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To flip or not to flip: the theory and practice of blended learning
To flip or not to flip: the theory and practice of blended learning
To flip or not to flip: the theory and practice of blended learning
To flip or not to flip: the theory and practice of blended learning
To flip or not to flip: the theory and practice of blended learning
To flip or not to flip: the theory and practice of blended learning
To flip or not to flip: the theory and practice of blended learning
To flip or not to flip: the theory and practice of blended learning
To flip or not to flip: the theory and practice of blended learning
To flip or not to flip: the theory and practice of blended learning
To flip or not to flip: the theory and practice of blended learning
To flip or not to flip: the theory and practice of blended learning
To flip or not to flip: the theory and practice of blended learning
To flip or not to flip: the theory and practice of blended learning
To flip or not to flip: the theory and practice of blended learning
To flip or not to flip: the theory and practice of blended learning
To flip or not to flip: the theory and practice of blended learning
To flip or not to flip: the theory and practice of blended learning
To flip or not to flip: the theory and practice of blended learning
To flip or not to flip: the theory and practice of blended learning
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To flip or not to flip: the theory and practice of blended learning

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The flipped classroom is a model of teaching and learning in which the traditional course elements of lecture and private study are reversed. This session begins with a brief look at the pedagogy …

The flipped classroom is a model of teaching and learning in which the traditional course elements of lecture and private study are reversed. This session begins with a brief look at the pedagogy underpinning the technique, followed by examples of practitioners who successfully incorporate flipped classrooms into their teaching. We then consider some of the tools available to design possible learning objects and show how they could be used. Participants will then have the opportunity to discuss the tools and techniques with each other and consider how, if at all, they might use them in their teaching.

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  • 1. To flip or not to flip: the theory and practice of blended learning Sarah Honeychurch Craig Brown Niall Barr Learning Technology Unit Sarah.Honeychurch@glasgow.ac.uk @NomadWarMachine
  • 2. Overview • Quiz and results • Some motivations and strategies • Examples from practitioners • Lecture capture tools • Classroom response systems • Group discussion • Feedback and discussion
  • 3. Quiz questions 1. Where did the talk take place and when? 2. How many videos did Khan Academy have in 2011? 3. How many students per month? 4. What was Khan’s previous job? 5. Where did he live (City)? 6. Who was he tutoring? 7. What interesting feedback did they give him about his YouTube videos? 8. What reasons did they give for this? All questions from: Salman Khan’s TED talk Let's use video to reinvent education: http://www.ted.com/talks/salman_khan_let_s_use_video_to_r einvent_education
  • 4. Quiz answers 1 Where did the talk take place and when? Long Beach, California. March 2011 2 How many videos did Khan Academy have in 2011? 2,200 3 How many students per month? About 1 million 4 What was Khan’s previous job? Hedge fund manager 5 Where did he live (City)? Boston 6 Who was he tutoring? His cousins 7 What interesting feedback did they give him about his YouTube videos? They preferred them to live Khan 8 What reasons did they give for this? They could go at their own pace
  • 5. Flipped Classroom • …a pedagogical model in which the typical lecture and homework elements of a course are reversed. • “Flipped learning is not about how to use videos in your lessons. It's about how to best use your in-class time with students.” (Sams and Bergmann 2013) • Get them to watch a pre-recorded “lecture” at home, thus freeing up class time for targeted instruction. • “Although the technology component has gotten a lot of buzz, the pedagogy underlying flipped learning is nothing new. For centuries, teachers have asked students to come to class prepared by reading a section of text.” (Sams and Bergmann 2013)
  • 6. Motivations and strategies • Active learning: “students are no more attentive in lectures than while watching television.” (Lancaster & Read 2013) • Large class sizes • Just in Time Teaching • Peer Instruction • Lecture recording • VLE forums • OERs
  • 7. Just in Time Teaching (JiTT) “a teaching and learning strategy based on the interaction between web-based study assignments and an active learner classroom. Students respond electronically to carefully constructed web-based assignments which are due shortly before class, and the instructor reads the student submissions "just-in-time" to adjust the classroom lesson to suit the students' needs.”
  • 8. Mazur: Peer Instruction • First question: How to teach, not what. (Design before content). • Instruction is easier than assimilation: Teacher as information transfer – teacher as facilitator of information assimilation. (2007, 2009) • Lecture: “the transfer of the lecturer‟s notes to the students‟ notes without passing through the minds of either”. • If lecture notes are available beforehand, how to make use of the „spare‟ time?
  • 9. If a heavy truck and a small car collide, which exerts more force: a) The truck b) The car c) They are both the same d) There is no force “Professor Mazur, how should I answer these questions? According to what you taught us, or by the way I think about these things?” Images from: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7e/American_truck.JPG; http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ec/KIF_0001_reg.JPG Mazur: Conventional & Conceptual Qs
  • 10. Mazur: Conventional & Conceptual Qs • Newton‟s third law: For every action there is an equal and opposite re-action. • Obvious? “…all students can recite Newton‟s third law and most of them can apply it in numerical problems. A little probing, however, quickly shows that many students do not understand the law. Halloun and Hestenes provide many examples in which students are asked to compare the forces exerted by different objects on one another. When asked, for instance, to compare the forces in a collision between a heavy truck and a light car, many students firmly believe the heavy truck exerts a larger force.” Mazur (2007) • Conventional v conceptual questions (“plug and chug” v ConcepTests) • “the sage on the stage” v “the guide on the side”
  • 11. Mazur: Peer Instruction • Pre class reading • In class: go into depth “semi-socratically” (question, not give answers) • ConcepTest: • Question • 1.5 mins silence • Answer with “clickers” • Turn to neighbour and justify response • Revised answer with “clickers” • Lecturer gives explanation (at ~53.54 in video) • Students who have the right answer convince others better than Prof Mazur could. • The better you know something, the harder it is to teach (you forget the conceptual difficulties of new learners) • Active engagement • Better understanding → better problem solving • Good problem solving =/= indicate understanding
  • 12. Mazur: Results Mazur (2007)
  • 13. Lecture recordings • Surprise fact: some students prefer recording/video links of lectures. • Salman Kahn‟s cousins • Could go at own pace, rewind, fast forward, repeat as necessary • University of Glasgow Psychology/ English students (Draper 2014) • Less crowded, could sit with friends, can see slides better, easier to ask GTA questions afterwards.
  • 14. Jim Baxter: Online Forums • Level 1 Psychology: 560 students • Replace lecture time with group work and forums. 50% of lectures replaced with online tasks. Staff time re- directed to support online tasks. • Monitor and give feedback on random selection each week • Use GTAs to help monitor and moderate • Exam failure rate reduced from 13% to 5%. Course failure rate reduced from 12.1% to 2.8%.
  • 15. OER Resources Ted Talks: http://www.ted.com/talks/browse Khan Academy: https://www.khanacademy.org/ MIT OpenCourseWare: http://ocw.mit.edu/index.htm iTunes University: http://www.apple.com/ca/apps/itunes-u/ OpenLearn: http://www.open.edu/openlearn/ Jorum: http://www.jorum.ac.uk/ (and many, many more)
  • 16. Available tools • Lecture capture • Classroom response
  • 17. Considerations • “Not all classrooms lend themselves to flipping. Courses that are more Socratic or inquiry-based, or those that don't have reams of factual content for students to learn, aren't particularly suited to flipping.” Sams and Bergmann (2013) Well … • Scalability: easy to broadcast to a large class, not so easy to run this? Peer interaction vital. • What if they don‟t do their homework? If students are going to skip homework, it‟s far better to miss watching a video than to miss doing the problem sets. Khan (2012)
  • 18. Group Discussion • Will you use this in your teaching? • How? When? With which classes? • Why/when would you not use it? • Do you agree that not all subjects are amenable to flipping? • What are the barriers to you using it?
  • 19. References Bergmann, J. & Sams, A” (2013) “Flip Your Students' Learning” http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/mar13/vol70/num06/Flip-Your-Students'- Learning.aspx Draper, S. (2014) Engaging large classes http://www.psy.gla.ac.uk/~steve/talks/mfisch.ppt.pdf Educause (2012) Things you should know about …flipped classrooms http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/eli7081.pdf Flipped Classroom Network - A website devoted to flipped learning. http://flippedclassroom.org/ Just in Time Teaching: http://jittdl.physics.iupui.edu/jitt/ Khan. S. (2012) The One World Schoolhouse http://emilkirkegaard.dk/en/wp-content/uploads/The- One-World-Schoolhouse-Salman-Khan2.pdf Khan,S. (2011) Let's use video to reinvent education http://www.ted.com/talks/salman_khan_let_s_use_video_to_reinvent_education.html Lancaster, S. and Read, D. (2013) “Flipping lectures and inverting classrooms” in Education and Chemistry http://www.rsc.org/Education/EiC/issues/2013september/flipped-classroom-inverting- lectures.asp Mazur, E. (2009). Confessions of a converted lecturer https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WwslBPj8GgI Mazur, E (2007) Confessions of a converted lecturer http://hans.math.upenn.edu/~pemantle/active-papers/Mazurpubs_605.pdf Mazur, E. (1997) Peer Instruction: A User's Manual (Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ) REAP Case study (Jim Baxter): http://www.reap.ac.uk/reap/assessment/pilotsSUPsy.html
  • 20. To flip or not to flip: the theory and practice of blended learning Sarah Honeychurch Craig Brown Niall Barr Learning Technology Unit Sarah.Honeychurch@glasgow.ac.uk @NomadWarMachine

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