuild much faster then areas that are not as development is needed to protect against the natural vided to help the victims of the recipient country. Howe- to non-governmental involvement. In practice there is hazard on the affected people. For example, there can be have the means to prepare adequately for disaster. This, disasters can become a state of emergency, whereas a on disaster preparedness in the redevelopment process. hindered by these time restrictions and have a time- hazards. ver, there may also be diplomatic, military or influential often a lack of cohesion, due to huge variations in a small risk (once in a hundred years) for a hazard to and the omnipresent increase in extreme weather condi- In order to reduce vulnerability in risk areas, govern- single event disaster of unexpected and overwhelming The fact that there are perhaps fewer deaths due to the frame due to the discomfort of living in a transitional motives at work. The general atmosphere of humanita- ideologies concerning disaster response between occur, but its impact can be much larger when people are tions make developing countries even more vulnerable ments and international agencies including NGOs im- scale can result in a direct emergency. developed coping mechanisms makes it less attractive for shelter for an extended period of time. The trend of increasing natural disasters in developing rianism and altruism is predominant, however. This the various organizations and institutions. unprepared and therefore vulnerable. This studio focuses to disaster. The vulnerability of a settlement is deter- plement various programs, ranging from infrastructure countries has created huge loss of life and livelihood due implies that organizations can use their own approach emergencies in urban environments as a result of natural mined by various factors. Lack of land and resources lead to education to increase resilience. Besides these ex- disasters. to land scarcity and poverty, which are often the driving ternal attempts to help, many communities, often factors leading to unplanned urbanization. This entails through repetitive exposure to extreme natural con- Various natural hazards can be distinguished that cause building on hazardous sites, poor construction, and lack ditions, evolve their own coping mechanisms. these urban emergencies. This studio has focused on the of knowledge regarding the risk involved in living there. VENEZUELA VENEZUELA historical events TOP-DOWN FIRST OIL DISCOVERED ECONOMIC DEMOCRATIC RECESSION ELECTION New settlements 400.000 affected 400.000 affected Refugios New settlements IMF LOAN $ 4.800.000.000 and housing 26,414,816 and housing RISK New settlements and housing (1) 0 Financial support 90.000 affected Foreign Aid to other countries $ 17.800.000.000 300 affected 10 20.000 affected 100 affected 0 Relocation site Urbanizationes 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Overview natural disasters in Venezuela from 1980 - 2008 15 and 16 december 1999 New settlements Relocation site coping mechanism No of events: 39 and housing (2) livelihood death toll: 20,000 persons (approx.) Effects of disaster No of people killed: 30,839 destroyed houses: 8,000 houses (approx.) During the 1999 disaster people were Average killed per year: 1,142 recovery timeframe: trapped in Vargas because all the roads col- No of people affected: 845,744 lapsed. livelihood livelihood Average affected per year: 31,324 RISK relief The disaster indiscriminantly destroyed the Ecomomic Damage (US$ X 1,000): 3,306,300 homes of the rich and poor. Ecomomic Damage per year (US$ X 1,000): 122,456 transitional source: preventionweb.org redevelopment The harbour, one of Vargas’ most important economic drivers, was detroyed. preparedness EL SALVADOR EL SALVADOR NON-GOVERNMENTAL Technical transfer GOVERNMENTAL Self improved RISK Donated money $17 800 000 relocation site Destroyed houses 200 000 CIVIL WAR $12 000 000 6,7 mil 7,2 mil Population El Salvador 2005 6,1 mil Urban self- settlement (3) 4,7 mil 4,5 mil 3,5 mil 2,3 mil Population Financial support Metropolitan Area of San Salvador 1,9 mil by CBO 1,6 mil 1,5 mil New settlements 1980 0,98 mil and housing Population Urban self- 402 448 510 367 Municipality of San Salvador Population 20 000 73 000 116 575 209 708 Municipality Mejicanos 121 908 Population Municipality Santa Tecla settlement 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Technical transfer RISK Overview natural disasters in Indonesia from 1980 - 2008 Earthquakes of the13th of January and the 13th of Februari 2001. NGO to owner No of events: 41 death toll: 1,159 persons Influences of Earthquake: No of people killed: 3,995 destroyed houses: Transitional Jobs 150,000 (approx.) livelihood Average killed per year: 154 recovery timeframe: poor people, after the change to the dollar which RISK No of people affected: 3,169,705 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 was a economical disaster for the poor this earth- selfsettlement RISK quake did hit the economy very bad. Average affected per year: 121,912 Ecomomic Damage (US$ X 1,000): 4,567,210 relief 6 months Urban self- Financial support settlement Invasions Ecomomic Damage per year (US$ X 1,000): 175,662 transitional est. 1,5 year quake did destroy a vast amount of houses, public buildings and infrastructure. The town hall reconstruction of Santa Tecla was in the emergency camp and Owner driven reconstruction BOTTOM-UP preparedness BANGLADESH some villages were closed of for three days. BANGLADESH VENEZUELA Invasions Transitional Jobs To get the economy back on its feet, the government offered 12.000 jobs to clean the debris from the disaster. These jobs, obviously not enough for all the affected people, were hoped to induce monetary flows which would Refugios The Vargas state has a controversial mix of weekend homes owned by consequently stimulate other enterprises like shops, services etc. wealth people from Caracas, and self-constructed shacks made by poor Although most people didn’t directly benefit from this project, those who population people seeking opportunities in the tourist industry, nearby harbor, and did feel pride about the work they did for their state. After the disaster temporary com- airport. On the other hand many people who cleaned their streets as well, without munal shelters were centrally man- When the disaster struck, many victims decided to invade the weekend government help, obviously felt disadvantaged. aged by the army. Life in these 150 000 000 homes of the wealthier victims of the disaster. These invasions were refugios, which were planned capita more or less tolerated, given the absence of alternatives solutions. GDP per according to military standards, ations Today, ten years later many houses are still invaded. turned into a what many people aid organiz call: “the second tragedy”. Many traumatized people were put Ciudades together in conditions with up to sixty persons per toilet. This GDP per capita against average Just before the Vargas landslides in 1999, a national scheme for social housing absence of dignity and privacy led $ percentage of was passed. When the disaster took place, many affected people were offered $ world developme nt aid houses by the government in these urbanizations. It became apparent that this forced migration, was an enormous wasteful pro- to many social ills, like rape, child prostitution, and violence. Best RISK 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 cess, when a large part of the population abandoned these housing projects, practice around the world has con- cluded that housing traumatized because of lacking facilities, jobs, and the fact that they were geographically Overview natural disasters in Bangladesh from 1980 - 2008 Cyclone Sidr of the11th of November 2007 isolated. people communally is NOT a good coping mechanism No of events: 36 RISK death toll: 3,500 persons Influences of Earthquake: EL SALVADOR coping mechanism No of people killed: 170,995 destroyed houses: 500,000 (approx.) The cyclone track of Sidr went over the The ‘great love village’ in Chanmico is a top-down planned settlement which After a groundstudy the plot for the new settlement in Cobanal was labeled as livelihood livelihood livelihood livelihood Average killed per year: 6106 recovery timeframe: Sunderbarans, destroying large parts of the is build by the Taiwanese NGO Tzu Chi. It is situated along a highway between too dangerous to build on. The people who already were living in transitional the provincial towns of Lourdes and Opico, but furthermore secluded from shelters on this plot, were not able to get any construction help on houses No of people affected: - forest. In this event the Sunderbarans acted as a any other urban fabric. The big amount of volunteers and money resulted in a neither on infrastructure. The inhabitants of the new community decided to Average affected per year: - bu er for the rest of the country. well constructed settlement with a school, clinic, public space, but due to the stay and create a new settlement themeselves. The private plot was the Ecomomic Damage (US$ X 1,000): 4,200,000 relief Salination of the soil as a result of the storm surge lack of community involvement and connectivity, this settlement is 7 years concern of the individual, but an the scale of the settelment the inhabitants got transitional proved to have long term e ects on the land. after the earthquake a social disaster. together and started to make a spatial plan. With some consultancy help of Ecomomic Damage per year (US$ X 1,000): 150,000 planners and architects and protection walls build by the central government, reconstruction Hardest hit were the economically disadvantaged they managed to devide the plots and started to build on there infrastructure. INDONESIA preparedness who lost what possesions they had. WAR ACEH INDONESIA Pequena Inglaterra is build with full participation of the beneficiaries. Plan The shelter camp of Polideportivo partly turned into the permanent settlement Santa Gertrudes. The camp was set up as a transitional camp to distress the camp of Cafetalon in the city centre. Since a main sports International did supply materials and technical support, but the people event was planned at Polideportivo the beneficiaries were asked to 7,000,000,000 themselves had to build the house to get the legal land rights. A strong move to the different new settlements which were being build at least community was build up, but slowly fell apart in time, due to a bad organized 20 kilometers from Santa Tecla. A group of 50 families decided to stay in 239146 600 handover and the lack of maintenance. Adjacent a political issue between two this place due to the better connectivity with the city. The beneficiaries population numbers involved local governments created obstruction in the development of the didn’t get any more help and have to live with very little resources which infrastructure and networks. in this case stress the social relations within the community. BANGLADESH 177881 The major cities of Bangladesh are for a large part made of informal RISK donated money ($) settlements of ‘katcha’ houses (bamboo and other lowgrade materials), as opposed to the formal ‘pucca’ structures (made of concrete and bricks). The slums are in well connected parts of the cities, as economic migration is 50 number of aid organizations KUAKATA Without conscious urban planning, NGOs are the deciding factor for huge, especially after natural disasters when land and livelihood have been lost. Interestingly, the slums tend to keep the same social network as was in the villages resulting in (rural) coping mechanism planning in the (urban) rurality of Bangladesh. Due to population density, livelihood 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 urbanity. corruption and land scarcity inside the embankment, there is very little kash (government) land available for projects, and NGOs tend to have to build RISK Overview natural disasters in Indonesia from 1980 - 2008 26 december 2004 dense decentralized shelter communities. Another option that some go for No of events: 293 death toll: 167,000 persons (approx.) affected by tsunami: are the decentralized scattered shelters outside the embankment where land is widely available. No of people killed: 189,615 destroyed houses: 17,000 houses (approx.) An estimated 7 billion dollars of aid money came Average killed per year: 6,538 to Aceh No of people affected: 18,195,948 recovery timeframe: Average affected per year: 627,446 The tsunami helped trigger the peace agreement Many NGO’s work in the communities before disaster strikes, as poverty is Ecomomic Damage (US$ X 1,000): 21,219,450 relief with the Indonesian government (signed in 2005) Some NGOs are now beginning to realize the value of investing in local a much more imminent threat than the natural hazard. This is done on the knowledge rather than hiring outside contractors (overpriced and Ecomomic Damage per year (US$ X 1,000): 731,705 transitional basis of savings groups and extending microcredit loans. The NGOs in fact underskilled). A project by the British Red Cross employed many local Up to 3 kilometres in land the city was wiped out, operate like banks. When a disaster strikes, the most vulnerable population carpenters and used training as a tool to empower the carpenters in building THE PHILIPPINES redevelopment up to 4 kilometres flooded groups are already known to the local NGOs, and beneficiary lists are storm proof shelters. A combination of indigenous knowledge and foreign preparedness quickly established, and shared with the national government, so that foreign engineering was incorporated in the design to come to an profitable solution aid can be sent in the right direction. for all stakeholders. RISK THE PHILIPPINES LEGAZPI INDONESIA Ulee Leue exemplifies the troubles raised by poor coordination between aid Some NGO’s took a di erent approach. They provided Village Chiefs with a organizations. So called 'finished' reconstruction houses lack power, water and small donation. Supervised by the help-organization, the Village Chief typhoon season and every 5 years eruption sanitation, whole areas are virtually unaccessible by conflicting road and sewer organized the reconstruction process employing bene ciaries as builders. layouts. Sometimes houses had to be taken down afterwards because they weren’t earthquake proof. BANDA ACEH intensity RISK population numbers 196980 100,000 affected people in Legazpi Like most of the gampongs in and around Banda Aceh, completely wiped out Lhoknga was rebuilt with the help of several NGO’s working on different 108,000 Lampuuk used to be a slum-like fishermans village. After the tsunami, phases of the rebuilding process at the same time. After the tsunami people the reconstruction done by the Turkish Red Crescent transformed received tents, semi-temporary housing, temporary housing and permanent 1800 1814 1940 1950 1960 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 this originally ramshackle settlement into a luxury bungalow park. houses. Some of them were constructed at the same time on the same plot Other villages were envious and refused the less fancy housing of land. Many people in Lhoknga suddenly owned more than one house after Overview natural disasters in Indonesia from 1980 - 2008 30 november 2006 the tsunami. provided to them by other NGOs. No of events: 310 300 persons (approx.) affected by super typhoon Reming: ___ coping mechanism livelihood livelihood livelihood death toll: livelihood No of people killed: 31,060 THE PHILIPPINES coping mechanism destroyed houses: 36,000 houses (approx.) Roads, Electricity and any form of Comunication Average killed per year: 1,071 recovery timeframe: were down for several weeks. No of people affected: 98,701,710 Average affected per year: 3,403,507 Several villages were partially destroyed by the Banquirohan dates back to the early 90-ies. Back then the volcano relief Padang is the place that was hit the hardest by super typhoon Reming. It errupted and caused the resettlement of a number of families. The Ecomomic Damage (US$ X 1,000): 5,946,537 massive landslide triggered by Reming. was a middle class Barangay, situated on the shore. The typhoon triggered transitional city o ered the site, about 45 min jeepney ride away from the centre. Ecomomic Damage per year (US$ X 1,000): 205,053 a landslide that came down from the volcano and buried the whole They helped with building shelters, but there was a lack of GHANA redevelopment Same as in the villages all the agriculture was community. The survivors spread out to family or friends and many infrastructure development. With the e ort of the bene ciaries destroyed by the typhoon and landslide. helpless were settled in Taysan. However, today some people are moving themselves, this has changed over time. Now the site is quite preparedness back, building their own houses with natural materials and taking up the di erentiated. The stigma of relocation has been relieved. The profession of sherman again. community has grown strong together over the years. GHANA Buraguis supports the ecoville concept. After a number of failed plans, half 12.500.000 of this site was declared unsafe for building due to landslide risk. This 2.000.000 resulted in the opprotunity to developing the slope into agriculture and Taysan was constructed after typhoon reming in 2006. Before that date releasing world bank funds for this project. With a little assistance, the 23,4 population (millions) NGO Gawad Kalinga had started building homes for the urban poor, but owners built their own homes. Materials and roads are kept to a minimum, after the typhoon the bene ciary group had changed. Seven other NGO’s neglecting the local building codes. There is a strong focus on livelihoods. joined in the e ort and the site was planned top down by a technical The site is relatively close to the city centre. 18,9 workgroup, with members of the Local Government Unit. The site is characterised by a strong grid and di erent housing types related to the donator NGO’s. Now, 30 % is complete and it is the biggest relocation site in Legazpi. GHANA 12,3 Although the family gets material and technical aid from the NGO’s, the 700.000 construction of the house is done by the owners themselves. Owing to the 6,7 8,6 huge task involved in the construction of houses, the community works - together sharing the work load at varies stages of construction. That 332.600 - 324.602 means that one day everyone works on one house and the other day they In the informal settlement of Old Fadama, Accra, a Community Based 144.025 work on the house of the neighbor. At the end all the houses must be Organistaion (CBO) called Ghana Federation of the Urban Poor, organizes 12000 2800 58.000 people affected finished before the rainy season starts. micro credits and infrastructure development inside the community. The picture shows one such community gathering which happens weekly on 1920 1930 1940 1950 19571960 INDEPENDENCE 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Wednesdays, being attended by students from the University of London, doing research on urban farming and its implications on urban settlements. Overview natural disasters in Ghana from 1983 - 2007 august 2007 RISK No of events: 23 death toll: 56 persons (approx.) affected by flood: livelihood livelihood livelihood livelihood coping mechanism coping mechanism No of people killed: 1,003 destroyed houses: 35,000 houses (approx.) Economy and livelyhood got a ect by the oods which Average killed per year: 40 recovery timeframe: destroys farmlands and livestock which is the No of people affected: 16,019,431 only income for most people in the ooded area. Average affected per year: 640,777 The houses get destroyed by the ood which washes Old Fadama is an informal settlement right at the heart of Accra. Ghana is Ecomomic Damage (US$ X 1,000): 33,500 away the mud walls, bringing down the whole structure. In the flood affected Builsa district of the upper east region in Ghana, a a place at a constant state of flux, due to the high concentration of transitional NGO by the name TIMAACHAAB is helping families affected by flood, in Ecomomic Damage per year (US$ X 1,000): 1,34 disasters and the owner driven construction that follow them. The image Roads, bridges, electricity line get totally disrupted during building houses. They provide 60% of the cost of the house and make the portrays a portion of the settlement which was burnt in a fire accident a redevelopment disaster cutting o the whole a ected areas from the rest family build the house for themselves. Adjacent they provide technical few weeks ago. The entire redevelopment driven by the owner has of the work, making aid e orts really hard to reach. advice for flood proof construction by the use of cement blocks for Preparedness foundation and aluminum sheets for roofing. completely changed the whole spatial structure.
  • 4. MANAGEMENT STAKEHOLDER RELATIONS MIGRATION FORCED AND OPPORTUNISTIC DISPLACEMENT TYPOLOGY URBAN AND ARCHITECTURAL RECONSTRUCTION Disaster management, mitigation and risk reduction reby reaching out to the beneficiaries and existing social process into pockets of in-effective developments. Ma- Natural disasters often cause forced migration, as the economic activity may at the same time cause initiatives the disaster (to safer places), after the disaster (to The Urban Emergencies studio researches the effects of GIS/GPS software has been a tool to analyze to what rary urban tools (e.g. space syntax, gis/gps mapping, hugely depends on the stakeholder’s relation with the networks integrating them as a part of the process of re- naging the coordination seems to be the most chal- area which people inhabited previously tends to become from bottom-up as families or communities may reacti- temporary shelters or the homes of relatives), and in hazardous climatic conditions on the urbanization pro- extent places are integrated and connected with the rest spacemate, etc), it is possible to research the public local community.This relationship directly affects the level development. lenging part of the whole redevelopment process. unsuitable for dwelling after the disaster. Land availability vely seek resettlement in urban areas. the rehabilitation phase there may be proactive reset- cesses (e.g. transformation of the urban surface, migra- of the urban environment. On the other hand, it is also and private space in relation with the extensions made of influence of aid efforts can have. The effective imple- and risk reduction can result in proactive governance and tlement (to the rural areas by beneficiaries of govern- tion of societies, architectural solutions). These changes interesting to see what the influences have been of to people’s shelters. mentation and maintenance of projects is directly af- The failure of any one agent in this long chain of execu- The graph bellow shows when and where and who NGO response towards top-down decentralization The migration patterns can be described in phases. De- ment or NGO aid), and reactive resettlement (to the are especially visible in vulnerable terrains, where natural formal interventions by the government, and how they fected by the extent and interest of involvement shown tion results in massive miss-management of resources, were involved during the redevelopment process in of settlements in rural areas. Land scarcity and lack of pending on the disaster, there may be migration during urban areas by non-beneficiaries). disasters are either recurring or prone to happen shortly. change the vulnerability to new disasters. In the overwhelming complexity of the post disaster by the government in co-ordination with the NGOs the- often leading to corruption and breakdown of the whole the various countries. The disaster events can then be seen as part of the gene- urban redevelopment, it is important to locate where ral emergence, influencing the gradual development of the On a lower scale, the family house designs can be ana- spatial material thinkers (architects and urbanists) urban fabric.This research has tried to unravel these influ- lyzed on an architectural level, to see if people adapt can be of use within this process in order to compli- ences. their homes to the disaster. This can be done informally ment the currently involved fields represented by en- with local knowledge, or by external designs. Often, fo- gineers and relief workers. By studying the bounda- This can be done on different academic levels. On the reign architects are responsible for the post disaster ries where architecture and urbanism are called upon, urban scale it is interesting to see how settlements have shelter designs. Which solutions for protection against diverse tools can be used to analyze the specific cases adapted to the disaster as an informal organism in itself. natural hazards arve integrated in these designs? And of interest This includes different forms of research into the flows how do these solutions go along with local pragmatic generated by livelihoods developments. Space Syntax and construction techniques? By making use of contempo- NATIONAL GOVERNMENT Ghana Venezuela Indonesia LOCAL GOVERNMENT Ghana Venezuela Indonesia PRIVATE STAKEHOLDERS Ghana Venezuela Indonesia VENEZUELA VENEZUELA BEFORE DURING AFTER El Salvador El Salvador INVESTORS El Salvador The Vargas region, as do many places in Venezuela, The night of 16 december 1999, the amount of rain After the disaster large voids were created in the urban fabric of Vargas. While displacement into Philipines Philipines Philipines show two different urban that usually falls anually, typologies: one is planned caused dramatic landslides. modular pre-fabricated houses was the initial and preconceived. The other The landslides cut through solution for housing, this soon proved a fiasco. PREPAREDNESS Bangladesh PREPAREDNESS Bangladesh PREPAREDNESS Bangladesh has grown out of a cumula- tion of individual architectu- the urban tissue indiscri- While the city repopulated, tenure issues caused difficulties to rebuild the voids in the center. minantly: Rich and poor T T T EN EN EN ral endeavors that have were equally affected, yet Today these empty plots have a degenerating EM IN EM IN EM IN effect on the environment around them. While AG slowly consolidated into an AG FR FR AG FR the implications were AN AS TR AN AS TR AN AS New Centre;Tourism = Work urban form. different. solutions seem to complex for the authorities in EM REDEVELOPMENT EM REDEVELOPMENT EM REDEVELOPMENT TR 1.The landslides 2. Evacuation 3. Aid & Shelter airport 4. Communal Shelter (refugios) 5. Informal Shelter (Rancho) 6. Family and Friends 7. Dormitory cities 7. Dormitory cities 8.The return acharge. T T UC UC T UC 2 S S S WA WA WA 4 TU TU TU 3 6 RE RE RE 6 5 TRANSITIONAL TRANSITIONAL TRANSITIONAL 1 1 1 1 1 5 20 km RELIEF RELIEF RELIEF 0 12 24 Barrios follow the geograhpy. The city centre is orthogonal Extra land was created after La 4 Tragedia. HOUSIN 8 8 8 8 HOUSIN HOUSIN 7 Auto construction Army camps G/S Modular housing: Petrocasa Auto construction Large housing projects G/S G/S 7 7 7 1.000km H H Communal shelter H ALT ALT HEL HEL ALT 7 HEL HE HE T ER T ER HE 6 T ER 7 4 5 0 200 400 BEFORE DURING AFTER phase 1 disaster and relief phase 2 temporary shelter phase 3 beneficiary resettlement CAPACITY BUILDING CAPACITY BUILDING CAPACITY BUILDING COMMUNITY SELF-HELP Ghana Venezuela Indonesia INTERNATIONAL NGO Ghana Venezuela Indonesia LOCAL NGO NGO Ghana Venezuela Indonesia EL SALVADOR BEFORE DURING AFTER EL SALVADOR When a house is damaged or totally El Salvador El Salvador El Salvador TRANSITIONAL CAMP NEW INFORMAL SETTLEMENT POLIDEPORTIVO ST. GERTRUDES destroyed, the people repair or build back there houses themeselves. The Philipines Philipines Philipines SHELTERCAMP EL CAFETALON SHELTERCAMP local NGO Procomes created a new home for a group of 32 families in a EL CAFETALON PREPAREDNESS Bangladesh PREPAREDNESS Bangladesh PREPAREDNESS Bangladesh INFORMAL SETTLEMENT LA CRUZ neighboring municipality of Cuscat- ancingo. The families that were yearly T T T EN EN EN affected got the chance to dwell in a EM IN EM IN EM NGO IN more save, according to risk, and AG FR AG FR AG FR Sector Montreal in the north of the AN AS TR AN AS TR AN NGO AS TR Department metropolitan area of San Salvador, organized area. EM EM EM La Libertad REDEVELOPMENT REDEVELOPMENT REDEVELOPMENT is build on the hills of a mountain T T T UC UC UC rich. The connecting road to the S S S NGO WA WA WA NGO 0 0 0 TU TU 1 2 1 2 1 2 TU city is build on top of the rich, RE RE RE NGO NEW SETTLEMENT fromwhere so called ‘pasajes’ go TRANSITIONAL TRANSITIONAL TRANSITIONAL PEQUENA INGLATERRA down on the hills on both sides. NGO The pasajes are informaly or not Department constructed. NGO San Salvador NGO NGO SHELTERCAMP NEW SETTLEMENT NGO LOURDES SHELTERCAMP SACACOYO RELIEF LOURDES RELIEF RELIEF During the rainy season, which runs NGO NGO Santa Tecla from june to december. The houses NGO NGO NGO NGO on the bottom of the hills are at risk. NGO NGO Heavy rainfall, bad constructed NGO NGO houses and loose soil cause small NGO RELATIVES disasters every year. With interna- NGO NGO tional help of NGO’s and the EU the NGO NGO NGO NGO RELATIVES municipality has a warning system NGO NGO and evacuation plan. The community HOUSIN HOUSIN HOUSIN NGO NGO NGO NGO NGO NGO house serves as shelter for the most NGO NGO NGO NGO vulnerable in these days. NGO NGO G/S G G/S NGO NGO NGO / SH The construction and materials used H H H NGO NGO On the architectural scale the typology in this ALT ALT ALT HEL HEL NGO NGO communities is typical for big parts of the city. in this project are all earthquakeproof. ELT NGO NGO NGO Reinforced bricks and well con- HE HE HE T ER T ER NGO The houses are build with different materials, ER NGO depending on the individual resources and structed roofs create a census of NGO NGO NGO skills. The techniques and constructions are security. In this new area the plot NGO NGO mainly poor and temporary; a roof is kept on owned by the community. The indi- NGO NGO NGO the house by putting bricks or other weight on viduals families do not have the NGO top. chance to close of their property as San Salvador NGO The private plots are closed of from the public they did it at their old homes. The NGO groundfloors were set and their are La Libertad 0 50 100 spaces with big walls, steel sheeting or every NGO NGO type of material that lost it’s primary function, hardly no possibilities to expand their NGO 0 50 100 0 50 100 NGO to create home security and privacy. houses. phase 3a beneficiary settlement CAPACITY BUILDING CAPACITY BUILDING CAPACITY BUILDING phase 1 disaster phase 2 temporary shelter Emergency camp ‘El Campo Cafetalon’ phase 3b non beneficiary settlement New settlement ‘the great love village ’ in Chanmico VENEZUELA BANGLADESH BANGLADESH National government Community The disaster in Vargas coincided with the “socialist revolution”, led by Hugo Frias Chavez. Opportunistically, the After the disaster many people shoveled out their homes, and fixed their houses.Although may were displaced, victims of ‘La Tragedia’, were fit in an immense government project aimed at providing housing, healthcare, and those who stayed rebuilt what was left. education to the poorest population of Venezuela. Hence the affected population became a guinea pig for the March April M ay June July August September October November December January February largest social experiment in Venezuelan history. In 2006, seven years after the disaster, the government launched the Consejo Communales, this is a neighbor- hood governance system, which theoretically empowers the people to propose government funded plans BEFORE DURING AFTER This project involved displacing the effected community to new satellite cites across the country, which were directly to the national government, passing regional restrictions. often isolated and mono-functional. This new form of self-governance has been received extremely well in poor communities. Although up until TEMPORARY HELTER SL today nothing has actually been built, many plans have been proposed on housing, risk management, waterworks, schools,publicbuildings,hotels NEW SETTLEMENT The role of the government as the all comprising savior has caused a state of extreme dependency among the sport, education, and more CLUSTER VILLAGE NGO SHELTERS decentralizedavailable land affected population, and impedes any private involvement. INFORMAL S L HELTER tentsmade ofscrap material THE BEACH HOST SETTLEMENT REL A ATIVES economicurban pullfactors 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 National government International Ngo’s EL SALVADOR Cyclone Traditional houses were built around agricultural produce and in proximity of the Bangladeshi ‘pond’. Locally obtained materials like wood were generally used for the framework, with a clay foundation and When a cyclone hits everything outside the embank- ments is destroyed. A large area inside the embank- ment is also inundated. The only safe place to be is on the embankment or on raised plinth inside a concrete The reactionary spatial development following disas- ter that can be observed is the linear city. Settling on or inside of the embankment provides some security and this tendency creates a low linear density along infra- banana leaf roof. cyclone shelter. structure. 0 5000 10000 In August 2005 the national government of El Salvador set up a law to improve the disaster preparedness and Within development and disaster preparedness projects the international Ngo’s work closely together with local 0 50 100 0 5000 10000 mitigation process.The law and regulations for the civil protection, prevention and mitigation of disasters creates Ngo’s.The specific social and cultural local knowledge from the local Ngo’s is combined with the more general a structure of civil protection departments on the national level, departmental and municipality level. Commu- knowledge and money from the international Ngo’s. After a major natural disaster the demand for aid and relief phase 1 disaster phase 2 temporary shelter nity participation is brought into municipality level.Where the national government before was especially focus- is much higher, and the amount of monetary and physical resources disposable increases. In this stage the Na- ing on disaster relief and aid, with this new law the emphasis lies more on disaster preparedness and mitigation, tional Government is responsible to divide and control the money and aid coming in.After the two earthquakes although the department of civil protection still is responsible for direct aid and relief as well.The disaster pre- INDONESIA in 2001 the organization and management of the aid and monetary flows was slowing down the relief process. INDONESIA paredness and mitigation mostly consists out of education and capacity building.This program is implemented Therefore the National government gave the International Ngo’s the freedom to give out their help without top-down from national to departmental, from departmental to municipality and from the municipality to com- direct control, within the relief phase. Within the relief, but as well as in the reconstruction phase, the vast munity level.Accompanied with an alarm system for disaster risk, this program should prepare all people nation- amount of international help exceeds the available capacity of local Ngo’s.Therefore the collaboration doesn’t wide. take place in all reconstruction projects. INFORMAL SHELTER LAND TENANT The city centre knows a typology of rows of buildings situated directly on the mainroads with a ground- INFORMAL SHELTER TEMPORARY TEMPORARY SHELTER or storage on top. SHELTER COLLECTIVE CENTRE RECONSTRUCTION HOUSING BANGLADESH Tsunami After the tsunami in no time rows of new houses arose. Innumerable homogeneus houses were built by NGO’s. These were single family free- standing houses, each containing 36 square metres. Each project consists the same design, form and materials. There is now diversity what so ever. International NGO Local NGO There is a plethora of international NGOs operating in Bangladesh, perhaps the world’s largest host of non- governmental organizations.The majority of these NGOs focus on development or poverty alleviation. NGO Bangladesh is often seen as the birthplace of the microcredit NGO, namely the Grameen Bank. Non-governmen- tal organizations have emerged as an integral part of the institutional structure for addressing poverty as well as rural development, water and sanitation, gender equality, environmental conservation, disaster management, To create a central database for the different NGOs, the Government created the NGO Affairs Bureau in 1990. human rights and other social issues. The Bureau enables the NGOs to obtain their regi-stration clearance, approval and permission for their proj- The rural area has a great ects. These organizations mostly follow the target-group strategy under which the poor with similar socio-economic diversity in dwellings and little interests are organized into groups to achieve their objectives. Microcredit and saving groups have become more HOST RELATIVES each other by rice paddies and HOST RELATIVES With regard to disaster, the United Nations Development Programme has esta-blished a platform for communi- controversial in the light of natural disasters, as no insurance is provided.There are many reports of NGOs col- Tsunami green open spaces cation with Government of Bangladesh’s Ministry of Disaster in the form of the Comprehensive Disaster Man- lecting interest on loans weeks after a disaster. agement Programme. 36m2 36m2 36m2 36m2 36m2 36m2 36m2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 phase 1 disaster phase 2 temporary shelter phase 3 beneficiary settlement INDONESIA THE PHILIPPINES THE PHILIPPINES BEFORE DURING AFTER International NGO Local government resettlement area Bagong Abre, BLISS TABACO TABACO TABACO The worldwide community donated more than $7 billion (2004 U.S. dollars) for aid initiatives. Over 400 organi- The Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Agency (BRR – Badan Rehabilitasi dan NAGA - MANILA NAGA - MANILA NAGA - MANILA zations have been involved with the recovery process of Aceh, leading to a complex process of redevelopment, Rekonstruksi) for Aceh and Nias was established on 16 April 2005 by the national government. BRR was respon- and resulting in many miscommunications and delays. Most organizations are planning to exit from Aceh during sible for a coordinated approach to planning, fundraising and implementation, to ensure that the reconstruction LIGAO LIGAO LIGAO 2009, reducing the constant influx of foreign money into the local economies that was present for the last five program was effective, duplication minimized, and donor funds optimally used. resettlement area Baraguis, CARESS years. Typhoon Reming Volcano Pacific mall Temporary shelters Resettlement area Taysan GUINOBATAN GUINOBATAN GUINOBATAN CAMALIG CAMALIG CAMALIG DARAGA resettlement area DARAGA DARAGA Taysan LEGAZPI LEGAZPI LEGAZPI HOSTFAMILIES HOSTFAMILIES resettlement area RELATIVES RELATIVES Banquerohan Typhoon BURAGUIS SORSOGON SORSOGON SORSOGON TEMPORARY INFORMAL S HELTER TEMPORARY INFORMAL S HELTER TAYSAN SHELTER SHELTER mall, schools, public buildings mall, schools, public buildings THE PHILIPPINES BANQUEROHAN pla nn ed on ilt Local Government Unit (LGU) Community ho bu typ st po 0 0 0 0 0 The LGU is of crucial importance to disaster response in the Philippines. Because of the many disasters that Part of the reason why corruption is so widespread in the Philippines is because the country is used to giving 150 300 0 5 10 150 300 5 10 150 300 5 10 Time occur in the Philippines on a yearly basis, response has developed into governmental organised organs.These are ‘aid’. If you are better of than your neighbour, you are expected to help him/her out once in every while, ac- phase 1 disaster phase 2 temporary shelter phase 3 beneficiary settlement called the Disaster Coordinating Councils (DCC) and have been arranged to cover different planning scales, cording to good catholic tradition. If you are the brightest of the family, you are expected to study and get a from regional to municipal. Albay has appointed a separate committee under the DCC, concerned with disaster job overseas, and send money back every month.This situation has lead to extreme cases of people camouflag- risk reduction. ing the fact that they own an air-conditioner...And what if the donator requires something in return, later on? GHANA GHANA Like a vote in the municipal elections? Aid could easily turn into corruption. According to Transparency International, the Philippines is one of the most corrupt countries in the world and because of that, many developments are initiated on a local level. The central government does not interfere, Luckily not all people are touched by this evil and it is common for communities to organise themselves.They but local governments are very dependent on funds coming from Manila. Often local government has to wait for will have a chosen barangay (community) leader, or even neigbourhood community organisations, consisting of Annual Rain Graph of Accra, these, sometimes to such an extent that they have to take loans from the local pawnshops, to pay the wages of volunteers. These are an essential knot in connecting the people to the local government. Ghana the officials. January February March April May June July August September October November December BEFORE DURING AFTER In Accra the capital of Ghana, the High During the Rainy season of May to June the Wood being the primary con- Odaw River runs through the heart Odaw River city of Accra experiences large scale flooding struction material used, fire ac- of city emptying its waters into the along the Odaw RIver spine. Old Fadama gets cidents are one of the most korle lagoon.Which in turn open inundated by flood waters, causing huge prevalent disasters in dry Low out to the sea.The lagoon with its amount of damage to life and livilyhood. season.The kiosks or houses at huge flood plain, which once used the edge of the settlement are to be a green belt, now has become more at risk due to the pres- GHANA an ecologically dead zone due to The flood disasters so ence of the saw dust catches extensive amount of pollution. prevalent in this settle- fire easily and is spread by the ment, over time has wind, thereby causing massive Wiaga Bolgatanga Wiaga Bolgatanga Wiaga Bolgatanga Old Fadama The flood plain of the Korle induced the evolution of fire incidents. One huge fire in lagoon over time has been a various coping mecha- 2007 knocked down nearly 400 2007 occupied by the migrant nisms like the land fill houses killing 5 people. 2007 International NGO settlement of Old Fadama, up to 2 meters from the 2006 2005 Local NGO which moved inwards into lagoon level, the saw- 2009 2008 NGO Tamale Tamale Tamale the lagoon, reclaiming land dust spread for grip In a slum like Old Fadama, Community Based organizations are the most active participants working at the In the flood affected areas of the North,Aid organizations like Red-Cross help people build their houses. and spreading out into the during floods, cemented grass root level of the society. Ghana Federation of the urban poor one such organisation, helps people in the They take part as external agents, providing 60% of the construction cost buying materials and tools for each green zone pavements, stone filled High Fire Risk community by providing micro credits and building infrastructure facilities.They have established deeper routes household.They also provide technical assistance on best practice for flood resistant structures, monitoring streets, etc. all put in the whole process of construction.The houses built by these AID agencies are a conglomeration of local ver- place to help people with 3 different organisations helping the of the community, namely mitigate the serious nacular architecture and cement block-Aluminum construction. nature of the issue, and 1. Kayayei youth Association carry on with their live- 2. Ghana homeless people Association All the post disaster aid and help flowing in to Ghana, is co-ordinate by the National Disaster Management lihood. 3. Railway dwellers Association Organization (NADMO), which directs the ground implementation of all these measures.This in one hand narrows the stake holder to one organization but on the other due to very less lobby power of this organisa- Korle Lagoon tion the effectiveness of the aid is drastically reduced. Edge Condition The ominous nature of these situ- ations have caused change in con- Vertical Raise struction material from wood to cement blocks, because on one 0 50 100 0 50 100 0 50 100 hand they are fire resistant and on phase 3a beneficiary settlement Land Fill the other they give more sense of phase 1 disaster phase 2 temporary shelter phase 3b non beneficiary settlement security.This sense of fear of fire is changing the whole landscape.
  • 5. Action learning Action research Action planning Synthesis Accomplish Conceptualize Implement Strategize
  • 6. an urban emergency [challenge]
  • 7. Overall Urban Area Area City Rural 2,273 POPULATION (inhabitant/KM ) of 324,200 2 DENSITY peasants Dujiangyan out of city center area 622,000 of 87 KM2 Inhabitants in Total (2005) 496.7 351.2 in total area of other 1,208 KM2 297,800 live in city center (47.9%) municipal border 0 5 10 20 KM Chongzhou Pengzhou Shifang Guanghan Deyang capital city Chengdu,
  • 8. UNESCO Heritage Sites in China painting <Thousands Miles of Yangtze River> beginning volume + complete reel Dujiangyan Irrigation System UNESCO heritage (N31 0 6.012 E103 36 19.008, Ref: 1001, 2000) As the ONLY of perfectly conserved, permanently utilized, and the oldest ancient water irrigation system, the Dujiangyan Irrigation System was built in 256 BC, to conduct the rapid water stream of Min River. In 2000, together with the Mout Qingcheng, the birthplace of Taoism, Dujiangyan Irrigation System was nominated as UNESCO World Heritage.
  • 9. tea medicine alcohol oil production meat production grains fowl meat domestic animal fowl eggs aquiculture fowl aquiculture fish aquiculture tea leaf kiwi magnolia red plum flower wheat crop corn rice crop oil seed reap (post-) Agriculture Production Web
  • 10. 9.65billion city GDP (2004) Primary Economies 12.55 billion 13 .0% (-0.9%) agriculture, forestry, fisheries, animal husbandry and collection industry Secondary Economies 35.11 billion 36 .4% (+0.7%) mining, manufacturing, electricity, gas and water production & supply, construction Third Economies 48.87 billion 50.6% (+0.2%) circulation, production and living services, culture and social services agriculture population 439,200 ( 72% ) 36.9 M /inhabitant average 2 residence non-agriculture population 120,400 (28%) average residence 35.76 M2/inhabitant
  • 11. KM 0 15 5 12 0 10 75 2008.05.12 14:28 On May 12, 2008 14:28:01.42 (CST), a monstrous (8M) 50 earthquake struck Sichuan(四川) in Western China, followed , with 36,052 (Wikipedia) aftershocks in total. Some of which exceeding 6M, continuing to hit the area even months after the main quake, causing new casualties and damage. 25 0 60KM DUJIANGYAN 25 40KM 25KM earthquake damages 15KM municipal townships 5KM
  • 12. confirmed confirmed direct death injured missing dead children homeless economic damage 69,227 374,176 18,222 19,065 11million 845.1 billion (yuan)
  • 13. 0 2 4 8 km Historic Growth early 20 C 1990s 2009 0 0.5 1 2 km 2007 (post-earthquake) 900,000 0 0.5 0 2 4 8 km 0.25 1 km 0 0.5 1 2 km Urban Plans 0 0.25 0.5 1 km 2 2008.05.12 14:28 88.7 KM 0 1 2 4 km[8M] Eeathquake 720,000 13.65 bn 680,000 1989 Conservational Plan for 1993-2010 General Urban Plan (-3,069) POPULATION=500,000 INH. Historic and Cultural City for Dujiangyan (2003) of Dujiangyan 60.2 KM2 1981 Plan for Guan County 11.62 bn GDP GROWTH=10 Billion (Dujiangyan) 2007 Conservational Plan for 622,000 Historic and Cultural City URBAN CONSTRUCTION=50 KM2 The era of China Republic’ of Dujiangyan Plan for Historic City 1933.08.25 [7.5M] Eeathquake 2008 Post-disaster Reconstruction Urban Dynamics 47 KM2 Plan for Dujiangyan 8.82 bn Sun Yat-sen Politics & Events Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong 6.99 bn Hu Jintao 29 KM2 Deng Xiaopin 4.93 bn Jiang Zemin Nationalist- Communist Civil War World War II 75,059 Culture Revolution Reform and Open Policy Battles among Warlords 4 KM2 0.53 bn 1920 1925 1930 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
  • 14. 5 million Relief Camps (by Jul. 2008) 1 trillion ¥uan (by Jan. 2009)
  • 15. agriculture fields were taken, upon which tremendous camps and relief houses were assambled, most of them took places at the urban fringe and outskirt.
  • 16. shortly after the first aid relief, besides the temporary settlements, enormous giant "relief houses", which promoted by the authority and each will accommodate thousands of families, were projected at the edge of the city - edge cities are brewing.
  • 17. 0 1 2 4 km 2009 2012 City of Dujiangyan has gained remarkable investments and institutional cooperations by 900,000 the disaster, which makes it possible to 2008.05.12 14:28 [8M] Eeathquake 88.7 KM2 promote enormous 720,000 new construction in 13.65 bn 680,000 an organized way. The city is demostrating (-3,069) POPULATION=500,000 INH. GDP GROWTH=10 Billion¥ 60.2 KM2 her power to (re-)build 622,000 11.62 bn URBAN CONSTRUCTION=50 KM2 another whole mass of her equal size within 47 KM2 the coming couple of 8.82 bn years. In this way, the city pushes herself 6.99 bn towards the boundary 29 KM2 and EXPAND. 4.93 bn 75,059 4 KM2 0.53 bn 1920 1925 1930 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
  • 18. Expansion? Migration! 2009 2012 as the city expands, more agriculture lands will be taken, farmers are changing themselves into tourism servants or find a big city to live their new lives as labours, at the same time, lots of tourists comes to the city as marketing strategies promoted, some those from the big cities even bought their weekend houses there because of the proverty price differences. Enormous Migration is driving Enormous Urbanization.
  • 19. Acute response ? Recovery New Urban Format Reconstruction
  • 21. l ica Po om liti on c Ec al RECOVERY l RECONSTRUCTION Te ica c hn log ic al c io So
  • 22. "China, unique amongst developing countries, is aggressively planning urban development at a super-regional scale using Tokyo-Yokohama and the US eastern seabord as its templates ..... These new Chinese megalopolises may be only the first stage in the emergence of a continuous urban corridor stretching from Japan / North Korea to West Java. As it takes places over the next century, this great dragon-like sprawl of cities will constitute the physical and demographic culmination of millennia of urban evolution." (Davis, 2006, 6-7) (Zeiderman, 2008, 25)
  • 23. "The most important challenge to be met in European cities, as well as major cities throughout the world, is the articulation of the globally orientated economic functions (space and flows) on the city with the locally rooted society and culture (space and places). The seperation between these two levels of our new reality leads to structural urban schizophrenia that threatens our social equilibrium and quality of life." (Castells, 1992, 17-18)
  • 24. Inter-disciplinary Redevelopment
  • 25. ©SK Program Inter-university Berlage Institute TU Delft Tsinghua University TU Beijing Tongji University Taiwan Southwest Jiaotong University University (Sichuan)
  • 26. POPULATION=500,000 INH. URBAN CONSTRUCTION=50 KM2 GDP GROWTH=10 Billion¥ 2009 SYNERGY 0 08 2 2007 1990s early 20 C
  • 27. New Urban Paradigm 5 yr? 3 yr? 10 yr? Culture Central government Social Local government Private parties NGO SPACE Technology Inhabitants Economy 0 2 4 8 km Strategic time political financial technical network capacity planning Resources Scenarios capacity capacity capacity capacity capacity building
  • 28. Multi-scalar approach 5 yr? 3 yr? 10 yr? Culture Central government Social Local government Private parties NGO VISION SPACE Technology Inhabitants Economy 0 2 4 8 km Strategic time political financial technical network capacity planning Resources Scenarios capacity capacity capacity capacity capacity building
  • 29. In-depth Implementation 10 yr? Repair 5 yr? 3 yr? Retrofit Culture Rebuild Central government Social Local government Private parties NGO VISION SPACE Relocate Technology Inhabitants Economy Coordination Critical path Reconstruction options analysis Schedule for Participation Assessment, monitoring implementation and evaluation Legal framework Handover
  • 30. How to cope with the 10 yr? 3 5 yr? government as project developer? yr? How to cope with urban acceleration due to the earthquake? How to cope with the tension between agriculture, toerism and urbanization? How to apply private public partnership? How can the redevelopment process be fast-tracked? How to ensure a sustainable attractive mix of functions?
  • 31. How to come to a New Urban Paradigm and incorporate RE&H?