The Design Of Interaction For eLearning

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Presentation sheds light on designing meaningful interactions that improve eLearning outcomes. Explore different types of content as defined by Dr. David Merrill and determine which of these content types lend themselves to digital interaction. Also find the Dos & Don’ts of interaction design.

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  • A little bit about Upside Learning. We are over 9 years offering learning technology solutions and services, with over 175 professionals.
  • Today we serve over 165 clients across the globe.
  • Our award winning offerings comprise our LMS – UpsideLMS; the mobile performance support solution – Upside2GO, and a host of custom services on both conventional eLearning and mobile learning.
  • Just touch upon these points in an introductory manner.Point out based on screenshots of interaction.
  • Just touch upon these points in an introductory manner.Point out based on screenshots of interaction.
  • Just touch upon these points in an introductory manner.Point out based on screenshots of interaction.
  • There are two primary ways interaction is used – to interact with the content, or as a practice exercise. While both can be similar, the instructional approach to both differs.In the case of content, the interaction can be considered nothing more than a presentation method. There is no real ‘doing based outcome’ with this type of interaction. There is no feedback either. The commonest example is the ‘tab interaction’ that let’s you see three parts of whole.Practice interactions on the other hand allow a learner test their knowledge by answering/doing what is asked of them.
  • Before you can recognize a citrus fruit, the learner must know what a fruit is. (we assume they do in this case)
  • Metaphor – the theme, like a wrapping, sets scene, may provide context, not always necessary (implicit in most courseware as ‘books’ page-turners)Metaphors are useful, but one must be careful when using them. Inappropriate metaphors will detract from learning.For this example, we will use the common metaphor of a book.
  • This forms the core of your interaction, it is the material that is required to be learned. We have already touched on content types. The form of content can also determine strategy. Content is typically in the form of text, images, audio, video, etc. in this case, content is simply text and images (very common)
  • Explain class-attribute.Set/Superset - How attributes can be populated with values to create an instance.Explain stage and elements. (this is where being creative comes in – the art of ID)Important that the stage provides clear instructions on what the learner is expected to do. Also, provide proper context to the instructions. Vague instructions are even worse than no instructions.
  • Explain class-attribute.Set/Superset - How attributes can be populated with values to create an instance.Explain stage and elements. (this is where being creative comes in – the art of ID)Important that the stage provides clear instructions on what the learner is expected to do. Also, provide proper context to the instructions. Vague instructions are even worse than no instructions.
  • Input and output is the heart of interaction.It is about what the learner actually ‘does’.Computer based input is limited to the mouse/keyboard interaction, similar interactions are also available on tablets/smartphones, however they differ in being touch enabled.In this case, we will use point and click as the primary interface method. Output will be visual and aural.
  • Input and output is the heart of interaction.It is about what the learner actually ‘does’.Computer based input is limited to the mouse/keyboard interaction, similar interactions are also available on tablets/smartphones, however they differ in being touch enabled.In this case, we will use point and click as the primary interface method. Output will be visual and aural.
  • Important to note feedback is different from output. Output is the instantaneous reaction/change in stage state based on inputs. (visual/aural)Feedback is more about instructional design.Three primary types of feedback – diagnostic, cue-based and remedial.Also, consider that feedback can be discrete (Triggered by a specific event) or continuous, similar to what one might encounter in a simulation.In this case, continuous feedback is visual, partly because of the approach we adopted - because the learner can see the fruit he/she has created and every time he makes a change, it shows instantaneously on-screen.
  • The end state is final state of the screen that the learner sees before he/she advances to the next display/interaction.It is important that the end-state present a cohesive view of the content that actually makes sense to the learner. This is particularly important in ‘content display interactions’. Make sure there are no overlapping graphics/text. The question, learner’s answer and feedback should be clearly visible.Also, and it should go without saying, always have a ‘reset’ button; let the learner try again and again. That is one of the beauties of digital interaction.
  • The Design Of Interaction For eLearning

    1. 1. Abhijit Kadle, AVP - Learning Design
    2. 2. 175 years eLearning professionals
    3. 3. 165 + clients 13 countries in UK US Middle East India Nigeria Kenya Australia S.Africa New Zealand Headquartered in Pune, India
    4. 4. 30 + awards and much recognition Custom eLearning Custom mLearning
    5. 5. Source: http://s3.amazonaws.com/rapid-elearning-blog/0710/form-based-elearning.png
    6. 6. Poll #1 If you were to describe this interaction, how would you do it? a. b. c. Engaging Boring Neither, just about acceptable
    7. 7. Agenda • A dose of Instructional Design • • Merrill’s performance/content matrix Content Types Amenable to Interaction • The Six Design Elements in Interaction • Using the Elements - An example • A concept • Some Dos and Don’ts
    8. 8. A dose of Instructional Design
    9. 9. Performance Content Matrix Find Use Remember Generality / Rule Remember Instance / Example Fact Concept Procedure Principle
    10. 10. Content Types • A fact is an association between a date and event or a name and part • A concept is a set of objects, events, or symbols that share common characteristics • A procedure is a set of steps for carrying out some activity • A principle is the cause-and-effect relationships in a process
    11. 11. Rule vs. Example • A generality (rule) is a statement of a definition, principle, or the steps in a procedure • An instance (example) is a specific illustration of an object, symbol, event, process, or procedure
    12. 12. Types Amenable to Interaction Find Use Remember Generality / Rule Remember Instance / Example Fact Concept Procedure Principle
    13. 13. The Six Design Elements in Interaction
    14. 14. The Six Elements of Interaction for eLearning 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Metaphor Content The Stage & Instructions Input & Output Feedback The End State
    15. 15. The Six Elements of Interaction for eLearning Metaphor, content, stage and instructions Source: http://www.moma.org/interactives/projects/2001/whatisaprint/flash.html
    16. 16. The Six Elements of Interaction for eLearning Input/Output, feedback, the end-state Source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/interactives/3djigsaw_02/index.shtml?skeleton
    17. 17. An Important Difference Two primary ways of use 1. Content - nothing more than an exposition of content, a presentation method 2. Practice - test of knowledge, against a specific outcome
    18. 18. A concept: The Citrus Fruit Instructional Design First Use/Generality What is the use of a concept? Let’s you recognize and identify.
    19. 19. Using the Elements – An example
    20. 20. The Six Elements Metaphor The Book (a page turner) Page 9 of 50 Back Next
    21. 21. The Six Elements Content A citrus fruit is a globose to elongated, 4-30 cm long and 4-20 cm diameter, with a leathery rind or "peel“ of varied colors ranging from green to orange and red. The fruit contains segments that are filled with juicy pulp. Citrus fruits are known for their fragrance and the sourness due to citric acid content. Some citrus fruits are consumed by humans because they are both sweet and sour.
    22. 22. The Six Elements The Stage & Instructions 1. Core idea – class/attribute exploration 2. Stage to ‘create a citrus fruit’ 3. Superset of citrus fruit, is fruit. Using those attributes (shape, size, color, fragrance, flavor)
    23. 23. The Six Elements Content
    24. 24. The Six Elements The Stage & Instructions Shape Size Color Flavour These are instructions that describe how to use this interaction. Fragrance OK
    25. 25. The Six Elements Input & Output 1. Is the heart of interaction 2. Input limitations (device-based) (point and click) 3. Output is visual and aural
    26. 26. The Six Elements Input & Output Shape Size Color Flavour Fragrance Globose 30-40 cm Yellow Bitter Spicy Oblate 04-30 cm Red Sweet Floral Ellipsoid 08-40 cm Green Sour Fruity Pyriform 20-60 cm Blue Sweet-sour Zesty Obovate Spicy OK
    27. 27. The Six Elements Feedback 1. Feedback is different from output 2. Diagnostic, cue-based, remedial 3. Continuous vs. discrete Oblate 08-40 cm Blue Sweet Floral
    28. 28. The Six Elements The End State Final state learner see before next display Ensure it is cohesive and makes sense Oblate 08-40 cm Blue Sweet Floral Reset
    29. 29. Some Dos and Don’ts
    30. 30. Dos • Do ensure instructional alignment • Think beyond conventional interaction • Think of games • Think fun and engaging
    31. 31. Don’ts • Don’t focus on graphics and representation, that will follow • Don’t ‘dumb down’ the interaction, that will affect instructional outcome
    32. 32. Poll #2 Did you learn something interesting that you will be able to apply right away in your courseware? a. b. c. Yes No Maybe
    33. 33. Thank You Any questions?

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