Professor Sir Ian Diamond


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  • StudentsConsecutive studies have found that a period abroad has the potential to contribute to inter-cultural awareness, language skills and long-term employability. A 2009 report by the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) has shown that students undertaking an Erasmus mobility period are more likely to be either in employment or further study six months after qualifying, and that their average salaries are higher. The GLOSSARI project run by the University of Georgia has also collected evidence to show that students achieve a higher grade point average if they have some international experience. InstitutionsFor institutions, student mobility contributes to the internationalisation of university campuses and helps to forge networks of students, staff and alumni. Student studying abroad will act as international Ambassadors for their home university and staff abroad will forge relationships with the potential to develop into successful research collaborations.SocietyThe long-term employability of the UK workforce depends on internationally-aware and linguistically competent UK graduates with the potential to represent the UK abroad commercially and diplomatically and negotiate with or work for international companies.
  • European UnionCreating ‘more opportunities for students to gain additional skills through study or training abroad’ is a central pillar of the European Commission’s 2011 Modernisation Agenda, designed to enable Europe’s HEIs to respond effectively to the requirements of the knowledge economy.Mobility is also fundamental to the European Commission’s Erasmus for All proposal, which aims to provide five million people with mobility opportunities and promotes an international dimension for European student mobility by extending Erasmus beyond Europe’s borders for the first time.If adopted, the Erasmus Masters Student Loan Guarantee Facility, within the E4A programme, would also enable postgraduate students who wished to do their degrees in another Member State access to loans at favourable rates, part guaranteed by the European Investment Bank.Bologna ProcessIn 2009, Ministers from across the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) committed to the target that 20% of EHEA graduates will have completed a study or training period abroad by 2020. Additionally, the EHEA Mobility Strategy ‘Mobility for Better Learning’’, adopted in April 2012, commits Member States including the UK, ‘to [developing] and [implementing] their own internationalisation and mobility strategies or policies with concrete aims and measurable mobility targets’.Australia: Australian Education International (international education arm of the Department of Industry, Innovation, Science, Research and Tertiary Education (DIISRTE)) has recently announced a multi-million dollar mobility strategy under their Asia strategy, with $3 million ear-marked for a public perception and profiling campaign dedicated to outward student mobility. Legislation has also recently been ntroduced to increase the maximum OS-HELP loan for students taking part of their study in Asia by 24 per cent to $7500.In the US, the Institute of International Education has launched ‘Get A Passport: Study Abroad’, a major initiative to encourage outward mobility. Launched in 2009, it involves partner campuses that organise events and activities that promote study abroad to their students. The IIE has set up two online portals that signpost students to study abroad opportunities and funding is available through diverse programmes. Organisations can add their programmes to the portals free of charge. German Academic Exchange Service (or DAAD) remains the standard bearer of good practice in the promotion of outward student mobility. The ongoing ‘Go Out’-campaign, jointly launched by the DAAD and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) in 2006, aims to ensure that 50% of German graduates have spent a period of study, work or research abroad and 20% of graduates have completed at least one full semester at a foreign HEI. This includes events, workshops, advice to institutions and an online information portalScottish government has recognised the key importance of outward student mobility and is already liaising with the Scottish higher education sector and NUS Scotland to develop a national strategy. Additionally, it has funded the Students Without Borders initiative, which aims to research and promote the benefits of international experience and, as part of the Scotland’s Saltire Scholarships programme, the government is providing additional funding for outward mobility to complement that which is offered to incoming students
  • The UK performs poorly compared to other European countries both in terms of degree and credit mobility. For every 15 international students in the UK, there is only one UK student studying for a degree abroad and UK companies have expressed concern regarding the potential of UK graduates to succeed in a global economy.New research Culture at Work: British Council in partnership with Booz Allen Hamilton and Ipsos Public Affairs.The research asked employers to define ‘intercultural’ skills. They said that intercultural skills include the ability to understand different cultural contexts and viewpoints; demonstrating respect for others; and knowledge of a foreign language. Employers reported that employees with these skills are more likely to bring in new clients, work well in diverse teams, and positively support their organisation’s brand and reputation. Employees who lack intercultural skills leave their organisation susceptible to risks including loss of clients, damage to reputation, and conflict within teams.It is encouraging that the UK 2010/11 Erasmus participation rate up 9.4% on previous year, higher than average increase for Europe (8.5%) but our numbers are still low compared to France, Germany and Spain.
  • Articles – rather than share – likely to lag inputs, but may be a leading indicator for quality articles? Singapore now reaping benefits of targeted investments a decade ago. Scale and pace of change China remarkable. Recognise bibliometrics even at this level of aggregation are a limited indicator, but China already ahead of France in 2001, overtake UK and Germany 2003-2004.
  • In scale not likely to be able to compete with increases of rapidly growing economies China Maintained quality share are new entrants produce more, possible comparative advantage? This does not mean less resource but supports concentrating in world class centres of excellence. The UK has 3% of the world’s researchers but we generate 6% of the world’s academic articles, 11% of citations and 14% of the most cited papers - second only to the US on quality. The UK research base produces more articles and more highly cited articles per researcher and per pound of research investment than the USA, Germany, Japan or China.Arguably because high levels of selectivity (leading to concentration) and autonomy – but others following fast. Elsevier report for BIS, International Comparative Performance of the UK research base, 2011.
  • i.e. UK articles co-authored with a researcher at an overseas institution have twice the field weighted citation impact of articles co-authored with a researcher at their own university. Same for EU. For Japan it’s 2.4, China 3.1, Of course, citations for international collaborations can be higher for reasons not directly do to with research quality – so this is a limited indicatorSource: Elsevier, report for BIS, “International Comparative Performance of the UK Research Base”
  • The green lines to yellow and red bubbles indicate where collaborations with higher impact than UK average where the partner country has lower than UK impact for its own research. Bubble colour represents the Field-Weighted Citation Impact (FWCI) of each country for all its papers: Green = FWCI greater than UK; Yellow = FWCI less than UK but greater than world average; Red = FWCI less than UK and less than world average. Line colour represents the Field-Weighted Citation Impact of collaborative papers relative to all papers where: Green = FWCI greater than UK average for all papers; Yellow = FWCI less than UK average but greater than world average; Red = FWCI less than UK and less than world.Source: Scopus data in Elsevier, report for BIS, “International Comparative Performance of the UK Research Base”
  • Why the EU is doing this? Commission’s sales pitch is simple: Growth, jobs, competitiveness. Generally supported. Wider European context: Europe 2020 and Innovation union – 3% GDP on R&D commitment. EU funding is dwarfed by member state’s own funding but EU notions of critical mass, coordination, - a mix of value of money and effectiveness, with the Commission wanting to persuade member states to do what’ they think is good for them. General economic case for public investment in science and research – market failure and contribution to total factor productivity - goes back at least to Vanevar Bush. Why now? Recession, shift to knowledge intensive economy, global shifts. ..........This is an opportunity for relatively small investments to create significant long term benefits. Research and innovation enable an economy to produce more with the same inputs of labour and capital. Research has found that a 0.1% increase in R&D could boost output per capita growth by some 0.3-0.4% and that innovations have a positive and significant effect on employment which persists over several years. Evidence shows that the economic and social returns on public investment in R&D are high, widespread and long lasting. The rate of return for publicly funded R&D usually exceeds 30 percent. Each extra 1 percent in public R&D generates an extra 0.17 percent in productivitygrowth. For example, a £1.00 investment in public or charitable medical research produced a stream of benefits equivalent in value to earning £0.39 per year in perpetuity. In many areas of basic science there is simply no alternative to public investment. Research carries high uncertainty, infrastructure and coordination costs, the benefits from new knowledge are not readily appropriable but knowledge is easy to transmit for public benefit. As well as being inherently valuable, the findings of public good research create new markets, businesses, products and services and the practice of doing cutting edge research supplies highly trained people with cutting edge knowledge to the labour market. In addition to the direct benefits: Public investment in R&D leverages in, rather than crowds out, private R&D: A 10 per cent increase in university research increases private R&D by 7 per cent. The leverage effect of public funding is larger for industry-science collaborative research than for pure industrial research and the spill over benefits are greater. High quality public research attracts private investment: the main location drivers for R&D-intensive foreign direct investment are world-class research infrastructure and labour and collaboration with organisations like universities. Private sector R&D labs are disproportionately clustered around highly rated university research departments. Public investment also improves the return from private investment in research: a 10 per cent increase in university R&D increases corporate patenting by between 1 per cent and 4 per cent. Approximately 20% of private sector innovations are partially based on public sector research.  If Europe had not invested in Framework Programme 7 the loss in growth, jobs and exports now would far exceed the EU funding saved: The long-term impact of FP7 has been estimated at an extra 0.96 percent of GDP, an extra 1.57 percent of exports, and a reduction of 0.88 percent in imports. The long-term employment impact of FP7 was estimated at 900,000 jobs, of which 300,000 in the field of research. Even before the comparative studies of economic growth and the models developed from them in the 1950s, Vannevar Bush’s report to the US President in 1945 argued that “today, it is truer than ever that basic research is the pacemaker of technological progress”, Science the Endless Frontier.
  • Only slightly more detailed HOW research and innovation create impact ... Far more than IP and spin out companies; case for public investment not diminished by universities success in marketising activity – most of benefits are downstream not captured by the university. NB diverse structures of research, innovation and education systems, much of Europe universities don’t have (yet) quite the same functions in innovation ecosystem as N America, UK, increasingly leading universities do. EU tendency to treat “innovation” as a private sector activity. Many policy makers tendency to want to import structure (Hughes wicker airplanes)Images from EU State of the Innovation Union, Ceres power (Imperial spin out)
  • Professor Sir Ian Diamond

    1. 1. Europe at the Heart of Internationalisation The increasing internationalisation of European Higher Education – a global dimension for the EU Professor Sir Ian Diamond 26/06/13
    2. 2. Europe in a global dimension – staying competitive UK universities teach 133,000 students and employ over 33,700 staff from the rest of the EU. FP7 will grow GDP by nearly 1% and create 900,000 additional jobs. Ultimately whether universities get resource from government or from students this comes from growth. Greatest challenge is global competitiveness  research, education and innovation. Europe 2020 target of investing 3% of GDP in R&D could create 3.7 million jobs and increase annual GDP by close to €800 billion by 2025. Other countries are investing massively eg China, USA, India, Brazil
    3. 3. THE World Tables 2012 Scotland 4 UK 31 Europe 86 US 76 ROW 34
    4. 4. A New Agenda? 1490s: University of Aberdeen ‘the priceless pearl of knowledge which opens the mind to the clearer understanding of the secrets of the Universe, and raises those of humble origin to the highest rank.’ ‘rude, ignorant of letters, almost barbarians’ Source: Aberdeen Supplication to the Vatican, MacFarlane, William Elphinstone and the Kingdom of Scotland
    5. 5. Roles of a Twenty-First Century University I • educate the highly skilled workforce of the future
    6. 6. University of Aberdeen • EU Students: Total (FTEs)- 2,495.8 – Total PGR - 134.7 – Total PGT - 166.0 – Total UG - 2,195.2 • Largest sending countries – Bulgaria, Denmark, Estonia, Germany, France, Lith uania, Poland, Romania, Ireland, (England)
    7. 7. Study Abroad
    8. 8. Benefits of student mobility • For the student: cultural, academic, linguistic; job prospects • For the institution: promoting international networks of students, staff and alumni; recruitment • For society: contributing to future prosperity through fostering an internationally employable workforce
    9. 9. Increasing emphasis on value of international mobility internationally European context: • EU Erasmus for All Programme 2014-2020 • Bologna Process mobility target International best practice: • Australia: Australian Education International • USA: Institute of International Education • Germany: DAAD • Brazil: Students without Borders
    10. 10. UK situation: a host country but not a sending country • For every 15 international students in the UK, there is only one UK student studying for a degree abroad – British Academy Language Matters – UoA Sustained Study • ‘Think Global’ study – 74% of top employers concerned that students not equipped to succeed in a globalised and multicultural economy • Erasmus numbers growing but still low
    11. 11. Not just Student Mobility • Staff • Researchers • Note potential reciprocity • Opportunities for strategic partnerships eg to overcome student challenges
    12. 12. Roles of a Twenty-First Century University II • produce research which is truly addressing exciting new problems and undertaking this research to the highest methodological and ethical standards
    13. 13. Global context: competition 0 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000 600,000 700,000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 EU 27 United States China United Kingdo m Germa ny France 0 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000 600,000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 EU 27 United States China United Kingdom Germany France Brazil India
    14. 14. • EU cannot be complacent – Other countries are investing massively • European Universities have track-record in producing high return despite declining investment • EU can compete on research quality – EU share of the very highest cited research is still increasing – But pinnacles are hard to maintain without concentrated resource ... Global Context: EU share Based on data from Elsevier, report for BIS, “International Comparative Performance of the UK Research Base” 2011. EU estimated from 22 major EU countries with data available -5.00% -4.00% -3.00% -2.00% -1.00% 0.00% 1.00% 2.00% 3.00% 4.00% Change in EU share of world 2006-10
    15. 15. Internationally co-authored articles are more highly cited International research collaboration is high and growing world wide Collaboration
    16. 16. • UK researchers are globally connected Collaboration The best researchers are globally connected Many collaborations have a higher impact than national average even where partner nation impact lower than world average Elsevier, report for BIS, “International Comparative Performance of the UK Research Base” 2011
    17. 17. Messages on Research • Knowledge knows no nation state boundaries • Collaboration not competition • Collaboration not just where big kit • Examples both multi country and institution – ESS, CERN; and simply experts partnering • But need money - Horizon 2020
    18. 18. Why should Europe invest in Horizon 2020? €1 of EU FP6&7 funding lead to an increase in industry added value of €13 on average. Achieving the Europe 2020 target of investing 3% of GDP in R&D could create 3.7 million jobs and increase annual GDP by close to €800 billion by 2025.
    19. 19. The EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation Excellent Science €26.6 billion Industrial Leadership €17.9 billion Societal Challenges €31.7 billion European Institute for Innovation and Technology EURATOM / (ITER) Joint Research Centre € 80 billion over 2014-2020 – but note negotiations (70.2bn)
    20. 20. Horizon 2020: Excellent Science European Research Council Frontier research by the best individual teams Future and Emerging Technologies Collaborative research to open new fields of Innovation Marie Curie actions Opportunities for training and career development Research infrastructures (including e- infrastructure) Ensuring access to world-class facilities •Excellence is the only criteria – international peer review •Success rate only 14% •Open to top researchers from anywhere in the world to move to ERA Includes mobility funding for PhDs and career development € 13.3 billion € 3.1 billion € 5.6 billion € 2.5 billion
    21. 21. Horizon 2020: Societal Challenges and Industrial Leadership Societal Challenges Health Food Climate and resource Transport Energy Inclusive societies Secure societies Industrial Leadership Access to risk finance Leveraging private finance Innovation in SMEs Leadership in enabling and industrial technologies (ICT, nanotech, ma terials, biotech, manufact uring, space) EIT (€1.4 bn + € 1.4 bn from societal challen ges and LEIT SMEs expected 15% of societal challenges + LEIT €6.8 bn €8 bn €4.1 bn €3.2 bn €6.8 bn €5.8 bn €3.8 bn (Split to be decided) €3.5 bn €619 million €13.8 bn €2.8 bn Specific international and widening participation actions?
    22. 22. Changes from Framework Programme 7 (some to be confirmed) Simplification: H2020 proposes: • Major simplification • “Seamless” integration of research and innovation • Greater support for close-to-market activities • More possibilities for new entrants (notably SMEs) to obtain funding The Funding Jungle: Funding rates for universities: (Council political agreement) •100% of direct costs plus flat 25% of this for indirect costs •Should cover all university work including close to market •No real full cost option - •Limited salary bonuses • Non-recoverable VAT? The funding jungle: • EU technical and administrative support for coordinating national research funders in single actions (ERA NET) • EU contributions combined with national funding (ERA NET plus, article 185) • Both coordinating and EU financial contributions to bringing together public and industrial funding and research (Joint Technology Initiatives (JTIs) and Public Private Partnerships (PPPs)) Work programmes: how open to bottom-up initiatives will they be?
    23. 23. Roles of a Twenty-First Century University III • where appropriate, ensure that the research has an impact both on the people who paid for this research and further beyond
    24. 24. Investing in research and innovation - smart growth Creating new businesses Supplying and attracting Highly skilled labour Attracting globally mobile Investment Improving Policy and addressing global challenges Improving public services New products and processes for industry
    25. 25. Roles of a Twenty-First Century University • educate the highly skilled workforce of the future; • produce research which is truly addressing exciting new problems and undertaking this research to the highest methodological and ethical standards; • where appropriate, ensure that the research has an impact both on the people who paid for this research and further beyond; • seek to drive its local socio-economy and act as the cultural DNA of its local region. • European engagement central to all these