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Trends in international higher education: what do the numbers tell you and what can you do? - Andreas Schleicher

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Trends in international higher education: what do the numbers tell you and what can you do? - Andreas Schleicher

Trends in international higher education: what do the numbers tell you and what can you do? - Andreas Schleicher

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  • I will present perspectives from the OECD on four key questions.These questions will revolve around education providers, both formal institutions and the more non-formal providers. But I also want to bring in the perspective of learner ownership, the demand for both formal learning and for learning informal learning beyond institutions.I will start with looking at what we know about the supply and demand for university education, as we know it, and what that implies for the evolution of the global talent pool.I will then look into how successful formal institutions are engaging with a widening and increasingly informal range of learning needs.That will bring me to the question for how we can shift greater emphasis from qualifications-based education up-front to more demand-sensitive learning throughout life, in order to close widely visible skills gap.And I will conclude with some reflections on where the scope for innovative entrants is to shape new forms of informal learning.
  • So what do our data say on the evolution of the global talent pool? Can we expect the dramatic expansion of traditional higher education institutions expect to continue?
  • A look into the past shows that the pie has become a lot bigger. Among the age group nearing retirement, there are 39 million with a tertiary qualification in the 36 countries for which we have comparable data. Among the age group entering the labour-force, it is more than twice that number.
  • But while in the older age group every third person in global talent pool was in the United States, it is only every fifth in the younger age group. China’s share of this global talent pool has expanded from less 7% among the older age group to 18% among those who have just entered the labour market – just 2 percentage points below that of the U.S.
  • Some of the expansion that you are seeing here is driven by international students, and the movement of international students is still the most significant driver of globalisation in higher education, still much larger than the movement of content and providers.
  • But not all countries have profited from this trend to similar extents. Countries like the US and Germany have lost in market share, while countries such as Australia or the UK continue to gain in prominence.
  • But we are all much better in predicting the past than analysing the future. Can we expect those trends to continue? Or will we one day all have a university degree but end up working for the minimum wage, with a massive deflation of the labour-market value of tertiary qualifications?
  • Themostinterestingfindingisthatthe employment and earnings advantage of higher education continued to rise, suggesting that the increase in knowledge workers has not led to a decline in their pay, which is what we are seeing for low-skilled workers. And the economic crisis has increased those differentials very considerably.
  • Now there remains the question to what extent the skills developed through higher education are put to productive use or just reflect individual interests and preferences. But our data show that the share of individuals holding tertiary degrees who also work in occupations requiring tertiary qualifications hovers above 75%, so that suggests pretty good skill utilisation in most OECD countries.
  • But our data show a pretty close relationship between
  • Another way to look at this is through the extent to which higher education has contributed to economic progress. What you see here is that more than half of economic growth over the last decade has been driven by labour-income growth among tertiary educated individuals.
  • Knowing that education pays does not guarantee that we figure out how to pay for it. Particularly not in this very difficult fiscal climate.
  • But countries are financing that expenditure in very different ways.The group of countries marked here in red are going to face major challenges.
  • Let us turn to the next question, how well do initial qualifications actually equip us for learning beyond schools?
  • Percentage of low- and high-educated adults scoring at Level 2 or 3 in problem solving in technology-rich environmentsEven among tertiary graduates, you just have about half of the population you can consider reasonably comfortable with new technologies. Not talking about developing countries here, these are the most advanced economies.
  • (9) Does this matter? Yes, it does. When you look at the evolution of employment by those problem-solving skills, you can see that there has been a significant decline in employment by people with basic problem-solving skills. There has been little change in employment among the low-skilled. But there has been significant growth in employment among great problem-solvers. What you see here is the hollowing out of labour-markets. Those who have great skills are fine, and will be better and better off. The people most at risk are not the poorly-skilled but white-collar workers with so-so-problem-solving skills, because their skills can increasingly be digitised, automated or outsourced. Those at the low end of the spectrum keep their jobs but are seeing declining wages. That's because you cannot digitise your bus driver or outsource your hairdresser to India.
  • I have talked a lot about traditional institutions. But can those types of institutions actually address a dramatically widened demand for formal learning?
  • This brings me to the last question, and that is can we extend mass education for some to personalised learning for all, with innovative providers providing a range of new opportunities for informal learning?
  • Many people, particularly in Europe, still hold the notion that things like tuition fees are the major barrier for access to higher education.
  • … If nothing else, this chart shows how far we still are from making lifelong learning a reality for all. And its probably not until we are able to unbundle educational content, providers and accreditation that we are seeing fundamental progress.
  • Clearly, our challenge is transformation, and we know where this starts. But if we keep coming up with bigger and more beautiful variations of the old mold, then we will not do justice to the future of higher education.
  • Transcript

    • 1. 11 UUK,London,20March2014 AndreasSchleicher Trendsinhighereducation Andreas Schleicher Advisor of the OECD Secretary-General on Education Policy Deputy Director for Education Trends in higher education What do the numbers tell you and what can you do? UUK, London, 20 March 2014
    • 2. 22 UUK,London,20March2014 AndreasSchleicher Trendsinhighereducation TraditionalinstitutionsInnovators Formal learning Informal learning Education providers Learner OwnershipTraditionalinstitutionsInnovators Formal learning Informal learning Is there no end to the expansion of higher education? How successful do institutions engage with evolving learning needs? Who can make a systemic difference to closing skills gaps? Can we extend mass education for some to personalised learning for all? Key questions…
    • 3. 33 UUK,London,20March2014 AndreasSchleicher Trendsinhighereducation TraditionalinstitutionsInnovators Formal learning Informal learning Education providers Learner OwnershipTraditionalinstitutionsInnovators Formal learning Informal learning How successful do institutions engage with evolving learning needs? Who can make a systemic difference to closing skills gaps? Can we extend mass education for some to personalised learning for all? Is there no end to the expansion of higher education?
    • 4. 44 UUK,London,20March2014 AndreasSchleicher Trendsinhighereducation The composition of the global talent pool has changed… Countries‟ share in the population with tertiary education, for 25-34 and 55-64 year- old age groups, 55-64-year-old population 25-34-year-old population About 39 million people who attained tertiary level About 81 million people who attained tertiary level
    • 5. 55 UUK,London,20March2014 AndreasSchleicher Trendsinhighereducation United States, 35.8 Japan, 12.4 China, 6.9 Germany, 6.3 United Kingdom, 5.3 Canada, 4.2 France, 3.5 Brazil, 3.5 Spain, 2.1 Italy, 1.9 Mexico, 1.8 Australia, 1.7 Korea, 1.6 other, 12.9 United States, 20.5 Japan, 10.9 China, 18.3 Germany, 3.1 United Kingdom, 4.4 Canada, 3.1 France, 4.1 Brazil, 4.5 Spain, 3.5 Italy, 2.0 Mexico, 3.9 Australia, 1.6 Korea, 5.7 other, 14.5 The composition of the global talent pool has changed… Countries‟ share in the population with tertiary education, for 25-34 and 55-64 year- old age groups 55-64-year-old population 25-34-year-old population
    • 6. 66 London,24June2013 AndreasSchleicher EducationataGlance2013 Keyfindings A world of change – higher education 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1995 Expenditureperstudentattertiarylevel(USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate (%) Costperstudent Graduate supply
    • 7. 77 London,24June2013 AndreasSchleicher EducationataGlance2013 Keyfindings A world of change – higher education 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1995 Expenditureperstudentattertiarylevel(USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate (%) Costperstudent Graduate supply United States
    • 8. 99 London,24June2013 AndreasSchleicher EducationataGlance2013 Keyfindings A world of change – higher education 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 2000 Expenditureperstudentattertiarylevel(USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate United Kingdom
    • 9. 1010 London,24June2013 AndreasSchleicher EducationataGlance2013 Keyfindings A world of change – higher education 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 2001 Expenditureperstudentattertiarylevel(USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
    • 10. 1111 London,24June2013 AndreasSchleicher EducationataGlance2013 Keyfindings A world of change – higher education 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 2002 Expenditureperstudentattertiarylevel(USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
    • 11. 1212 London,24June2013 AndreasSchleicher EducationataGlance2013 Keyfindings A world of change – higher education 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 2003 Expenditureperstudentattertiarylevel(USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
    • 12. 1313 London,24June2013 AndreasSchleicher EducationataGlance2013 Keyfindings A world of change – higher education 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 2004 Expenditureperstudentattertiarylevel(USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
    • 13. 1414 London,24June2013 AndreasSchleicher EducationataGlance2013 Keyfindings A world of change – higher education 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 2005 Expenditureperstudentattertiarylevel(USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
    • 14. 1515 London,24June2013 AndreasSchleicher EducationataGlance2013 Keyfindings A world of change – higher education 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 2006 Expenditureperstudentattertiarylevel(USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
    • 15. 1616 London,24June2013 AndreasSchleicher EducationataGlance2013 Keyfindings A world of change – higher education 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 2007 Expenditureperstudentattertiarylevel(USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
    • 16. 1717 London,24June2013 AndreasSchleicher EducationataGlance2013 Keyfindings A world of change – higher education 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 2008 Expenditureperstudentattertiarylevel(USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
    • 17. 1818 London,24June2013 AndreasSchleicher EducationataGlance2013 Keyfindings A world of change – higher education 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 2009 Expenditureperstudentattertiarylevel(USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate
    • 18. 1919 London,24June2013 AndreasSchleicher EducationataGlance2013 Keyfindings A world of change – higher education 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 2010 Expenditureperstudentattertiarylevel(USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate Iceland Poland UK
    • 19. 2121 London,24June2013 AndreasSchleicher EducationataGlance2013 Keyfindings A world of change – higher education 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 2010 Expenditureperstudentattertiarylevel(USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate US
    • 20. 2323 UUK,London,20March2014 AndreasSchleicher Trendsinhighereducation Evolution in the number of students enrolled outside their country of citizenship (2000 to 2010) By region of destination 0 500 000 1 000 000 1 500 000 2 000 000 2 500 000 3 000 000 3 500 000 4 000 000 4 500 000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 201 Worldwide In OECD In EU countries In G20 countries In North America Number of foreign students
    • 21. 2424 UUK,London,20March2014 AndreasSchleicher Trendsinhighereducation United States 16.6% United Kingdom 13% Australia 6.6% Germany 6.4% France 6.3% Canada 4.7%Russian Federation 3.9% Japan 3.4% Spain 2.4% China 1.8% New Zealand 1.7% Italy 1.7% Austria 1.7% South Africa 1.5% Korea 1.4% Switzerland 1.3% Belgium 1.3% Netherlands 1.2% Sweden 1.1% Other OECD countries 6.4% Other non-OECD countries 15.5% Distribution of foreign students in tertiary education, by country of destination (2010) Percentage of foreign tertiary students (reported to the OECD) who are enrolled in each country of destination
    • 22. 2525 UUK,London,20March2014 AndreasSchleicher Trendsinhighereducation Total from Asia 52.5% Total from Europe 22.7% Total from Africa 11.8% Total from Latin America and the Caribbean 6.2% Not specified 3.2% Total from North America 2.7% Total from Oceania 1% Distribution of foreign students in tertiary education, by continent of origin (2010)
    • 23. 2727 UUK,London,20March2014 AndreasSchleicher Trendsinhighereducation 0 5 10 15 20 25 UnitedStates UnitedKingdom Australia Germany France Canada RussianFederation Japan Spain China NewZealand Italy Austria SouthAfrica Korea Belgium Switzerland Netherlands Sweden OtherOECD therG20andnon-OECD 2010 2000 Trends in international education market shares Percentage of all foreign tertiary students enrolled, by destination Market share (%) “Other G20 and non-OECD countries” refers to the portion of total foreign students studying in other G20 and non-OECD countries and is obtained after subtracting China, South Africa and the Russian Federation from the total in non-OECD destinations, as estimated from UNESCO data.
    • 24. 2828 UUK,London,20March2014 AndreasSchleicher Trendsinhighereducation Will we one day all have a university degree and work for the minimum wage? A growing educational divide
    • 25. 3030 London,24June2013 AndreasSchleicher EducationataGlance2013 Keyfindings The private returns on an investment in post-secondary education are substantial, especially for men Private costs and benefits for a man attaining upper secondary or post-secondary non tertiary education (2009) -200 000 -100 000 0 100 000 200 000 300 000 400 000 Greece 14798 Finland 30897 Turkey 35082 Poland 36764 Estonia 45121 Germany 56193 New Zealand 58058 Hungary 63962 France 69168 Italy 72302 Israel 73154 Denmark 80729 Slovenia 80936 EU21 average 89071 Portugal 96530 OECD average 100277 Sweden 104322 Canada 105055 Spain 106512 Australia 122526 Czech Republic 133693 Ireland 142366 Norway 143459 United Kingdom 148730 Austria 156870 Slovak Republic 163387 United States 214382 Korea 252207 Equivalent USD Direct cost Foregone earnings Income tax effect Social contribution effect Transfers effect Gross earnings benefits Unemployment effect for a man Chart A7.2 -1 B
    • 26. 3232 London,24June2013 AndreasSchleicher EducationataGlance2013 Keyfindings The net public return on investment for a man in tertiary education is over USD 100 000. Net private and public returns associated with a man attaining tertiary education (2009) 0 50 000 100 000 150 000 200 000 250 000 300 000 350 000 400 000 United States Ireland Czech Republic Poland Slovenia Slovak Republic Hungary Austria United Kingdom Canada Finland EU21 average France Portugal OECD average Korea Italy Australia Israel Netherlands Japan Estonia Germany Spain Belgium Norway Sweden Denmark Greece New Zealand Turkey Equivalent USD Private net returns Public net returns Chart A7.1
    • 27. 3333 UUK,London,20March2014 AndreasSchleicher Trendsinhighereducation Consumption or economic use?
    • 28. 3535 UUK,London,20March2014 AndreasSchleicher Trendsinhighereducation Average GDP growth (real percentage change from the previous year) and labour income growth in GDP, by educational categories Countries with at least five years of growth estimates by educational categories; GDP growth estimates are matched with years of education growth estimates (2000-2010) -1% 0% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% Israel Korea CzechRepublic NewZealand Sweden Finland Canada Countryaverage Switzerland UnitedStates Hungary Norway UnitedKingdom Austria Germany France Ireland Denmark GDP Growth ISCED 5B/5A/6 ISCED 3/4 ISCED 0/1/2
    • 29. 3636 UUK,London,20March2014 AndreasSchleicher Trendsinhighereducation Change in annual labour-income growth in GDP, by educational categories during the crisis 2009 GDP growth shown next to country names -6% -5% -4% -3% -2% -1% 0% 1% 2% 3% Norway,-1.7% SlovakRepublic,-4.8% Switzerland,-1.9% Canada,-2.8% Korea,0.3% UnitedKingdom,-4.9% France,-2.7% CzechRepublic,-4.1% Austria,-3.9% OECDaverage,-3.8% Denmark,-5.2% Germany,-4.7% NewZealand,0.8% Spain,-3.7% Finland,-8.2% Sweden,-5.3% Estonia,-13.9% Hungary,-6.7% Israel,0.8% UnitedStates,-3.5% Ireland,-7.6% ISCED 5B/5A/6 ISCED 3/4 ISCED 0/1/2 Chart A10.2
    • 30. 3737 UUK,London,20March2014 AndreasSchleicher Trendsinhighereducation Can we ensure sustainable financing? Who should pay for what, when and how?
    • 31. 3838 London,24June2013 AndreasSchleicher EducationataGlance2013 Keyfindings In some major countries expenditure per tertiary student did not always keep pace with increases in tertiary enrolment Change in expenditure per student by educational institutions (2005 = 100, 2010 constant prices ) 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 Estonia Korea Poland Ireland Brazil Finland France Japan Italy Sweden Spain EU21average Hungary Belgium Chile OECDaverage CzechRepublic Portugal Mexico Slovenia SlovakRepublic Denmark Netherlands Australia Norway Israel UnitedKingdom NewZealand UnitedStates RussianFederation Austria Iceland Switzerland Index of change (2005=100) Change in expenditure Change in the number of students (in full-time equivalents) Change in expenditure per student Tertiary education UK
    • 32. 3939 London,10September2012 AndreasSchleicher EducationataGlance2012 Average tuition fees and proportion of students who benefit from public loans and/or scholarships/grants Tertiary-type A, public institutions, academic year 2008-09, national full-time students United States United Kingdom Japan Australia New Zealand Netherlands Italy Spain Austria Belgium (Fl.) Belgium (Fr.) France Switzerland Finland Norway Denmark SwedenIceland Mexico -1 000 0 1 000 2 000 3 000 4 000 5 000 6 000 7 000 0 25 50 75 100 % of students who benefit from public loans AND/OR scholarships/grants AveragetuitionfeeschargedbypublicinstitutionsinUSD Group 1: No (or low) financial barriers for tertiary studies due to tuition fees and a high level of student aid. Group 2: Potentially high financial barriers for entry to tertiary-type A education, but also strong student support. Group 3: Extensive and broadly uniform cost sharing across students, student support systems somewhat less developed. Group 4: Relatively low financial barriers to entry to tertiary education and relatively low support Bubble size shows graduation rates
    • 33. 4040 UUK,London,20March2014 AndreasSchleicher Trendsinhighereducation EducationalinstitutionsInnovators Formal learning Informal learning Education providers Learner OwnershipTraditionalinstitutionsInnovators Formal learning Informal learning Is there no end to the expansion of higher education? Who can make a systemic difference to closing skills gaps? Can we extend mass education for some to personalised learning for all? How successful do institutions engage with evolving learning needs?
    • 34. 4141 UUK,London,20March2014 AndreasSchleicher Trendsinhighereducation Problem solving proficiency by educational attainment 70 50 30 10 10 30 50 70 Estonia Poland Korea Ireland Canada Slovak Republic Japan Austria United States Average Germany England/N. Ireland (UK) Denmark Australia Flanders (Belgium) Finland Czech Republic Norway Sweden Netherlands Level 2 Level 3 Lower than upper secondary Tertiary PercentPercent
    • 35. 4242 UUK,London,20March2014 AndreasSchleicher Trendsinhighereducation Evolution of employment in occupational groups defined by problem-solving skills Percentage change in the share of employment relative to 1998, by occupational groups defined by workers‟ average level of proficiency in problem solving (based on 24 OECD countries with 1998 LFS data) 42 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 Medium-low level of problem- solving Low level of problem-solving Medium-high level of problem- solving %
    • 36. 4343 UUK,London,20March2014 AndreasSchleicher Trendsinhighereducation TraditionalinstitutionsOtherproviders Formal learning Informal learning Education providers Learner OwnershipTraditionalinstitutionsOtherproviders Formal learning Informal learning Is there no end to the expansion of higher education? Can we extend mass education for some to personalised learning for all? How successful do institutions engage with evolving learning needs? Who can make a systemic difference to closing skills gaps?
    • 37. 4444 UUK,London,20March2014 AndreasSchleicher Trendsinhighereducation TraditionalinstitutionsOtherproviders Formal learning Informal learning Education providers Learner OwnershipTraditionalinstitutionsInnovators Formal learning Informal learning Is there no end to the expansion of higher education? Will institutions succeed shifting responsibility for learning to the learner? Who can make a systemic difference to closing skills gaps? Can we extend mass education for some to personalised learning for all? The great unbundling?
    • 38. 4545 UUK,London,20March2014 AndreasSchleicher Trendsinhighereducation 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Norway Germany Denmark UnitedKingdom Austria Canada NewZealand Sweden Finland Belgium Netherlands CzechRepublic OECDaverage Portugal Spain Estonia SlovakRepublic Poland Italy Greece Hungary % Chart C6.1 OECD average Annual labour costs of employer-sponsored non-formal education as a percentage of GDP (2007) Employed 25-64 year-olds Compares with 1.6% for higher education
    • 39. 4646 UUK,London,20March2014 AndreasSchleicher Trendsinhighereducation 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Poland Ireland Hungary CzechRepublic Australia Greece Italy France Spain Sweden UnitedKingdom Luxembourg Belgium Slovenia Netherlands Portugal OECDaverage Canada Turkey Switzerland Denmark Finland NewZealand Austria Iceland Norway UnitedStates Germany SlovakRepublic Estonia High Medium Low Downward mobility Upward mobility „Status quo by parents educational level Intergenerational mobility in education (2009) Percentage of 25-34 year-old non-students whose educational attainment is higher than their parents‟ (upward mobility), lower (downward mobility) or the same (status quo) and status quo by parents' educational level (low, medium, high)
    • 40. 4747 UUK,London,20March2014 AndreasSchleicher Trendsinhighereducation Australia Austria Belgium Canada Czech Republic DenmarkFinland FranceGermany Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom United States 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 No relationship between share of private financing and educational mobility in higher education Highershareofprivatefinancinginhighereducation Higher degree of educational mobility Percentage of students in higher education whose parents have low education Percentageofprivatesourcesinhighereducationfinance
    • 41. 4848 UUK,London,20March2014 AndreasSchleicher Trendsinhighereducation Australia 1 Austria Belgium Canada 2 Czech Republic Denmark Finland Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy New Zealand 1 Norway Poland Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland United States 2 R² = 0.37 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Theoddsofa20-34year-oldattendinghighereducationifparentshavelowlevelsof education(2009) Impact of PISA index of economic, social, and cultural status (ESCS) on student reading performance (2000) Note: The number of students attending higher education are under-reported for Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States compared to the other countries as they only include students who attained ISCED 5A, while the other countries include students who attained ISCED 5A and/or 5B. Therefore, the omission of data on 5B qualifications may understate intergenerational mobility in these countries. 1. Data source from Adult Literacy and Lifeskills Survey (ALL) of 2006. A close relationship between equity at school and equity in higher education The weaker the influence of social background on learning outcomes at school (PISA) …themorelikelyitisthatpeoplewithdisadvantaged backgroundsmakeitintohighereducation
    • 42. 4949 UUK,London,20March2014 AndreasSchleicher Trendsinhighereducation Making lifelong learning a reality for all Skills by age 225 235 245 255 265 275 285 295 305 15 25 35 45 55 65 AgeNo adjustment Adjusted for immigrant status and education Adjusted for immigrant status, education and reading engagement Skill score
    • 43. 5050 UUK,London,20March2014 AndreasSchleicher Trendsinhighereducation
    • 44. 5151 UUK,London,20March2014 AndreasSchleicher Trendsinhighereducation Thank you ! – www.oecd.org/education/eag2012 • Data and publications – Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org … and remember: Without data, you are just another person with an opinion