International higher education: the changing   landscape - Simon Marginson
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International higher education: the changing landscape - Simon Marginson

International higher education: the changing landscape - Simon Marginson

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    International higher education: the changing   landscape - Simon Marginson International higher education: the changing landscape - Simon Marginson Presentation Transcript

    • International Higher Education The changing landscape Simon Marginson Institute of Education 20 March 2014 1 Victoria Street Conference Centre London SW1H 0ET
    • Leiden University ranking top 12 largest number of journal papers in 2008-2011
    • Gross Tertiary Enrolment Ratio 1995/2010 UNESCO Institute for Statistics 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 WORLD Sub-Saharan Africa South & West Asia Arab States Central Asia East Asia & Pacific La n America & Carribean Central & Eastern Europe North America & Western Europe 1995 2011
    • Investment in R&D, 2011: Top ten nations USD $s billion, OECD data 2013, GDP Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) 429.1 208.2 146.5 93.1 59.9 51.9 39.6 26.5 24.8 24.3 0 100 200 300 400 500 USA China Japan Germany South Korea France UK Taiwan Italy India
    • Journal papers per year, 1995-2011 Total world output US National Science Foundation data 564,645 581,760 588,488 602,430 610,203 630,452 629,386 638,381 661,790 688,691 710,294 740,417 758,603 783,359 788,728 799,599 827,705 0 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000 600,000 700,000 800,000 900,000 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
    • Journal papers 2001 and 2011 14,151 14,809 15,508 20,603 22,480 22,910 25,593 26,503 29,114 31,685 46,035 46,259 47,106 89,894 212,394 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 Russia Taiwan Netherlands Australia India Spain South Korea Italy Canada France UK Germany Japan China USA 2001 2011
    • 51 countries with 1000 journal papers p.a. US National Science Foundation data for 2011 ANGLO- SPHERE EUROPE EU NATIONS EUROPE NON-EU ASIA LATIN AMERICA Australia Austria Italy Croatia* China Argentina Canada Belgium Netherlands Norway India Brazil N. Zealand Czech Rep. Poland Russia Japan Chile* UK Denmark Portugal* Serbia* Malaysia* Mexico USA Finland Romania* Switzerland Pakistan* M.EAST /AF France Slovakia Turkey Singapore Egypt Germany Slovenia* Ukraine South Korea Iran* Greece Sweden Taiwan Israel Hungary Spain Thailand* Saudi Arab.* Ireland Sweden Sth. Africa Tunisia* *countries that reached the annual level of 1000 journal papers after 1997 (12 out of 51)
    • Nations publishing more than one thousand science papers in 2011 ANGLO-SPHERE EUROPEAN UNION NON-EU EUROPE ASIA LATIN AMERICA MIDDLE EAST USA 212,394 Germany 46,259 Russia 14,151 China 89,894 Brazil 13,148 Iran 8176* UK 45,884 France 31,686 Switzerl’d 10,019 Japan 47,106 Mexico 4173 Israel 6096 Canada 29,114 Italy 26,503 Turkey 8328 Sth. Korea 25,593 Argentina 3863 Saudi Ar. 1491* Australia 20,603 Spain 22,910 Norway 4777 India 22,481 Chile 1979* New Zealand 3472 Netherlands 15,508 Ukraine 1727 Taiwan 14,809 Sweden 9473 Serbia 1269* Singapore 4543 Poland 7564 Croatia 1289* Thailand 2304* Belgium 7484 Malaysia 2092* Denmark 6071 Pakistan 1268* Austria 5103 AFRICA Finland 4878 Portugal 4621* Greece 4534 Sth. Africa 3125 Czech Rep. 4127 Egypt 2515 Ireland 3186 Tunisia 1016* Hungary 2289 Romania 1626* Slovenia 1239* Slovakia 1099 * = countries that have entered the one thousand papers group since 1997 Source: Adapted from National Science Foundation data, 2014
    • Some slow growing research systems: journal papers per year, 1997-2011 Source: US National Science Foundation data, 2014
    • Some high quality European systems: journal papers per year, 1997-2011 Source: US National Science Foundation data, 2014 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 UK Netherlands Swizerland Sweden Finland
    • Citations per paper 2001-2011 (%) Thomson Reuters, for 1 January 2001 to 31 August 2011 16.9 16.05 16.02 15.76 15.67 15.06 15 13.92 13.77 13.41 13.33 13.1 12.9 12.76 12.6 12.57 12.1 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 SwitzerlandDenm ark USA NetherlandsScotlandEnglandSwedenBelgium FinlandGerm anyCanada Austria IsraelNorway W ales FranceAustralia Italy
    • Fast growing Post-Confucian systems journal papers per year, 1997-2011 Source: US National Science Foundation data, 2014
    • Some other fast growing systems: journal papers per year, 1997-2011 Source: US National Science Foundation data, 2014 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Brazil Iran Portugal Ireland Malaysia
    • Top ten school systems OECD PISA 2012 (mean student scores, Post –Confucian education systems in yellow)
    • Students enrolled outside their country of citizenship, millions, 1975-2011 OECD data, 2013
    • Asian middle class 2009-2030 (millions) Source of extrapolation: European Union Institute for Strategic Studies A middle class person is defined as someone living on USD $10-100 per day PPP 525 1740 3228 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 2009 2020 2030
    • R&D as a proportion of GDP, 2010 Selected countries, OECD data for 2013 2.85 2.2 1.77 1.74 3.78 3.37 3.09 2.88 2.87 2.24 2.04 0.76 4.03 3.39 3.02 2.23 1.84 1.09 1.16 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 United StatesAustralia United KingdomCanadaFinlandSwedenDenm arkGerm any SwitzerlandFrance NetherlandsPoland South Korea JapanTaiwanSingapore China Russia Brazil
    • Three kinds of state/ higher education
    • Gross National Income per head 2011 World Bank, CIA Fact Book for Taiwan data only Country/system Population (millions) GNI PPP per year (USD $s) Singapore 5.2 59,380 Macau SAR (GNI 2010) 0.6 56,950 Hong Kong SAR 7.1 52,350 Taiwan (GNI 2010, pop 2012) 23.2 35,700 Japan 127.8 35,330 South Korea 49.8 30,370 China (mainland only) 1344.1 8390 United States 311.6 48,820
    • Top ten school systems OECD PISA 2012 (mean student scores, Post –Confucian education systems in yellow) Reading Mathematics Science Shanghai China 570 Shanghai China 613 Shanghai China 580 Hong Kong SAR 545 Singapore 573 Hong Kong SAR 555 Singapore 542 Hong Kong SAR 561 Singapore 551 Japan 538 Taiwan 560 Japan 547 South Korea 536 South Korea 554 Finland 545 Finland 524 Macao SAR 538 Estonia 541 Taiwan 523 Japan 536 South Korea 538 Canada 523 Liechtenstein 535 Vietnam 528 Ireland 523 Switzerland 531 Poland 526 Poland 518 Netherlands 523 Liechtenstein 525 Vietnam 508 Vietnam 511 Canada 525 UKA 499 UK 494 UK 514 USA 498 USA 481 USA 497
    • Gross Tertiary Enrolment Ratio, 2011 Post-Confucian systems UNESCO Institute for Statistics & Taiwan Ministry of Education 23 30 24 24 60 60 64 84 101 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 India world Singapore Vietnam China Japan Hong Kong SAR Macau SAR Taiwan (2010) South Korea Data not available
    • Shanghai Academic Ranking of World Universities top 200, 2013 USA, 85 UK, 19 Canada, 8 Australia, 7 Germany, 14 France, 8 Netherlands, 8 Switzerland, 6 Sweden, 5 Belgium, 4 Italy, 4 Denmark, 3 other Europe, 4 Israel, 4 Saudi Arabia, 1 Japan, 9 China, 5 Hong Kong, 2 other Asia, 3 La n America, 3
    • Shanghai ARWU top 500 universities Chinese systems, 2005 & 2013
    • High citation rate Asia-Pacific universities
    • 4.3 million foreign tertiary students, 2011: world market shares (OECD data) USA, 17% UK, 13% Australia, 6% Germany, 6% France, 6%Canada, 5%Russia, 4% Japan, 4% Spain, 3% China, 2% New Zealand, 2% Italy, 2% Austria, 2% South Africa, 2% Korea, 2% Switzerland, 1% Belgium, 1% Netherlands, 1% other OECD, 8% other non-OECD, 15%