Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
The illustrated encyclopedia of body mind disciplines by nancy allison cma
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

The illustrated encyclopedia of body mind disciplines by nancy allison cma


Published on

The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body Mind Disciplines by Nancy Allison CMA …

The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body Mind Disciplines by Nancy Allison CMA

The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines, a comprehensive new reference covering over 120 disciplines, has been published by The Rosen Publishing.

As alternative medicine is gaining recognition in traditional health care, this timely volume is a welcome and essential resource. The 500-page, one-volume encyclopedia features practical details as well as historical and theoretical information about body-mind practices within all of the major disciplines, from the familiar martial arts, meditation and massage to lesser-known therapies and techniques. While the approaches of the different practices often vary widely, their purpose of incorporating the body with the thinking and feeling processes of the mind is universal -- to enable a person to live a long, meaningful, and healthy life.

Written by over 125 experts in their respective fields, the lavishly-illustrated encyclopedia includes boxed insets highlighting important facts about each discipline, annotated resource lists, and sources for further reading.

Editor Nancy Allison, CMA, currently teaches Laban movement analysis and Bartenief Fundamentals at New York University School of Education. She is also on the faculty at the Lincoln Center Institute and the Laban-Bartenief Institute of Movement Studies.

1 Comment
  • download free link:
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines
  • 2. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines Nancy Allison, CMA Editor The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. New York
  • 3. Important notice to readers of this book: This book is not intended to substitute for diag-nosis or treatment by or consultation with a qualified, licensed health care practitioner. Aphysician should be consulted before deciding to participate in any body-mind discipline.The Publisher is not recommending or advocating the use or practice of any body-mind dis-cipline or program of treatment mentioned or described in this book. The Publisher shall notbe responsible for any consequences or ill effects resulting from the practice of any programof treatment mentioned or described in this book.Published in 1999 by The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc.29 East 21st Street, New York, NY 10010© 1999 by Nancy AllisonAll rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in anyform without permission in writing from the publisher, except bya reviewer. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataAllison, NancyThe illustrated encyclopedia of body-mind disciplines/Nancy Allison, editor p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN 0-8239-2546-3 1. Alternative medicine—Encyclopedias. 2. Mind and body therapies—Encyclopedias.I. Allison, Nancy, 1954-R733.I46 1998615.5—dc21 98-24969 CIPManufactured in the United States of America
  • 4. About the Editor Nancy Allison, CMA, has always been interested in the role of movement inhuman society, its inner impulses and outer forms. This interest led her to pursue acareer in dance. She performed during her childhood with the National Ballet ofWashington, DC, and with Moscow’s world-renowned Bolshoi Ballet during its 1963American tour. She graduated with honors from Ohio University with a B.F.A. inDance. While at Ohio University she augmented her study of dance with courses inphilosophy and psychology. As a young professional dancer she joined the Theaterof the Open Eye in New York City, founded by choreographer Jean Erdman and thelate Joseph Campbell. Allison distinguished herself as the leading interpreter ofErdman’s dance repertory from the 1940s and 1950s, producing the three-volumevideo archive Dance and Myth: The World of Jean Erdman. Inspired by both Erdman and Campbell, Allison expanded her exploration ofmovement to include the body-mind relationship. She has studied hatha yoga, t’ai chich’üan, the Pilates Method, bioenergetics, authentic movement, and Laban move-ment analysis, in which she earned a degree as a certified movement analyst. A muchsought after teacher, Allison has taught master classes and workshops throughout theUnited States. She currently resides in New York, where she teaches at the School ofEducation of New York University.Acknowledgments So many people have helped create this volume that it is probably impossible toname them all, but given this opportunity, I would like to try. I feel deeply indebtedto Joseph Campbell, whose personal encouragement guided my early explorationsinto the world of body-mind and whose spirit and knowledge are a constant well-spring of inspiration to me. I also want to thank my husband, who believed in myability to complete this project and nurtured both it and me with his constant loveand support. I am eternally grateful to all of the distinguished teachers, healers, and writerswho contributed entries to this volume. Their dedication to their respective fields andtheir generous gifts of time and knowledge to this project have earned my undyingrespect and admiration. I believe they are, each in their own wonderfully unique way,helping to make this world a better place. Certain writers and consultants have been particularly influential in my owndevelopment, and I want to acknowledge their gifts to me: T’ai chi master SophiaDelza, who passed away during the course of our work, taught me to follow the flowof the life force in its endless cycle from full to empty and back to full again; Ed Groff;Janet Hamburg; Clio Pavlantos and Jackie Hand, who taught me to recognize theendless permutations of that force through the language of Laban movementanalysis; Nina Robinson, who introduced me to the thrill of liberating that forcethrough bioenergetics; Lillo (Leela) Way, who taught me the true nature of a spir-itual practice; Jane Magee and Jackie Hand, whose healing hands managed tountangle the knots into which I seem to want to endlessly entangle my body; and Dr. v
  • 5. Domenick Masiello, whose healing artistry has restored me and so many of my loved ones to a vibrant state of health. I am also indebted to Dr. Masiello for the many fine contributing writers he recommended to this project. In that regard I am also deeply indebted to Thomas Claire and Ken Frey. There are also those who, while not contributing writers, were important to my abil- ity to realize this project: Clifford Schulman, Jeff McMahon, Anne Johnson, Joanna Kosartes Vergoth, and Cynthia Reynolds, all of whom recommended contributing writ- ers to the project; Romana Kryzanowska, who gave me my first teaching job in the body- mind arena at the Pilates Studio; Carol Walker and Steven Giordano, who encouraged me to expand and explore that skill and knowledge at SUNY Purchase; Miriam Roskin Berger, who has supported so many of my creative endeavors and gave me the opportu- nity to develop my teaching at New York University, and all of my students over the years who continually show me through their amazing transformations that my approach to this material is valuable and life-enhancing. Finally, I would like to thank the staff at the Rosen Publishing Group, all of whom were extraordinarily helpful and supportive; especially Christine Slovey, who worked long and diligently to uphold cohesive reference standards while allowing each individ- ual voice to be heard; Michael Isaac and Margaret Haerens, who each offered their own perspective and editing skills; Kim Sonsky, whose artistic talents created the cover design; Vera Amadzadeh, whose tireless photo research efforts brought such vivid visu- al expression to the ideas contained in the writing; and Olga Vega, whose layout and design expertise give such visual clarity and accessibility to the volume. With such a huge task, spanning so many years, Im sure there are others I have missed. Please forgive me and know that you have my deepest respect and gratitude. —Nancy Allison, CMA, Editorvi
  • 6. ContributorsAcupressure, Process Acupressure technique. She has a modern dance Aminah Raheem, Ph.D. and background, having choreographedDiplomate of Process Work, is a transper- and performed in New York City sincesonal psychologist, bodyworker, writer, 1983. She is on the faculty at SUNYand the originator of process acupres- Stony Brook in the music departmentsure, who has worked for many years and maintains a private practice in Newwith the integration of bodywork and York and Connecticut. She has writtenconsciousness. She was an adjunct facul- various journals on body-mind healingty member of the Institute for and has received a grant from the NewTranspersonal Psychology for ten years. York Cardiac Center to study and report on complementary medicine.Acupuncture Robert J. Abramson, D.D.S, M.D., Art Therapyhad a private dental practice for over a Cathy Malchiodi, M.A., ATR, LPAT,decade before earning his M.D. from the LPCC, is the director of the InstituteState University of New York and com- for the Arts and Health in Salt Lakepleting a bachelor’s course in acupunc- City, Utah. She is the editor of Artture at the College of Traditional Chinese Therapy: Journal of the American ArtMedicine in England. Dr. Abramson is Therapy Association and the author ofcurrently a privately practicing acupunc- several books and articles on the topicturist in New York City. of art therapy with trauma, child phys- ical abuse, and medical applications.Aikido Ms. Malchiodi has lectured at many Clio Pavlantos, M.A., CMA, holds a universities, agencies, and institutionsmaster’s degree in dance, a certificate in throughout the United States, Canada,Laban movement studies, and a black Europe, and Asia.belt in aikido. She has taught all three dis-ciplines at colleges, universities, and pri- Aston-Patterning®vate institutions. Dance and Laban Allison Funk has been working inmovement analysis helped her in learn- the fields of bodywork and movementing and teaching aikido, which she finds education for twelve years. A licensedto have many of the rhythms and expres- physical therapist assistant, shesive qualities of dance. received her Aston-Patterning® certifi- Marvin Bookman has been involved cation in 1996 and is currently enrolledin the martial arts for twenty years. He is in the faculty training program at thecertified as an aikido instructor by the Aston-Patterning Center in Lake Tahoe,United States Aikido Federation. In 1989, Nevada. Funk owns a private Aston-he founded Aikido of Greenwich Village. Patterning practice in Winter Park,Currently, Bookman gives seminars and Colorado, where she uses her skills toclasses throughout the United States. assist a variety of clients.Alexander Technique Authentic Movement Diane Young, NASAT, is a certified Daphne Lowell is a professor atteacher and trainer of the Alexander Hampshire College and the Five College vii
  • 7. Dance Department. She is also codirec- coauthor of Out of Sight into Vision, a tor of the Hampshire College Program consumer self-help book presenting new in contemplative dance. models of seeing and vision therapy. Ayurvedic Medicine Bioenergetics Dr. Vasant Lad, BAMS (bachelor of Nina Robinson, ADTR, M.A., CMA, ayurvedic medicine and surgery), has been a dance/movement therapist MASc (master of ayurvedic science), is since 1973. She has taught in the New the founder, director, chairman of the York University dance therapy program, board, and principal instructor of the from which she received her master’s Ayurvedic Institute in Albuquerque, degree. She is a member of the Academy New Mexico. He practiced and taught of Dance Therapists Registered. She has ayurveda in Pune, India, before coming integrated bioenergetics into her dance to the United States and teaching at the therapy work throughout her career. She Santa Fe College of Natural Medicine began her many years of bioenergetic in 1981. therapy with Alexander Lowen, M.D., from 1965 to 1967. Bartenieff FundamentalsSM Janet Hamburg, CMA, M.A., directs Biofeedback the dance division at the University of Les Fehmi, Ph.D., organized and Kansas, Lawrence. She was a faculty chaired the first national meeting of member of the Laban/Bartenieff biofeedback researchers in 1968. He has Institute of Movement Studies a Ph.D. in physiological psychology Certificate Extension Program in New from UCLA and has been recognized by Mexico. She has taught LMA classes the Association for Applied Physiopsy- internationally, and throughout the chology and Biofeedback for his contri- United States Hamburg’s work with butions to the development of applied athletes has been featured on national physiopathology and biofeedback. He television, including the program directs biofeedback centers in New York Science World. City and Princeton, New Jersey. Behavioral Vision Therapy Body-Mind Centering® Dr. Joseph Shapiro is a behavioral Vera Orlock is an assistant profes- optometrist with twenty-five years of sor of dance at Kansas State University experience. He is the director of the and has taught at Indiana University, Center for Unlimited Vision in New Bloomington, and the University of York City. He received his doctor of North Carolina, Charlotte. Her chore- optometry degree from the ography has been recognized by grants Massachusetts College of Optometry from the Ohio Arts Council and the and did his intern and residency pro- New York State Council on the Arts. gram in vision therapy at the She is on the faculty of the School for University Optometric Center, State Body-Mind Centering® and is also a College of Optometry, State University certified practitioner of structural inte- of New York. He has taught rehabilita- gration, the work of Ida P. Rolf. Orlock tive optometry at six major hospitals in is frequently a guest artist/teacher in the New York metropolitan area. He is Europe and the United States.viii
  • 8. Bodynamics Analysis Chiropractic Peter Bernhardt, MFCC, is director Dr. Trina Marx is a doctor of chiro-of the Clement Street Counseling Center practic with a degree in clinical nutri-Faculty at California Institute of Integral tion, also specializing in exerciseStudies in Somatics program, in San psychology and holistic treatments. InFrancisco, California, and a founding addition to her private practice, she ismember of the Bodynamics Institute, the chiropractor for the American TapUSA. He has led trainings and work- Dance Orchestra. Her volunteer workshops throughout the United States and includes providing chiropractic ser-Europe, has twenty years’ experience as vices for the Gay Men’s Health Crisisa body psychotherapist, and is in private and for children born with addictionspractice near Berkeley, California. and HIV. She has also written Body Almanac and Tap Dance.Bowen Technique Oswald H. Rentsch is the principal Connective Tissue TherapySMand founder of the Bowen Therapy Jackie Hand, M.A., is a certifiedAcademy of Australia, the official orga- Laban movement analyst (CMA) and anization of Bowtech®. From 1974 to 1976 registered movement therapist (RMT).he studied under Thomas A. Bowen, She is a movement consultant and awho commissioned Rentsch to docu- dance specialist, performing movementment and teach his original techniques. retraining and bodywork. On the facul-He has earned a diploma of osteopathy ty at the Laban/Bartenieff Institute offrom the South Pacific Council of Movement Studies, she integrates herNatural Therapies, an honorary doctor- years of dance training with her move-ate of massage therapy from the ment observation skills to educateAustralian Registrar of Massage clients in movement awareness andTherapists, and a diploma of homeopa- observation. She studied anatomy withthy ionization principles from the Irene Dowd and Connective TissueAustralian Academy of Homeopathy. Therapy™ with Theresa Lamb. She has aOswald Rentsch has twenty-two years holistic approach to movement andof experience with the Bowen technique bodywork and is nationally certified inand, together with his wife Elaine, has therapeutic massage and bodyworkspent ten years as a Bowtech teacher. (NCTMB).Brain Gym® Contact Improvisation Lark Carroll has been teaching Brain Paul Langland is a dancer, singer,Gym in the Bay Area since 1986. She choreographer, and teacher. A longtimecompleted certification in educational practitioner of contact and other improvi-kinesiology, neurolinguistic program- sational dance forms, he often presents hisming, acupressure massage, and own work, as well as performing withBowen Therapy. Additionally, she others. His work has been seen at Danceholds training in a variety of modali- Theater Workshop, PS 122, Franklinties, including CranioSacral therapy, Furnace, and Movement Research. SinceLiving VisionTM, meditation, Chinese 1983, he has been a core faculty member offive-element theory, and nutritional New York University’s Experimentalapproaches to health and balance. Theater Wing. ix
  • 9. Core Energetics myofascial therapy and CORE structur- Pamela L. Chubbuck, Ph.D., LPC, is al integrative therapy. Kousaleos also on the senior international teaching fac- served as the general manager of the ulty of the Core Energetic Institute in British Olympic Sports Massage New York City, where she is also director Therapy Team (1994–1996). of faculty development. Dr. Chubbuck Gary N. Genna, LMT, is the founder is the director of Core Energetics South and owner of the CORE Institute of and has worked personally and exten- Tennessee. A graduate of SUNY Cortland sively with John C. Pierrakos, M.D., for with a degree in biology and education, more than twenty-five years. Dr. Genna has been an advanced instructor Chubbuck is the author of Passages to for the CORE Institute since 1989. He has Womanhood: Stories of Celebration for presented at various state and interna- Young Women, and numerous articles tional conferences and spent more than on the core energetics process. three years working as a neuromuscular therapist at St. Anthony’s Hospital Sports coreSomatics® Medicine and Orthopedic Rehabilitation Kay Miller is certified in the Center in St. Petersburg, Florida. He has Rubenfeld synergy method and the been both a massage therapist and a mas- Feldenkrais Method® and received her sage educator for more than twenty-five gestalt training in the three-year post- years, highlighted as the head coach for graduate program at the Gestalt the British Olympic Sports Massage Institute of Cleveland. She has served Team in 1995 and 1996. as consultant, staff, and/or workshop leader for the Pennsylvania Department CranioSacral Therapy of Education, the University of Kenneth I. Frey, PT, is director of Pittsburgh, Carlow College, the the Institute of Physical Therapy, a pri- University of West Virginia, Long Island vate practice and clinical resource cen- University, the Gestalt Institute of ter in New York City. Cleveland, and the Western Psychiatric Institute. Dance Therapy Anne L. Wennerstrad is a CORE Structural Integrative Therapy dance/movement therapist, clinical George P. Kousaleos has been a social worker, and dance educator work- licensed massage therapist specializing ing in mental health and education. in structural integration and myofascial Currently she is coordinator of under- therapy since 1978. A graduate of graduate dance education at New York Harvard University and the SOMA University, where she teaches and advis- Institute of Neuromuscular Integration, es students. She has presented and writ- he has practiced and taught in Germany, ten on the arts in education and therapy. Greece, and throughout America. In Her clinical work focuses on creative 1990, he founded the CORE Institute mind/body approaches to helping peo- School of Massage Therapy of ple with eating problems, anxiety, Tallahassee, Florida, a state-licensed and depression, and chronic mental illness. A nationally accredited program. He former professional dancer, she is also on trains massage therapists in continuing the staff of Career Transition for Dancers, education certification courses in CORE a nonprofit counseling service.x
  • 10. Do-In Association (1984), the Organization John Kozinski has taught do-in, tra- Transformation Network (1985), theditional exercises, and healing through Massachusetts Association of Body-food and natural therapies throughout Oriented Psychotherapy and Counselingthe United States and in Asia and South Bodyworkers (1989), and the SomaticsAmerica. He offers seminars on do-in, Community of the Association fortraditional exercises, and the macrobi- Humanistic Psychology. In 1990 sheotic approach to health and healing at founded the Institute for Emotional-the Kushi Institute in Massachusetts, as Kinesthetic Psychotherapy. She has writ-well as in Connecticut and New York. ten a column on psychology for Spirit ofHe also has an active health counseling Change magazine for the past ten years.practice in which he recommends spe- She is the author of Living with Vision:cific traditional foods, remedies, and Reclaiming the Power of the Heart.natural lifestyle practices to foster heal-ing and general well-being. Enneagram Janet Levine is an author, educator,Drama Therapy and organizer. She is founder of Learning Professor Patricia Sternberg and The Enneagram, an educationalRDT/BCT (registered drama enterprise dedicated to spreading knowl-therapist/board certified trainer) is the edge of the enneagram system and itschairperson of the Board of Examiners of applications in education and relatedthe National Association for Drama fields. She has taught at Milton Academy,Therapy. She is a full professor of the Massachusetts, for ten years. She is direc-Department of Theater at Hunter College tor of the National Educators Institute forin New York and heads the developmen- Enneagram Studies at Milton Academy.tal drama program there. She is a play- She has presented her work on educationwright with more than twenty-five plays and the enneagram at national confer-produced and/or published and is the ences and many other of seven books, includingSociodrama: Who’s in Your Shoes? (with EurythmyAntonina Garcia). She is currently work- Beth Dunn-Fox was raised and edu-ing on her eighth, Theater for Conflict cated in northern California, where sheResolution. A well-known presenter and studied and performed ballet, charac-workshop leader, having presented both ter, and modern dance. A graduate ofnationally and internationally, Sternberg Eurythmy Spring Valley, she has touredis a practicing drama therapist and for throughout North America and Europethe past ten years has worked with a vari- with their professional ensemble forety of populations in both psychiatric twelve years. In addition to perform-and educational facilities. ing, she has also carried the finance and development work of Eurythmy SpringEmotional-Kinesthetic Psychotherapy Valley over a number of years. Linda Marks has practiced body-cen-tered psychotherapy with individuals, Eye Movement Desensitization andcouples, and groups for twelve years. She Reprocessinghas helped found and served on the Barbara A. Parrett, RN, M.S., is aBoard of the Interface Business nurse and psychotherapist who brings a xi
  • 11. holistic approach to her work with er and coordinator, she has been prac- individuals and organizations. She has ticing and teaching focusing for twenty been thoroughly trained in EMDR and years. teaches this discipline to other thera- pists on an international scale, where Hakomi Integrative Somatics she is in much demand as trainer and Pat Ogden, M.A., is a founding mem- educator. ber of the Hakomi Institute, serves on its trainers’ board, and is the originator and Feldenkrais Method® director of hakomi integrative somatics. Alan S. Questel is a founding mem- Trained in a wide variety of somatic ber of Delman/Questel Associates, approaches, she is a structural integrator Inc., and is a Feldenkrais practitioner. (Guild for Structural Integration) and serves on the faculty of Ergos Institute Feng Shui (founded by Peter Levine, specializing in Marilyn Saltzman is a feng shui prac- healing the effects of trauma) and the titioner. She studied feng shui with Naropa Institute. Nancy SantoPietro, a certified teacher trained by Master Lin Yun. In addi- Halprin Life Art Process tion, she has studied Transcendental Daria Halprin-Khalighi, M.A., CET, Meditation and reiki, and she is a cer- is the cofounder and director of the tified rebirther and hypnotherapist. Tampala Institute. She maintains a pri- Saltzman has given lectures and work- vate practice in Marin County and is a shops on feng shui throughout Virginia certified expressive arts therapist. She and Maryland. is the author of Coming Alive: The Creative Expression Method. Flower Remedies Leslie J. Kaslof is an internationally Hanna Somatic Education® recognized pioneer, researcher, writer, Eleanor Criswell Hanna, Ed.D., is and educator in the field of holistic professor of psychology and former health, preventative medicine, and nat- chair of the psychology department, ural approaches to stress reduction. He Sonoma State University, California. In has written numerous articles in profes- 1975, she cofounded, with Thomas sional and popular publications and has Hanna, the Novato Institute for Somatic written many other works, including Research and Training, Novato, Herb and Ailment Cross-Reference Chart, California. She trained in somatic edu- the pioneering book Wholistic Dimensions cation with Thomas Hanna in his 1981 in Healing, and The Traditional Flower Australian training program; she has Remedies of Dr. Edward Bach: A Self-Help worked closely with him in the develop- Guide. ment of the field of somatics over the years. She is currently serving as presi- Focusing dent of the Somatics Society and editor Joan Klagsbrun, Ph.D., is a clinical of Somatics. A licensed psychologist, she psychologist practicing focusing-ori- maintains a private practice in psy- ented psychotherapy in private prac- chotherapy, biofeedback, and somatic tice in Boston, Massachusetts. A college education. She is the author of professor and a certified focusing train- Biofeedback and Somatics.xii
  • 12. Herbal Medicine author of The Breathwork Experience: Mark Blumenthal is the founder Exploration and Healing in Nonordinaryand executive director of the States of Consciousness and The Ethics ofAmerican Botanical Council (ABC), a Caring: Honoring the Web of Life in Ourleading nonprofit research and educa- Professional Healing Relationships. Shetion organization in Austin, Texas. He has served as editor of the Inner Door,also edits the quarterly magazine the newsletter of the Association forHerbalGram. Holotropic Breathwork International.Holistic Health Hydrotherapy Suzan Walter, MBA, is cofounder Douglas C. Lewis, ND, is a naturo-and current president of the American pathic physician in Seattle, Washington.Holistic Health Association and pastpresident of the American Holistic HypnotherapyMedical Foundation. She is the creator Oscar A. Gillespie, Ph.D., is theand director of the Global Health Calendar president of NYSEPH, the New Yorkon the Internet at HealthWorld Online Milton H. Erickson Society for( She also facilitates Psychology and Hypnosis, and is onnetworking for speakers, practitioners, the faculty of its training program. Heand health care associations within this taught psychology at FordhamWeb site. University and currently is in private practice in New York City.Homeopathy, Osteopathy Domenick John Masiello, D.O., IdeokenesisDHt, CSPOMM, has been a solo, office- Andre Bernard teaches ideokenesis,based practitioner of traditional drawing upon his background in sci-osteopathy and classical homeopathy ence and the performing arts. He stud-in New York City since 1986. He was ied chemical engineering at thecertified with special proficiency in University of South Carolina, where heosteopathic manipulative medicine took his B.S. degree in chemistry andand is also certified in homeotherapeu- mathematics. Pursuing a professionaltics. He has written the foreword to acting career, he appeared in more thanOsteopathy: An Integrated Whole Body a hundred theatrical productions. HeTherapy and has been published in the also studied dance and toured exten-Journal of the American Institute of sively with the Charles Weidman DanceHomeopathy. Theater. He studied Mabel Elsworth Todd’s movement therapy techniques,Holotropic Breathwork™ the foundation of ideokenesis, with Kylea Taylor, M.S., is a certified Barbara Clark. He has been a memberHolotropic Breathwork™ practitioner of the faculty at New York University,and has been working in the field of teaching Todd’s work, since 1966.addiction recovery since 1970. She hasstudied with Christine and Stanislav Infant Massage TherapyGrof, M.D., Ph.D., since 1984 and is a Mindy Zlotnick has worked withmember of the teaching staff of Grof parents and their families as a teacherTranspersonal Training. She is the since 1975. She holds an M.A. in special xiii
  • 13. education and worked for many years 1982. He was a founding member of the with deaf children, communicating in Scientific Advisory Board of the sign language. She was trained in mas- Institute for the Advancement of sage in 1987 and began communicating Health. He has written numerous arti- through touch in her practice with adults. cles and publications and was a winner She became a certified infant massage of the American Health Book Award in instructor in 1989, combining her love for 1987. teaching and her love of massage. Her practice includes teaching parents with Iyengar Yoga healthy babies as well as parents with Janet MacLeod teaches yoga full- babies who are medically fragile or have time, offering ongoing classes in San developmental delays. Francisco and teaching workshops around the country. She is on the faculty Integral Yoga of the Iyengar Yoga Institute of San Reverend Kumari de Sachy, Ed.D., Francisco teacher training program. She has been a student of Swami is a certified teacher at the intermediate Satchidananda since 1980. In 1981, she level and continues to study in Pune with became an integral yoga instructor and the Iyengar family on a regular basis. proceeded to teach at integral yoga insti- tutes, colleges, universities, and prisons. Jin Shin Do® Bodymind AcupressureTM In 1994, she was ordained as an integral Iona Marsaa Teeguarden, M.A., is yoga minister. For the past ten years, she the originator of Jin Shin Do® Bodymind and her husband have been living and AcupressureTM. She founded the Jin Shin serving as whole-time members at Do Foundation and began offering JSD Satchidananda Ashram–Yogaville with teacher training programs. She has writ- the spiritual master Sri Swami ten several books and articles on the Satchidananda. At Yogaville, she has practice of JSD. taught English and French, in addition to serving as director of the Yogaville Jin Shin Jyutsu® Physio-Philosophy Summer Program for Children and Ian Kraut is a practitioner of Jin Teens. She is also the editor of Integral Shin Jyutsu and a licensed massage Yoga Publications, which publishes therapist. He is a member of the staff at Swami Satchidananda’s books and the Jin Shin Jyutsu, Inc., in Scarsdale, quarterly magazine Integral Yoga. Arizona. He has a B.A. in music from SUNY Binghamton and has studied Interactive Guided Imagery Andean music in South America. Martin Rossman, M.D., is a 1969 graduate of the University of Michigan Journal Therapy Medical School and is board certified in Kathleen Adams, M.A., LPC, is a acupuncture. He is the founder and licensed psychotherapist and the director of the Collaborative Medicine founder/director of the Center for Center in Mill Valley, California. As the Journal Therapy in Denver, Colorado, codirector of the Academy for Guided an organization dedicated to teaching Imagery in Mill Valley, he has taught the healing art of journal writing to clinical guided imagery to more than individuals, groups, and mental health 9,000 health care professionals since professionals. She has specialized inxiv
  • 14. journal therapy since 1985 and is one the author of numerous articles on theof the pioneers in the field. She is the KMP. She has given intensive courses onauthor of three books on the use of this material in Germany and Italy. She isjournal writing as a therapeutic tool. the coeditor of a textbook on the KMP published in 1997.Ju Jutsu, Karate Janet Kestenberg Amighi is an Stefan Nikander is a certified karate anthropologist who has done fieldworkand ju jutsu instructor. Having taught in Iran and Bali. She is the author ofsoccer to children since the age of fif- Zoroastrians in Iran: Assimilation,teen, he became certified as a soccer Conversion and Persistence. She coteachestrainer in 1983. He is also a certified a course on the KMP with Susan Lomannursery school teacher and has worked and is coeditor of a textbook on the KMP.professionally at schools and play cen-ters since 1990. He is the vice chairman Kinetic Awarenessof the children’s committee of the Ellen Saltonstall, M.A., MCKA, is aSwedish Budo Federation, a martial certified master teacher of kineticarts organization. His writing has awareness, a licensed massage thera-appeared in various martial arts maga- pist, and a teacher and practitioner ofzines in several countries, and he has hatha yoga. She has taught at the Newwritten columns for Scandinavian School, Columbia University, and Bardnewspapers on the subject of martial College and is currently is on the staffarts as a means to stop violence. He is of the Mind/Body Medical Institute ofcurrently training to become a personal St. Peters Hospital in New Brunswick,trainer and massage therapist. New Jersey. J. Robin Powell, Ph.D., CSW, MCKA,Kendo is a certified master teacher of kinetic Daniel T. Ebihara is the chairman of awareness and teaches at New YorkKen Zen Institute Ltd. and a member of University and other institutions, as wellthe board of directors of All United as privately. She is a founding boardStates Kendo Federation. He has written member of the Kinetic Awareness Center,several articles about the martial arts for Inc., and teaches in the teacher trainingvarious periodicals and is an advanced program.student of karate, kendo, and judo. Michelle Berne, M.A., MCKA, Bruce Robertson Smith is a first- introduced the first university course indegree black belt in kendo, having stud- body/mind therapies while on the fac-ied martial arts in Japan with the Budo ulty of New York University, where shemaster Fushi Sensei. He has trained taught for twelve years. As a profes-extensively in bodywork and structural sional dancer and choreographer inintegration and has done shamanic jour- New York, she presented original workneywork. with her own company and performed with others. She is a certified masterKestenberg Movement Profile teacher of kinetic awareness and cur- Susan Loman is the director of a mas- rently teaches kinetic awareness, neu-ter’s program in dance/movement ther- romuscular reeducation, and alignmentapy at Antioch New England Graduate in Los Angeles, California. She is also aSchool in Keene, New Hampshire, and celebration artist who choreographs xv
  • 15. and produces large-scale community Magnet Therapy art events for cities and nonprofit orga- Dr. John Zimmerman earned his nizations across the country. Ph.D. in biological psychology and neurosciences at the University of Kung-Fu Wu Su Colorado at Boulder in 1981. He is a Oswald Rivera is a senior instructor member of the American Sleep at Alan Lee’s Chinese Kung-Fu Wu-Su Disorders Association and the North Association. He has practiced Shaolin American Academy of Magnetic style kung-fu for twenty-four years. He Therapy. Currently he serves as the is also the author of the novel Fire and laboratory director of the Washoe Rain and the cookbook Puerto Rican Sleep Disorders Center in Reno. Dr. Cuisine in America. Zimmerman is also the founder and president of the nonprofit organiza- Laban Movement Analysis tion called the Bio-Electro-Magnetics Ed Groff, M.F.A., CMA, is currently Institute (BEMI), which researches and director of graduate studies in the provides resources on magnet therapy. department of modern dance at the University of Utah. He has served on Martial Arts the faculties of Temple University, Michael Maliszewski received his Hampshire College, Connecticut Ph.D. in psychology from the College, Tufts University, and University of Chicago. He has held a Evergreen State College. He has taught number of positions at the University in the certification programs in Laban of Chicago and has conducted Movement Analysis at schools and insti- research and published in a variety of tutions in New York, Seattle, Salt Lake areas ranging from medicine to reli- City, Columbus, Rotterdam, and Berlin. gious studies. He is currently a consul- His choreography has been presented in tant in psychiatry at Massachusetts the United States, Europe, and Asia. General Hospital and lecturer at Harvard Medical School. He has been Light Therapy involved in the study of martial arts Dr. Brian J. Breiling is a licensed mar- and meditative traditions since 1970 riage, family, and child counselor and and has studied throughout the school psychologist. He is the co-editor United States and Asia. Included and publisher of Light Years Ahead: The among his publications in the martial Illustrated Guide to Full Spectrum and arts are the book Spiritual Dimensions Colored Light in Mindbody Healing. He is of the Martial Arts, as well as articles also the author of three chapters in this that have appeared in the Journal of book on the professional and self-care Asian Martial Arts, where he also applications of light therapy. For the last serves as an associate editor. ten years, he successfully used flashing colored light stimulation through the Massage eyes to aid his clients in uncovering and Katie Scoville is a New York State- working through emotional traumas, licensed massage therapist who prac- depression, and pain, as well as to tices Swedish massage, shiatsu, med- enhance learning and intellectual perfor- ical massage, and pregnancy massage. mance in adults and children. She has a private practice inxvi
  • 16. Manhattan, Studio of Massage Arts Meditation(SOMA), and also works with physical Eugene Taylor, Ph.D., is a lecturertherapists. She is a shiatsu and clinic on psychiatry, Harvard Medical School;instructor at the Swedish Institute of executive faculty, Saybrook Institute;Massage Therapy and Allied Health and director of the Cambridge InstituteSciences in New York City and a mem- of Psychology and Religion.ber of the American Massage Therapy Marilyn Schlitz, Ph.D., is a socialAssociation. Katie holds a B.F.A. in anthropologist and director of researchdance and brings to her practice more at the Institute of Noetic Sciences inthan fifteen years of dance training Sausalito, California.and professional dance experience. Meir Schneider Self-Healing MethodMedical Orgone Therapy Carol Gallup works at the Center Dr. Peter Crist received his M.D. for Self-Healing in San Francisco,from the UCLA School of Medicine in California.1977. Dr. Crist is a fellow of theAmerican College of Orgonomy and Movement Pattern Analysishas been its president since 1991. As a Warren Lamb developed movementmember of the ACO training faculty, pattern analysis with Rudolf Laban. Inhe has been training medical orgono- 1950 Lamb joined Paton Lawrence & Co.,mists since 1982. He has authored clin- management consultants, to apply theical and theoretical articles as well as newly developed assessment reviews and is an assistant editor He has been a professional dancer, a pro-of the Journal of Orgonomy. Dr. Crist is ducer of plays, and a lecturer in thealso assistant clinical professor, United Kingdom and United States. InDepartment of Psychiatry, UMDNJ- 1952 he founded his own consultancyRobert Wood Johnson School of firm to use movement pattern analysisMedicine, New Brunswick, New for top management teams worldwide.Jersey. He has a private practice in His publications include Posture andBelle Mead, New Jersey. Gesture, Management Behavior, Body Code, Dr. Richard Schwartzman, D.O., and more than 100 journal articles.graduated from the PhiladelphiaCollege of Osteopathic Medicine in Multi-Modal Expressive Arts Therapy1966. He is a member of the faculty of Susan Spaniol, Ed.D., ATR-BC,Hahnemann University, an assistant LMHC, is assistant professor in theclinical professor of psychiatry, and Expressive Therapies Division ofmedical director of the Hahnemann Lesley College. She received her Ed.D.University Correctional Mental Health at Boston University and is a board-cer-Program. He is a fellow of the tified art therapist and a licensed men-American College of Orgonomy, tal health counselor. She serves aswhere he conducts the advanced train- associate editor of Art Therapy: Journaling seminar. He is an assistant editor of the American Art Therapy Associationand contributing author of the Journal and is an associate in psychiatry atof Orgonomy. Dr. Schwartzman main- Harvard Medical School.tains a private practice in medical Phillip Speiser, Ph.D., REAT, RDT, isorgone therapy in Philadelphia. director of Arts Across Cultures, Boston. xvii
  • 17. Speiser is a psychodrama, drama, and work in music therapy has included expressive arts educator/therapist who child psychology, group therapy, and has been developing and implementing private practice. She studied musicolo- integrated arts programs since 1980. He gy and anthropology at the Hebrew is an adjunct professor at Lesley College University of Jerusalem, and classical in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and has guitar in Israel and London. She holds taught and lectured extensively at train- a master’s degree in musicology from ing institutes and colleges throughout Bar Ilan University and teaches at the Scandinavia, Europe, Israel, and the Institute for Art Therapy of David United States. He is the former chairper- Yellin College in Jerusalem and at the son of Very Special Arts, Sweden, and Department of Music Therapy of Bar the International Expressive Arts Ilan University. Therapy Association. Mariagnese Cattaneo, Ph.D., ATR, Myofascial Trigger Point Therapy LMHC, is a professor in the Expressive Elliot Shratter has been practicing Therapies Division at Lesley College, trigger point myotherapy since 1987. He Cambridge, Massachusetts. She is an is board certified by the National expressive therapist and has trained Association of Trigger Point Myo- expressive therapists for more than therapists Certification Board and the twenty-five years. Presently she is the American Academy of Pain Manage- coordinator of art therapy specializa- ment. He has served as president and tion and director of field training. journal editor of the National Association of Trigger Point Myotherapists and chair- Muscular Therapy person of the Trigger Point Myo- Ben E. Benjamin holds a Ph.D. in therapists National Certification Board. sports medicine and education and is He is currently in practice in the founder and president of the Albuquerque, New Mexico, at Synergy Muscular Therapy Institute in Physical Therapy. Cambridge, Massachusetts. He is the author of the widely used books in the Naturopathic Medicine field: Are You Tense?—The Benjamin Lauri M. Aesoph, ND, a graduate of System of Muscular Therapy, Sports Bastyr University, is a medical writer, Without Pain, and Listen to Your Pain— editor, and educator. Over the past ten Understanding, Identifying, and Treating years, Dr. Aesoph’s work has appeared Pain. He has been a regular contributor in dozens of magazines and numerous to the Muscular Therapy Journal since books. She makes her home in Sioux 1986. He has been in private practice Falls, South Dakota, with her husband for more than thirty-five years and has and two sons. been teaching massage therapists in workshops internationally since 1973. Network Chiropractic Mary Ann diRoberts, LICSW, CMT, Donald Epstein, DCA, is a chiro- is on the faculty of the Muscular Therapy practor and developer of network Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts. spinal analysis. He is the president of the Association for Network Music Therapy Chiropractic. He is also the author of Adva Frank-Schwebel has been a several articles on the practice of this music therapist for fifteen years. Her discipline.xviii
  • 18. Organismic Psychotherapy the author of Movement in Psychotherapy Elliot Greene, M.A., is a counselor (1969) and Experience in Action (1973)who has specialized in body psy- and coeditor with John Crandell ofchotherapy for the past twenty-four Moving Psychotherapy: Theory andyears. His principal training has been in Applications of Pesso Boyden System/organismic body psychotherapy with Psychomotor Psychology (1991).Dr. Malcolm Brown and KatherineEnnis-Brown. He is also trained in Pilates Method of Body Conditioning®bioenergetics, gestalt, and other related Leah Chaback, director of thebody-oriented methods. In addition, he Movement Center, is a certified Pilatesis nationally certified as a massage ther- instructor and teacher-trainer. Sheapist and served as president of the began studying the Pilates Method inAmerican Massage Therapy Association 1986 at SUNY Purchase, New York.from 1990 to 1994. He has a private prac- Ms. Chaback has trained and workedtice in Silver Springs, Maryland. extensively with Romana Kryzanowska, disciple of Joseph Pilates and masterOrthomolecular Medicine teacher of his method for more than California freelance writer Martin fifty years. After teaching the PilatesZucker has been writing for many Method in New York City studios, sheyears about health, nutrition, and pre- opened the Movement Center in 1990.ventive medicine. He is a formerAssociated Press foreign correspon- Poetry Therapydent. He has written numerous pub- Nicholas Mazza, Ph.D., is a profes-lished articles, coauthored five books, sor at the School of Social Work atghostwritten several others, and writ- Florida State University. He is also edi-ten many safety and environmental tor of the Journal of Poetry Therapy. Hevideos for the National Safety Council has lectured and published extensivelyand other organizations. He has been a on the use of poetry and music in clini-contributing editor to Let’s Live, a lead- cal health magazine, since 1978.Pesso Boyden System Psychomotor Polarity Therapy Albert Pesso cofounded Pesso John Beaulieu, ND, Ph.D., is theBoyden system psychomotor (PBSP) author of the Polarity Therapy Workbookpsychotherapy with his life partner, (1994).Diane Boyden Pesso, in 1961. He ispresident of the Psychomotor Institute, Process Oriented PsychologyInc., Boston, Massachusetts, a nonprof- Dr. Joseph Goodbread is a long-it organization that promotes PBSP time student and colleague of Arnoldinternationally. He has been supervisor Mindell. He is a cofounder of theof psychomotor therapy at the McLean Research Society for Process OrientedHospital in Belmont, Massachusetts; Psychology in Zurich, of the Processconsultant in psychiatric research at the Work Center of Portland, Oregon, andBoston Veterans Administration Hospital; of the Global Process Institute inand director of psychomotor therapy at Portland. He is the author of Thethe Pain Unit of the New England Dreambody Toolkit: A PracticalRehabilitation Hospital. Albert Pesso is Introduction to the Philosophy, Goals and xix
  • 19. Practice of Process Oriented Psychology Colorado Rocky Mountains, is an and Radical Intercourse: How Inevitable internationally renowned China schol- Relationships Are Created by Dreaming, a ar, qigong master, and health educator. book on the dynamics of therapeutic He has been teaching qigong for more relationships. He practices and teaches than twenty-five years and is helping process work in Portland and through- to build a bridge between qigong and out the world. medical science. He was one of nine “exceptional healers” studied in the Psychodrama Menninger Clinic’s Copper Wall Adam Blatner, M.D., is the author Project, where he demonstrated unusu- of several books and articles on the al physiological control while practic- practice of psychodrama. ing qigong. Cohen has written more than 150 articles and is the author of Psychoneuroimmunology The Way of Qigong. Leonard A. Wisneski, M.D., is a physician, board certified in internal Radix medicine and in endocrinology and Erica Kelley has shared the growth metabolism; he is also certified in of Radix since its inception in the late six- acupuncture and homeopathy, which ties, including its teaching, training, he has incorporated into his practice. facilities, and administration in the Dr. Wisneski is a member of the board United States and Europe. She maintains of directors of the Integral Health a part-time practice in Vancouver and Foundation. administers Kelley/Radix and K/R Leonard Sherp is a medical writer Publications. and reiki practitioner. Mr. Sherp is pro- gram director of the Integral Health Rebirthing Foundation. Maureen Malone is the director of the New York Rebirthing Center. Psychosynthesis Tony Lo Mastro is the director of Richard Schaub, Ph.D., cofounded the Philadelphia Rebirthing Center. the New York Psychosynthesis Institute with Bonney Gulino Schaub, M.S., RN, Reflexology CS. They have worked in every phase of Laura Norman is a certified reflex- mental health, alcohol and drug rehabili- ologist and New York State-licensed tation, and health care in careers that massage practitioner. She is also span thirty years. They teach internation- author of Feet First: A Guide to Foot ally in the fields of psychotherapy, recov- Reflexology. With a B.S. from Boston ery, higher self-education, clinical University and three master’s degrees imagery, and contemplation. They have from Adelphi University, she original- published numerous professional arti- ly embarked on a career in education. cles, are associate editors of Alternative She discovered the potency of reflexol- Health Practitioner, and are the authors of ogy when she used it in her early work Healing Addictions. with hyperactive and emotionally dysfunctional children at Maimonides Qigong Institute in Brooklyn. She established Kenneth S. Cohen, M.A., director the Laura Norman Method Reflexology of the Taoist Mountain Retreat in the Training Center in New York, offeringxx
  • 20. a comprehensive training and certifi- Structural Therapy Institute, where hecation program. teaches bodywork problem-solving courses to health professionals. He isReiki also trained in the hakomi method of Elaine J. Abrams is a reiki master body-centered psychotherapy and ininstructor. In private practice in New CranioSacral therapy.York City since 1987, she brings her exten-sive experience with more than 800 ROM Danceclients and knowledge as a reiki instruc- Patricia Yu, M.A., co-creator of thetor to her workshops. As founder of the ROM dance, is the director of the T’ai-Reiki Group, she provides a continuing Chi Center in Madison, Wisconsin. Shesupport system for her practitioners. originally learned t’ai chi ch’üan and tao kung meditation in 1970 with Master LiuRelaxation Response Technique Pei Ch’ung in the Republic of China. She Richard Friedman, Ph.D., was a continues to practice daily.Professor of Psychiatry at the StateUniversity of New York, Stonybrook. Rosen Method Herbert Benson, M.D., is the Ivy Green is a professor of psychol-Mind/Body Medical Institute ogy, a certified Rosen method practi-Associate Professor of Medicine, tioner, a certified teacher of theHarvard Medical School; Chief of the Alexander technique, and a licensedDivision of Behavioral Medicine at the massage therapist. Her book on theBeth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; Rosen method, a psychospiritual body-and the founding president of the Mind work, was published in 1998./Body Medical Institute. A graduate ofWesleyan University and the Harvard Rubenfeld Synergy MethodMedical School, he is the author or co- Ilana Rubenfeld, a pioneer in inte-author of more than 150 scientific pub- grating bodywork with psychotherapy,lications and six books. has been an influential healer for the Patricia Myers is a research associate past thirty-five years. She originatedat the Mind/Body Medical Institute at the Rubenfeld synergy method in thethe Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital, early 1960s and started its professionalHarvard Medical School. Her areas of training program in 1977. Formerly oninterest include the economics of behav- the faculties of the NYU Graduateioral medicine and the use of behavioral School of Social Work and New Schoolinterventions in the treatment of pain. for Social Research, she currently teach- es at the Omega and Esalen InstitutesRolfing® and the Open Center. Allan Davidson was trained by IdaRolf in Big Sur and San Francisco, Sandplay TherapyCalifornia, in 1973-75. He has been Lois Carey, MSW, BCDSW, is aRolfing® and lecturing, teaching and practitioner of sandplay therapy.writing about Rolfing ever since. In the1980s, he cofounded the Chicago Sensory AwarenessSchool for Advanced Bodywork, a pio- Mary Alice Roche was cofounderneering clinic and forum for new ideas with Charlotte Selver of the Sensoryand technologies. He now codirects the Awareness Foundation. She served as xxi
  • 21. managing secretary until she retired in B.A. from Bennington College and an 1988 but continued as bulletin editor M.A. from the University of Illinois. and archivist. She has a private practice She is Professor Emeritus at the and is a member of the Sensory University of Washington and a mem- Awareness Leaders Guild. ber of the Martha Graham and Merce Cunningham Dance Companies. Shamanism Hal Zina Bennett, Ph.D., is a long- Soma Neuromuscular Integration time student of shamanism. He is also Marcia W. Nolte, LMP, has a back- the author of twenty-five books, ground in movement studies ranging including ones on health (The Well Body from performance dance, as a profession- Book, with Mike Samuels, M.D.), psy- al ballet and modern dancer and teacher, chology (The Holotropic Mind, with Stan to a variety of therapeutic modalities of Grof, M.D.), and Native American spir- movement. She has been in private prac- ituality (Zuni Fetishes). He is an adjunct tice of soma bodywork since 1979 and faculty member at the Institute of continues to explore with her clients the Transpersonal Psychology, a private use of movement as medicine. graduate school in Palo Alto, Karen L. Bolesky, M.A., CMHC, California. He is a frequent contributor LMP, has been a mental health coun- to Shaman’s Drum magazine and Sacred selor since 1972 and a soma practition- Hoop, published in England. er since 1985. Karen trained with Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, M.D., and SHEN® Gregg Furth, Ph.D., in interpretation of Richard Pavek is director of the spontaneous drawings as an aid to the SHEN Therapy Institute. It provides creative process. information regarding SHEN research, development, and certification proce- Somato-Respiratory Integration dures. Donald Epstein is a chiropractor and developer of network spinal Shiatsu Massage, Therapeutic Touch analysis. He is the president of the Thomas Claire is a licensed massage Association for Network Chiropractic. therapist and author of the authoritative He is also the author of several articles book Bodywork: What Type of Massage to on the practice of this discipline. Get—and How to Make the Most of It. A graduate of the Swedish and Ohashi Sounding Institutes, he is a reiki master and a Don Campbell is an internationally practitioner of Swedish massage, shiat- renowned expert in music, sound, su, CranioSacral therapy, myofascial health, and learning. In 1988, he found- release, and therapeutic touch. His ed the Institute for Music, Health, and work has been featured in numerous Education in Boulder, Colorado, and publications, and he is a frequent guest served as executive director until 1995. on radio and television. He has written several books on the relationship between music, health, Skinner Release Technique and education and travels extensively Joan Skinner is the originator of the teaching musicians, teachers, physi- Skinner release technique. She earned a cians, therapists, and trainers. Presently,xxii
  • 22. Mr. Campbell directs year-long study dancer, lecturer, and writer. She is cred-programs on the therapeutic and trans- ited as being the first Westerner toformational uses of sound and music. bring the martial art to the United States. She was the 1996 recipient of the Chinese Martial Arts Association’sSpatial DynamicsSM Lifetime Achievement Award. She Jaimen McMillan is the originator of died on June 27, 1996.Spatial Dynamics. He has trained hun-dreds of students as movement special-ists and has worked with a broad Tomatis Methodspectrum of clients ranging from Dr. Billie Thompson, founder andOlympic athletes to severely handi- director of Sound Listening & Learningcapped children. He is the director of Centers in Phoenix, Arizona, andthe Spatial Studies Institute, Inc., as well Pasadena, California, received her the Spatial Dynamics Institute. from Arizona State University in 1979. Dr. Thompson was one of the pioneers who brought the Tomatis method to theSwedish Massage United States. She edited the EnglishJanie McGee is a licensed massage thera- translations of Tomatis’s autobiography,pist with a private practice in New York The Conscious Ear, and his first book, TheCity for fifteen years. She is also a Ear and Language. She established thelicensed staff physical therapist in a geri- Phoenix Center in 1987 to provide bothatric facility. She studied physical therapy corrective and accelerated learningat Long Island University and premed- opportunities for individuals, corpora-ical studies at Hunter College. tions, and other organizations.Tae-Kwon-Do Traditional Chinese Medicine Mark V. Wiley, an internationally Cindy Banker is a certified instructorrenowned martial arts master and schol- and practitioner of Oriental bodyworkar, has been involved in the martial arts therapy. She began her shiatsu trainingfor twenty years. He has written the best- with Shizuko Yamamoto in 1976 andselling books Filipino Martial Arts: Cabales now uses both five-element shiatsu andSerrada Escrima and Filipino Martial Chinese herbal medicine in her privateCulture and is the author of more than practice. She is currently the Nationalfifty articles on the martial arts which Director of Education for the Americanhave appeared in leading martial arts Oriental Bodywork Therapymagazines and journals. He currently Association. She is an active member ofserves as martial arts editor for the the National Certification CommissionCharles E. Tuttle Publishing Company for Acupuncture and Oriental medi-and associate editor for the Journal of cine‘s task force, which is developingAsian Martial Arts. He is the cofounder of the first national certification exam fortalahib-marga, a contemporary, cross-cul- oriental bodywork therapy. She hastural, martial-meditative discipline. been teaching shiatsu in complete train- ing programs since 1983 and currentlyT’ai Chi Ch’üan owns and teaches at the New England Sophia Delza was the first western Center for Oriental Bodywork inwoman master of t’ai chi ch’üan, Brookline, Massachusetts. xxiii
  • 23. Trager Psychophysical Integration anatomy coloring book published by Deane Juhan has been on staff at the Swedish Institute. She maintains a Esalen Institute since 1973 and a Trager private practice in Eastern bodywork, practitioner there since 1978. He lec- specializing in shiatsu, tui na, and tures on anatomy and physiology for nuad bo ran. bodyworkers and has recently pub- lished a major work on that subject, Unergi Job’s Body: A Handbook for Bodywork. Ute Arnold is an artist and thera- Deane is also an instructor at the Trager pist in private practice and is the Institute. director of the UNERGI Center. She is a certified Rubenfeld synergy practi- Transcendental Meditation tioner and trainer and holds degrees Robert Roth is the author of the in art and design from Schaeffer popular book Transcendental Meditation, School of Design, San Francisco, and which has now been translated into ten Chelsea School of Art, London. She languages. Roth has lectured and has been leading workshops and taught TM for more than twenty-five trainings since 1978 for centers in years to tens of thousands of people in Scandinavia, France, Canada, and the the United States, Canada, and United States. throughout Europe. He is a senior advi- sor to the Maharishi Corporate Wellness Development Program, the nonprofit Brian Luke Seaward, Ph.D., is a fac- organization that teaches the TM pro- ulty member of the University of gram in business and industry, as well Colorado. He is recognized internation- as a founder of the Institute for Fitness ally as a leading expert in the fields of and Athletic Excellence, which offers stress management, mind-body-spirit the technique to amateur and profes- healing, and human spirituality. Dr. sional athletes. Seaward is the author of the critically acclaimed collegiate textbook Managing Tui Na Stress: Principles and Strategies for Health Gina Martin is a licensed massage and Wellbeing and the popular best- therapist and chair of the Eastern seller, Stand like Mountain, Flow like Studies Department of the Swedish Water: Reflections on Stress and Human Institute School of Massage Therapy. Spirituality. She was chair of the New York State Board of Massage Therapy from 1994 Yoga to 1998 and is a current board member. Lillo (Leela) Way is certified by the Ms. Martin is recognized by the Integral Yoga Institute to teach hatha American Oriental Bodywork yoga asana (poses), prenatal yoga, Therapy Association as a certified panayama (breathing practices), deep instructor in fine element style shiatsu. relaxation, chanting, and meditation. She has been featured in the magazine She is an actor and dancer and has been First for Women and is a contributing the director of her own dance company. author to the Reader’s Digest Family Way taught at New York University for Guide to Natural Medicine. Her book seven years. She also taught at Hunter The Shiatsu Workbook is an Eastern College and was a visiting professor atxxiv
  • 24. Princeton University. In addition to herprivate practice, she is currently on thefaculty of the Integral Yoga Institute andthe Soho Sanctuary in New York.Zero Balancing® Originator of Zero Balancing®, Dr.Fritz Smith has taught body energywork to hundreds of health care practi-tioners since 1973. He is an OsteopathicM.D., acupuncturist, and teacher. Dr.Smith is a pioneer in the blending ofEastern energy systems with Westernscience and bodywork. He is the authorof Inner Bridges: A Guide to EnergyMovement and Body Structure.Staff CreditsEditors: Margaret Haerens, Michael Isaac, Jane Kelly Kosek, Christine SloveyPhoto Researcher: Vera AhmadzadehBook Designer: Olga M. VegaProduction Designer: Christine Innamorato xxv
  • 25. Table of Contents Introduction xxvi I. Alternative Health Models 1 Ayurvedic Medicine 5 Holistic Health 7 Homeopathy 10 Naturopathic Medicine 15 Shamanism 18 Traditional Chinese Medicine 23 Wellness 29 II. Skeletal Manipulation Methods 33 Chiropractic 37 CranioSacral Therapy 40 Network Chiropractic 43 Osteopathy 45 Zero Balancing® 50 III. Nutritional and Dietary Practices 53 Herbal Medicine 57 Orthomolecular Medicine 60 IV. Mind/Body Medicine 64 Biofeedback Training 68 Guided Imagery 71 Hypnotherapy 73 Interactive Guided Imagery 77 Psychoneuroimmunology 78 V. Sensory Therapies 82 Aromatherapy 86 Bates Method 88 Behavioral Vision Therapy 90 Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing 94 Flower Remedies 96 Hydrotherapy 99 Light Therapy 103 Sounding 109 Tomatis Method 111 .xxvi
  • 26. VI. Subtle Energy Practices 115 Do-In 118 Feng Shui 119 Magnet Therapy 124 Polarity Therapy 126 Qigong 129 Reiki 133 SHEN® 137 Therapeutic Touch 139VII. Massage 142 Bowen Technique 148 Connective Tissue TherapySM 150 CORE Structural Integrative Therapy 152 Infant Massage 153 Muscular Therapy 157 Myofascial Release 158 Myofascial Trigger Point Therapy 160 Reflexology 163 Rolfing® 165 Rosen Method 168 St. John Method of Neuromuscular Therapy 172 Swedish Massage 174VIII. Acupuncture and Asian Bodywork 177 Acupressure 180 Acupuncture 183 Jin Shin Do® Bodymind AcupressureTM 187 Jin Shin Jyutsu® Physio-Philosophy 191 Process Acupressure 192 Shiatsu 194 Tui Na 197IX. Movement Therapy Methods 200 Alexander Technique 204 Aston-Patterning® 207 Bartenieff FundamentalsSM 210 Body-Mind Centering® 212 Feldenkrais Method® 215 Hanna Somatic EducationTM 218 Hellerwork 222 Ideokinesis 224 Kinetic Awareness 226 Meir Schneider Self-Healing Method 228 Sensory Awareness 231 xxvii
  • 27. Soma Neuromuscular Integration 235 Somato Respiratory Integration 238 Trager Psychophysical Integration 239 X. Somatic Practices 244 Brain Gym ® 247 Contact Improvisation 249 Continuum 252 Eurythmy 254 Gurdjieff Movements 256 Pilates Method of Body ConditioningTM 260 ROM Dance 263 Skinner Releasing Technique 265 Spatial DynamicsSM 268 Tai Chi Chüan 270 XI. Martial Arts 274 Aikido 278 Capoeira 280 Ju-Jutsu 283 Judo 286 Karate 289 Kendo 293 Kung Fu Wu Su 297 Taekwondo 301 XII. Yoga 305 Integral Yoga 313 Iyengar Yoga 314 Kripalu Yoga 315 XIII. Meditation 317 Relaxation Response 322 Transcendental Meditation 324 XIV. Psycho-Physical Evaluation Frameworks 327 Enneagram 329 Kestenberg Movement Profile 332 Laban Movement Analysis 335 Movement Pattern Analysis 338 XV. Expressive and Creative Arts Therapies 341 Art Therapy 347xxviii
  • 28. Authentic Movement 350 Dance Therapy 352 Drama Therapy 356 Halprin Life/Art Process 359 Journal Therapy 361 Multi-Modal Expressive Arts Therapy 363 Music Therapy 366 Poetry Therapy 370 Sandplay Therapy 374XVI. Body-Oriented Psychotherapies 378 Bioenergetics 382 Bodynamic Analysis 385 Core Energetics 387 coreSomatics® 391 Emotional-Kinesthetic Psychotherapy 392 Focusing 394 Gestalt Therapy 397 Hakomi Integrative Somatics 399 Holotropic BreathworkTM 402 Medical Orgone Therapy 405 Organismic Body Psychotherapy 409 Pesso Boyden System Psychomotor 411 Process Oriented Psychology 415 Psychodrama 416 Psychosynthesis 419 Radix 421 Rebirthing 422 Rubenfeld Synergy Method 425 Unergi 428 xxix
  • 29. Introduction Body-mind is a term often seen in print and heard in conversation today. It is used frequently both in private discussions about disease and healing and in public forums on health care, where the value of alternative or complementary medicine is gaining recognition. Today, many educators are developing new methods that use the body-mind connection to help children learn how to live productive and creative lives in today’s complex technological society. The phrase body-mind resonates through the halls of gymnasiums, physical conditioning studios, and in self-defense classes. It echoes in theaters, dance studios, and music practice rooms. What exactly is this concept that is exciting so many people and changing the way we heal, learn, work, and play? Body-mind is a way of seeing and understanding the human organism. To see a human being in terms of body-mind is to see him or her as a totality wherein his or her physical, psychological, and spiritual aspects are all interrelated and reflective of one another. In other words, the body is not simply the material receptacle of the mind or spirit, it is the medium through which we experience, each in a unique and individual way, the unfolding, transforming nature of spirit itself. From this perspective, the functioning of the body influences the functioning of the mind and the emotions. In a like manner, thoughts and feelings have a profound and direct effect on the body. On a deeper level, many body-mind models believe that the physical, emotional, and mental aspects of human experience are a reflection of and inextricably linked to an all-pervasive spiritual essence. In different cultures and in different times, this spiritual essence has had many names: Atman, the Tao, God, energy, the force. A body-mind discipline is an organized program of activity that seeks to awaken and activate the links between body, mind, and spirit. The practice of a body-mind discipline may involve a variety of activities, all of which aim to incorporate the physical body with the sensing, feeling, thinking, and/or intuiting faculties of the mind. Through the practice of a body-mind discipline, one develops awareness of physical sensations and mental and emotional processes. This awareness can be the basis of healing and improved health, greater efficiency and expressiveness in one’s activities, more rewarding relationships and interactions, and a deeper, clearer sense of purpose in one’s life. The practice of body-mind disciplines is ancient. We have evidence that some, such as yoga and various forms of touch therapy, were widespread even well before written treatises were available. The ancient disciplines were based on one of the earliest and most perseverant of human desires—to live a long, meaningful, and healthy life. For most of human history this meant living in a state of balance and harmony, both within oneself and within one’s environment. The body-mind disciplines that evolved in all cultures addressed, each in their own particular way, the many ele- ments that create and maintain this balance and harmony. Western culture, with its roots in the civilizations of the Fertile Crescent and Ancient Greece, once shared this same value for balance and harmony. For example, the Greek physician Hippocrates understood the importance of balance and believed his patients’ health could be affected by many factors. He believed it was morexxx
  • 30. important to know the kind of person he was treating than to know what kind of dis-ease the person had. He was known to prescribe herbs, dietary changes, forms ofhydrotherapy, skeletal manipulation, movement therapy, and creative arts therapiesto help his patients regain a state of balance and harmony. Over many centuries, however, there has been a gradual erosion of this holisticviewpoint as Western culture developed a highly technical and specialized perspec-tive. By comparison, today most of us no longer have a single physician who knowsus as a total human being and draws on any number of healing methods. Instead wego to one specialist for a problem in our ears, nose, and throat, another for our gas-trointestinal tract, and still another for troubling emotional situations. Although eachspecialist may have a wealth of information regarding his or her area of expertise, noone seems to be looking at the whole picture. Often, the pharmaceutical or surgicalsolutions each specialist recommends address only one aspect of our problem andsometimes create new problems. This segmented, specialized perspective is evident not only in our approach tohealth care, but our approach to education and the arts as well. Instead of encourag-ing each person to feel alive, whole, and connected to the rest of the world, this per-spective seems to foster a lack of confidence in ones experience and judgment, aweakened sense of personal agency, and a feeling of spiritual isolation. For this rea-son, more and more people today are seeking the holistic, centering experience ofbody-mind disciplines. In this volume we have tried to include all of the major disciplines with which areader may come into contact. With a subject of such scope it was necessary to createcertain limits in order to complete the task at all. We deliberately excluded any art orskill that is used primarily for performance or competition, although we recognize thatany such art or skill may be practiced from a body-mind perspective. We also exclud-ed any practice that is exclusively associated with a specific religious practice,although here again we do not diminish the value of any religious practice and itsability to incorporate body and mind. What we have included is a cross-cultural sam-pling of techniques and methods developing the body-mind connection that haveevolved in the worlds of health care, education, physical conditioning, self-defense,spirituality, psychology, and the arts. We have arranged the entries in sixteen sections that generally reflect the worldin which the disciplines developed, highlight the multicultural approaches to a par-ticular practice, or sometimes draw attention to historical connections. Each sectionis introduced by an essay that provides an overview of the histories, theoretical foun-dations, and methodologies of the disciplines that are included in the section. Theintroductory essays also help relate each individual section to other sections of theencyclopedia. It is possible to get a broad perspective of the entire world of body-mind by simply reading the sixteen introductory essays. Most of the entries are written by certified practitioners of these disciplines. Theentries describe in detail the history, philosophy, and techniques of the specific disci-plines. The entries also describe what it feels like to practice or experience the disci-pline. It is our hope that the reader will not only gain intellectual knowledge fromreading an entry, but will be stimulated on a sensory level as well. Within each of the sections the reader will find disciplines that work along sever- xxxi
  • 31. al different continuums. The broad spectrum of approaches reflects the belief of body- mind disciplines that each individual is unique and has specific strengths, weakness- es, and predilections. The first of these continuums may best be described as the percentage of physical work as compared to the percentage of mental or emotional work required of the practitioner. For example, somato respiratory integration requires the practitioner to remain relatively still, focusing the mind on physical sen- sations and emotional memories, whereas the Feldenkrais Method® develops aware- ness of mental and emotional patterns by moving the body through prescribed spatial forms. This continuum, found within individual sections of the encyclopedia, is also apparent from section to section. For example, all of the practices in the Meditation section approach the process of building the body-mind connection somewhat more from the use of the mind, whereas all of the disciplines in the somatic practices sec- tion come at the process somewhat more from the use of the body. A person may enter the world of body-mind at any point along this continuum that suits his or her needs or temperament. Another continuum along which the various practices can be viewed concerns the degree of spontaneous action as compared to structured action used by the dis- cipline. For example, contact improvisation and Skinner release technique work largely through improvisational forms created by the practitioner. The quality of one’s conscious control of the movement patterns is loose and free flowing. By con- trast, the Pilates Method and tai chi ch üan use intricately structured movement sequences that rarely vary. They require a different kind of control in order to achieve a free-flowing connection of body and mind. Another of the continuums along which one might view these disciplines con- cerns the degree of involvement of the practitioner, or receiver, as a whole. In any of the forms of massage therapy the receiver is relatively passive, in contrast to the very active participation required by any of the forms of martial arts. All body-mind dis- ciplines, however, ultimately encourage the active participation of the practitioner on some level. As the practice awakens awareness of physical sensations and mental or emotional processes, the participant naturally becomes more capable of taking an active role in the practice, whether that means learning how to relax and experience physical sensations more deeply or follow complex thought, breath, and movement patterns more effortlessly and subtly. This active awareness and participation is a basic value of all body-mind disciplines. Some of the disciplines included in this volume have as their primary goal the relief of physical pain. It may not seem immediately clear how such practices devel- op the body-mind connection. In body-mind terms, the response to pain can be the first step toward awakening a deeper awareness of the body. The theoretical under- pinnings of every discipline included here view pain as a message from the body to the mind that some vital link between the two is not functioning. Pain is the cry of the body when it has been ignored, when the body-mind connection has not been honored. When viewed this way, pain is transformed from a symptom to be eradi- cated into a call to undertake a journey of self-discovery. We hope this volume will offer the reader useful information for his or her unique journey. We wish each of you a voyage filled with the excitement of discovery, the creativity of transformation, and the joys of fulfillment.xxxii
  • 32. PART I: ALTERNATIVE HEALTH MODELS Ayurvedic Medicine • Holistic Health • Homeopathy • Naturopathic Medi- cine • Shamanism • Traditional Chinese Medicine • Wellness Alternative health mod-els consist of a variety ofways of viewing health andsickness and depicting therelationship between bodyand mind. Each model hasdeveloped a system ofhealth care with associatedpractices and disciplines.These health models arecategorized as alternativebecause they are differentfrom the allopathic para-digm, the scientific frame-work of contemporaryWestern health care. Photo by: Kevin Anderson / © Tony Stone Images In the allopathic modelthe body is viewed as aself-contained machine orcollection of systems thatmalfunction with age,injury, or when invaded byinfectious microbes orgerms. Allopathic healthcare practices developed abattery of defensive tech- Herbal remedies play a role in many health models, including tradi-niques for dealing with tional Chinese medicine.these causes of malfunc-tion. In contrast, alterna-tive health models see the body as one aspect of a whole person, along with mind andspirit. They view illness as an imbalance between these three interdependent aspects ofa human being, or between a human being and his or her environment. Since the 1960s,because of the high cost and sometimes ineffectiveness or damaging side effects of allo-pathic health care practices, more and more people are exploring the possibilities ofother health models. 1
  • 33. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines A Historical Survey of Health Models The oldest and most widespread alternative health model is used by shamanism and contemporary shamanistic counseling. Shamanic healers believe that all things have a spirit, including rocks, rivers, the sky, and the earth. According to the shamanic model of health, spirits are responsible for the physical and psychological health or sickness of all individuals and communities. Ancient shamans developed methods of interacting with spirits to affect individual or communal health. Con- temporary shamanic counselors continue to use these traditional healing tech- niques today. Over time, more abstract metaphors evolved to describe the spirit world and its interactions with the material world. The concept of energy or energetic forces replaced the discussion of individualized spirits in human philosophical and med- ical thought. Health models such as ayurveda in India and traditional Chinese med- icine in Asia developed intricate theories and practices to work with the complex patterns of energies they perceived moving through the universe and all the people in it. The ancient Greeks also conceived of the world as a complex of energies, and many of their healing practices reflected an integrated view of spirit and matter. The philosopher Aristotle (384–322 BCE) articulated an important new tendency in West- ern thought. He believed that the workings of the natural world could be known through observation, experimentation, and classification. While Aristotle himself believed that spiritual truth could be known through a study of the material world, his scientific method created the possibility of a split in Western thought between spirit and matter. During the Renaissance, many important Greek texts were rediscovered. Many of the great thinkers of the day embraced the Aristotelian scientific method of the pur- suit of knowledge. This method of inquiry met with tremendous opposition from the dominant religious and political institution of that time, the Church. The Church regarded science as a threat to its most basic theological doctrines. This opposition created in Western thought a deeper schism between the material and spiritual realms. Certain Western philosophers and scientists, however, continued to investigate health models that unify body, mind, and spirit. Health models such as Samuel Hah- nemann’s (1755–1843) Homeopathy, which combines the science of chemistry and biology with the belief in an invisible vital life energy, developed in Europe toward the end of the Age of Reason. Later, healers like Father Sebastian Kneipp (1821–1897) found other ways to integrate spiritual beliefs with scientific inquiry. His reexamina- tion of ancient herbal cures and indigenous European health modalities eventually made its way to the United States in the form of naturopathy. Spiritual and material models of health coexisted in Europe and the United States for many years. However, in the 1930s the materialistic allopathic model of health became institutionalized in organizations such as the American Medical Association, which proceeded to discredit holistic methods of healing. The successful control of infectious disease with penicillin, along with other pharmaceuticals developed throughout the 1930s to 1950s, appeared to substantiate the allopathic approach and helped it become the dominant health model.2
  • 34. In the 1960s dissatisfaction with social conventions and institutions, includingallopathic health care, caused Westerners to investigate the ancient health models ofEastern and indigenous cultures, as well as older European-based models. Many peo-ple began to feel that allopathic strategies did not provide a complete approach tohealth care. Disciplines combining Western psychological insights with ancient con-cepts of harmony and balance, such as holistic health and wellness, became morepopular. In the 1970s and 1980s soaring health care costs and the appearance of manychronic health problems caused even greater interest in alternative health models.Today, these disciplines are practiced individually and as a complement to allo-pathic care. The philosophical viewpoint upon which these disciplines are basedcontinues to exert an ever-growing and far-reaching influence on the practice ofcontemporary medicine.Some Theoretical Considerations All of the health models presented in this section believe that in addition to thephysical body, human beings are comprised of nonmaterial aspects. These includethoughts, emotions, and intuitions of the mind, along with a person’s spiritualessence. In these holistic models, all three aspects—body, mind, and spirit—areinterdependent and determine an individual’s state of health. In addition, many ofthe disciplines adhering to this viewpoint believe that each person’s spiritualessence interacts with the spiritual essence of the universe in much the same waythat his or her body interacts with the material environment. Health care modalitiesthat developed from this philosophical viewpoint seek to maintain the balancebetween all aspects of human beings and their relationship with their environ-ments. One of the major differences between the practices based on these health modelsand those of allopathic health care is the emphasis they place on the maintenance ofhealth, rather than the spectacular and dramatic treatment of illness. Maintaininghealth requires monitoring the subtle physical, mental, and emotional ways that thespirit manifests itself in the body. Symptoms are viewed as physical evidence of a spiritual imbalance. They are rarelysuppressed. These health models generally believe that while the suppression ofsymptoms may offer temporary relief from physical pain, it blocks the natural healingprocess and will invariably result in more serious problems. Instead of suppression, aphysician follows the sequence of symptoms to find the proper way to help the body,mind, and spirit regain their state of balance. The alternative health models included in this section believe that each individualhas the potential for self-healing. While each model recognizes that there are manysimilarities in self-healing processes, each individual’s process is respected as unique.Specialists in these modalities use various techniques to enhance a person’s self-heal-ing abilities. They help clients interpret and find patterns in their symptoms, developgreater sensitivity to their physical bodies, and create a broader awareness of theinterrelationship between body, mind, and spirit. In this way, these methods encour-age each person to participate in his or her own healing. 3
  • 35. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines What It Might Mean to Adopt One of These Models The health models examined in this section aim to help each individual live a happy, healthy, meaningful life. Adjusting to the methods and practices of a new health model may cause a healing crisis. Once a person no longer suppresses symp- toms, old physical or emotional problems may temporarily reappear, causing a per- son to feel weaker or more vulnerable. Eventually these suppressed causes of illness are released, physical and emotional trauma are diminished, and the foundation has been laid for many years of continued good health and development. —Nancy Allison, CMA Further Reading: Manning, Clark A., and Louis J. Vanreen. Bioener- getic Medicines East and West: Acupuncture and Homeopathy. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books, 1988.4
  • 36. Ayurvedic MedicineAYURVEDIC MEDICINE great elements—space (also known as Ether), air, fire, water, and earth. These five elements combine to form threeA yurvedic medicine, the ancient distinct types of energy, called doshas, Indian science of healthy living, that are present in all people and things. places great emphasis on disease There are no words in English toprevention. It encourages the mainte- describe these energies, so we use thenance of health by paying close atten- original Sanskrit words vata, pitta, andtion to the balance of one’s body, mind, kapha. In the physical body vata, com-and spirit. Ayurvedic medicine teaches posed of air and ether, is the subtle ener-patients to bring about and maintain gy associated with movement. It governsthis balance through proper lifestyle, breathing, blinking, muscle and tissuediet, exercise, herbs, and meditation. movement, pulsation of the heart, andPractitioners of ayurveda learn to iden- all movements in the cytoplasm and celltify the patient’s personal “constitu- membranes. Pitta, made up of fire andtion,” understood as a unique mixture water, is considered the body’sof three distinct life energies, or doshas. metabolic energy. It governs digestion,A healthy person employs positive absorption, assimilation, nutrition,thinking, diet, and lifestyle to maintain metabolism, and body temperature.a perfect proportion of life energies. Kapha is formed from earth and water and is the energy that forms the body’s structure—bones, muscles, tendons—The History of Ayurvedic Medicine and provides the “glue” that holds theAyurvedic medicine is considered by cells together. Kapha also supplies themany scholars to be the world’s oldest water for all bodily parts and systems. Ithealing science. It dates back five thou- lubricates joints, moisturizes the skin,sand years to the ancient Vedic culture and maintains immunity.of the Rishis, the philosophers and reli- All people have vata, pitta, andgious leaders of ancient India. Ayurve- kapha; one is usually primary, one sec-da, which means “the science of life” in ondary, and the third least prominent.the ancient Indian language of Sanskrit, The cause of disease in ayurveda iswas passed on in the oral tradition from viewed as the lack of proper cellularmaster to disciple for thousands of function because of an excess oryears. Some of this knowledge was pub- deficiency of one of these three energieslished a few thousand years ago, and/or the presence of toxins.notably in the ancient holy texts of Hin-duism, one of the world’s oldest existingliteratures. It is believed that much of A Balanced Lifethe tradition has actually been lost. Just as everyone has an individual face Ayurveda has been practiced in daily or thumbprint, according to ayurveda,life in India for more than four thousand each person has a particular pattern ofyears. Western medicine has influenced energy—an individual combination of(and been influenced by) ayurvedic med- physical, mental, and emotional charac-icine, but the traditional ayurvedic teristics—that is his or her constitu-lifestyle management is, for many Indi- tion. This constitution is determined atans, still the primary therapy for ailments. conception. Many factors, both internalThe principles of many natural healing and external, can disturb this balance,methods now familiar in the West, such as which is reflected as a change in one’s con-homeopathy, wellness, and polarity ther- stitution.apy, have their roots in ayurveda. When all of the three doshas are prop- erly proportioned, they nourish and buildPhilosophy of Ayurveda mental and physical health in a person.According to ayurvedic philosophy, the The proper amount of vata promotes cre-entire cosmos is made up of the five ativity and flexibility; pitta engenders 5
  • 37. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines understanding and intelligence; kapha observing the tongue and eyes, and lis- is expressed as love, calmness, and for- tening to the tone of the patient’s voice. giveness. The results of these tests, coupled with a Disease is viewed as improper body patient’s physical attributes and family functioning that is caused by an excess traits, are used to understand the cause or deficiency of vata, pitta, or kapha as of disease, the dosha(s) involved, and compared to the original balance of the stage of the disease process. these doshas. This imbalance can be The assessment provides the doctor caused by any number of factors. Genet- with a standard of the patient’s normal ic or congenital traits may predispose a functioning. Armed with this knowledge, person to develop unhealthy habits such the ayurvedic physician can suggest steps as overeating or smoking. Accidents or to help return the client’s health to a bal- other upsetting events can cause physi- anced state. Typically this involves the cal, mental, or emotional trauma, further implementation of a different lifestyle disrupting the individual’s balance. Fur- with a new diet, exercise, and meditation thermore, all of us have certain personal plan. In cases where disease can be attrib- sensitivities, such as weather conditions, uted to toxins or other external stresses, spicy food, and flower pollen, that can the ayurvedic physician may prescribe disrupt the body’s function. additional herbal remedies, breathing In all of these cases, when mind exercises, and sun and massage therapies. and/or body are upset, the doshas In some cases, participation in an inten- become imbalanced. When this happens, sive cleansing program known as “pan- the process of disease begins, as fear and chakarma” is suggested to help the body anxiety can raise vata in a person. Too rid itself of accumulated toxins. much or too little vata can produce fear and anxiety. Similarly, pitta can stir anger, hate, and jealousy, and kapha can lead to Benefits and Risks Ayurvedic medicine is and has been greed, attachment, and envy. practiced throughout the world for thousands of years. Its patients claim Typical Ayurveda increased longevity and better health. In times of health, when there are no Proper ayurvedic practice demands dominant outside traumas or toxins adherence to a strict, carefully planned afflicting a person, practitioners of lifestyle. Furthermore, many in the ayurveda pay strict attention to diet and ayurvedic field have integrated Western lifestyle. Just as each person has a medicine into their practices, acknowl- unique constitution, there exists for edging that different systems can com- each person a specific “right” lifestyle, plement each other. For these reasons, tailored to cultivate the exactly perfect anyone interested in pursuing ayurveda, levels of the three doshas. This right particularly patients with preexisting lifestyle engages body, mind, and spir- conditions, should consult an estab- it—three distinct but interrelated lished clinic or ayurvedic physician. aspects of each person—in a regimen of diet, breathing exercises, meditation, —Dr. Vasant Lad and physical activity. In times of illness, an ayurvedic physician must first determine which of Resources: the three basic constitutional types the patient is. Then the symptoms must be American Institute of Vedic Studies understood as to whether they are of 1701 Sante Fe River Rd. vata, pitta, or kapha type. Vata heart Sante Fe, NM 87501 pain is different from pitta or kapha Tel: (505) 983-9385 heart pain. Accordingly, a battery of tests Provides information on training programs and are applied, including taking the pulse, practitioners.6
  • 38. Holistic HealthAmerican School of Ayurvedic Sciences this ancient approach to health consid-10025 NE 4th St. ers the whole person and how he or sheBellevue, WA 98004 interacts with his or her environment. ItTel: (206) 453-8022 emphasizes the connection of mind,Offers a program in ayurvedic medicine. body, and spirit. The goal is to achieve maximum well-being, where everythingAyurvedic Foundation is functioning the very best that is pos-P Box 900413 .O. sible. With holistic health, peopleSandy, UT 84090-0413 accept responsibility for their own levelTel: (801) 943-1480 of well-being, and everyday choices aree-mail: used to take charge of one’s own health.Web site: www.ayur.comConducts workshops and custom training. Also How Holistic Health Developedproduces cassette tapes and provides ayurvedic Ancient healing traditions, as far backcounseling. as 5,000 years ago in India and China, stressed living a healthy way of life inAyurvedic Institute harmony with nature. Socrates (fourth11311 Menaul N.E., Suite A century BCE) warned against treatingAlbuquerque, NM 87112 only one part of the body “for the partTel: (505) 291-9698 can never be well unless the whole isProvides a two-year program in ayurveda, as well well.” Although the term holism wasas offering panchakarma workshops and introduced by Jan Christiaan Smuts inayurvedic herbs, supplies, and products. 1926 as a way of viewing living things as “entities greater than and different fromFurther Reading: the sum of their parts,” it wasn’t until the 1970s that holistic became a com-Chopra, Deepak, M.D. Ageless Body, Timeless mon adjective in our modern vocabu- Mind. New York: Harmony Books, 1993. lary. Holistic concepts fell temporarily out———. Perfect Health. New York: Harmony Books, of favor in Western societies during the 1991. twentieth century. Scientific medical advances had created a dramatic shift in———. Quantum Healing. New York: Bantam the concept of health. Germs were iden- Books, 1990. tified as outside sources causing disease.Frawley, David, OMD. Ayurvedic Healing. Salt Gaining health became a process of Lake City: Morson Publishing, 1990. killing microscopic invaders with syn- thesized drugs. People believed that theyLad, Vasant, M.D. Ayurveda: The Science of Self- could get away with unhealthy lifestyle Healing. Wilmot, CA: Lotus Light Press, 1984. choices, and modern medicine would “fix” them as problems developed.———. Secrets of the Pulse: The Ancient Art of However, for some conditions med- Pulse Diagnosis. Albuquerque: The Ayurvedic ical cures have proven more harmful Press, 1996 than the disease. In addition, many chronic conditions do not respond to scientific medical treatments. In look- ing for other options, people are turn- ing back to the holistic approach toHOLISTIC HEALTH health and healing. The holistic health lifestyle is regaining popularity each year, as the holistic principles offerH olistic health is an approach to practical options to meet the growing life. Rather than focusing on ill- desire for enjoying a high level of vitality ness or specific parts of the body, and well-being. 7
  • 39. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines The Basic Principles of Holistic Health influencing an individual’s state of health Holistic health is based on the law of have not changed significantly over the nature that a whole is made up of inter- past twenty years. Quality of medical care dependent parts. The earth is made up is only 10 percent. Heredity accounts for of systems, such as air, land, water, 18 percent and environment is 19 per- plants, and animals. If life is to be sus- cent. Everyday lifestyle choices are 53 tained, they cannot be separated, for percent. The decisions people make what is happening to one system is also about their life and habits are, therefore, felt by all of the others. In the same way, by far the largest factor in determining an individual is a whole made up of their state of wellness. interdependent parts, which are physi- The most obvious choices people cal, mental, emotional, and spiritual. make each day are what they “consume”— When one part is not working at its best, both physically and mentally. The cells in a it impacts all of the other parts of that person’s body are constantly being person. Furthermore, this whole per- replaced. New cells are built from what is son, including all of the parts, is con- available. Harmful substances or lack of stantly interacting with everything in needed building blocks in the body can the surrounding environment. For result in imperfect cells, unable to do what example, when an individual is anxious is required to keep that person healthy. about a history exam or a job interview, Similarly, on the non-physical level, a per- his or her nervousness may result in a son’s mental attitudes are “built” from physical reaction—such as acne or a what he or she sees and hears. stomachache. When people suppress The majority of illnesses and prema- anger at a parent or a boss over a long ture deaths can be traced back to period of time, they can develop a seri- lifestyle choices. There are the well- ous illness—such as migraine head- known dangers connected with drugs, aches, emphysema, or even arthritis. alcohol, nicotine, and unprotected sex- The principles of holistic health state ual activity. Less recognized is the that health is more than just not being impact of excesses in things like sugar, sick. A common explanation is to view caffeine, and negative attitudes. Com- wellness as a continuum along a line. The bined with deficiencies in exercise, line represents all possible degrees of nutritious foods, and self-esteem, these health. The far left end of the line repre- gradually accumulate harmful effects. sents premature death. On the far right With time they diminish the quality of end is the highest possible level of well- the “environment” within that human ness or maximum well-being. The center being, and can set the stage for illness to point of the line represents a lack of take hold. Quality of life, now and in the apparent disease. This places all levels of future, is actually being determined by a illness on the left half of the wellness con- multitude of seemingly unimportant tinuum. The right half shows that even choices made every day. when no illness seems to be present, there is still a lot of room for improvement. How Holistic Health Is Practiced Holistic health is an ongoing process. While preventing illness is important, As a lifestyle, it includes a personal holistic health focuses on reaching commitment to be moving toward the higher levels of wellness. The right half right end of the wellness continuum. No of the wellness continuum invites peo- matter what their current status of ple to constantly explore which every- health, people can improve their level of day actions work for them and discover well-being. Even when there are tempo- what is appropriate to move them rary setbacks, movement is always head- toward maximum well-being. People ed toward wellness. are motivated by how good it feels to The U.S. Centers for Disease Control have lots of energy and enthusiasm for and Prevention report that the key factors life, knowing that what they are doing8
  • 40. Holistic Healththat day will allow them to continue to Resources:feel this great for years to come. When disease and chronic condi- American Holistic Health Association (AHHA)tions do occur, the holistic health princi- Dept. Rples also can be applied. The term is P Box 17400 .O.usually changed to holistic medicine, Anaheim, CA 92817-7400and additional factors are added. The Tel: (714) 779-6152health care professionals using the e-mail: ahha@healthy.netholistic approach work in partnership Web site: www.ahha.orgwith their patients. They recommend This nonprofit educational organization has com-treatments that support the body’s nat- piled lists of self-help resources available in theural healing system and consider the United States. These free materials and a booklet,whole person and the whole situation. Wellness From Within: The First Step, which A holistic approach to healing goes introduces the holistic approach to creating well-beyond just eliminating symptoms. For ness, are available on the Internet or by mail.example, taking an aspirin for a headachewould be like disconnecting the oil light Graduate Certificate Program in Holistic Healthon the dash of a car when it flashes. The Careirritation is eliminated, but the real prob- Director: Molly B. Vass, Ed.D.lem still exists. In holistic medicine, a Western Michigan Universitysymptom is considered a message that College of Health and Human Servicessomething needs attention. So the symp- Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5174tom is used as a guide to look below the Tel: (616) 387-3800surface for the root cause. Then what real- Fax: (616) 387-3348ly needs attention can be addressed. e-mail: Unique opportunity to study holistic health care inThe Benefits of Holistic Health an accredited academic program. Consists of 18Holistic health supports reaching high- semester hours of study in holistic health care ander levels of wellness as well as prevent- related topics. Can be taken as an independenting illness. People enjoy the vitality and certificate or can be used to supplement graduatewell-being that results from their posi- training in related fields. Three main areas oftive lifestyle changes, and are motivated holistic health care (promotion, prevention, andto continue this process throughout treatment) are addressed through a combinationtheir lives. of education, research, promotion, training, administration, program planning, and program —Suzan Walter development efforts. Graduates are able to work Training in Holistic Health The conventional (or allopathic) medical model taught in most Western medical schools does not include the holistic principles. Complementary (or alternative) medical tradi- tions, such as acupuncture, chiropractic, homeopathy, massage therapy, and naturopa- thy, include many of the principles of holistic medicine. Yet some medical doctors are holistic in how they deal with their patients, and some practitioners using complemen- tary therapies are not holistic. Patients are learning to check for both technical expertise and whether a practitioner uses the holistic principles. People interested in a career as a holistic practitioner must first become qualified in one or more methods of delivering health care, such as chiropractic, massage therapy, medicine, naturopathy, or psychology. Then they add on the holistic qualities and philosophy. 9
  • 41. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines within their chosen professional areas from a prevalent practices of bloodletting, holistic perspective. purging, vomiting, and the administra- tion of large doses of harsh drugs. It was not until 1789, when translat- Further Reading: ing A Treatise of Materia Medica by Dr. William Cullen, that Hahnemann first Collinge, William, Ph.D. The American Holistic conceived of his homeopathic method. Health Association Complete Guide to Alterna- He decided to experiment on himself tive Medicine. New York: Warner Books, 1996. with cinchona (Peruvian bark), one of the drugs mentioned in that work. He Gordon, James S., M.D. Holistic Medicine. New noticed that when a healthy person took York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1988. doses of cinchona, the substance from which quinine is derived, it produced Travis, John W., M.D., and Regina Sara Ryan.The many of the symptoms that it was Wellness Workbook. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press, intended to alleviate. 1988. The official birth date of homeopathy is 1796, when Hahnemann published an article in the Journal of Practical Medi- cine, in which he delineates three meth- ods of healing: preventative treatment, HOMEOPATHY which is the removal of the causes of ill- ness; palliative treatment by the princi- H ple of contraria contraris, which means omeopathy is a holistic system the healing by opposites; and the treat- that is used to treat chronic and ment of likes with likes, namely the pre- acute illness and disease. Founded scribing of medicines that cause similar by Samuel Hahnemann in the late 1700s, symptoms in healthy individuals. Hah- homeopathy is based on the concept of nemann coined the term Homeopathy, “like cures like,” which means that reme- from the Greek words homois, similar, dies are matched to symptom patterns and pathos, meaning disease. The word in the patient. To “match” symptoms homeopathic first appeared in print in means that the physician analyzes a an article he published in 1807. patient’s symptoms to find a substance, Published in 1810, the Organon of usually from plants, minerals, and ani- Rational Medicine is Hahnemann’s quin- mals, that induces the same symptoms tessential work, a complete exposition of in a healthy person. By ingesting small, his healing method. To this day it forms diluted doses of these substances, the the foundation of homeopathy. The body is stimulated to fight illness. In principle of similia similibus, first set recent times, homeopathic practices forth in his essay of 1796, was now have grown dramatically in popularity as expanded to similia similibus curentor— people all over the world rediscover the let likes be treated by likes—the core inexpensive, natural remedies used to principle of homeopathy. The reception cure illnesses that do not respond to of this work was lukewarm. conventional treatment. Despite the apathetic reception Organon had received, he attempted to History of Homeopathy teach homeopathy through his newly The founder of homeopathy, Samuel formed Institute for the Postgraduate Hahnemann, was born in Meissen, Ger- Study of Homeopathy. Not one person many in 1755. He was thin, delicate, and responded to his advertisement. In 1812 highly intelligent, with an interest in the Napoleon was driven from Germany, and natural sciences and languages. He the war flooded the area with refugees, established his first medical practice in starvation, and no less than 80,000 1780. Hahnemann was appalled by the dead and another 80,000 wounded.10
  • 42. Homeopathy Photo: Corbis-Bettmann Dr. Samuel Hahnemann (1755–1843), founder of homeopathyHahnemann and other physicians were In 1819 a group of envious physicianspressed into service trying to help the and angry pharmacists filed a courtmany who suffered not only from the action against Hahnemann to preventbattle but from an outbreak of typhus. him from dispensing his own medicinesArmed with twenty-six homeopathic in Leipzig, where he was living at theremedies, Hahnemann achieved remark- time. Despite Hahnemann’s growingable results in treating typhus. He would reputation and successful treatment oflater report that only two of the 180 royalty and famous people such astyphus patients he treated had died. Johann Goethe, Hahnemann lost the 11
  • 43. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines case. Although he subsequently won in less than twenty-two homeopathic med- the Appeals Court of Dresden, Hahne- ical schools and countless homeopathic mann closed his practice and left hospitals and clinics throughout the Leipzig for the city of Kothen in 1821. United States. Estimates are that by the Shortly after his arrival in Kothen, turn of the century there were about Hahnemann, through his political and 15,000 homeopathic physicians in the social connections, procured permission United States. from the authorities to practice home- Around the same time, the sciences opathy with total immunity. During of cellular and molecular biology, as well these years he wrote his last great work, as physiology, began to replace the rudi- Chronic Diseases: Their Peculiar Nature mentary medical knowledge of Hahne- and Their Homeopathic Treatment. First mann’s time. Together these sciences published in Dresden, in 1828, it ulti- produced medicines used by conven- mately ran to five volumes by 1839 and tional physicians to quickly and effec- totaled in excess of 1,600 pages. This tively remove or modulate their patients’ work set forth another deep insight, that symptoms at relatively low costs. By the not only could patients be cured of acute 1960s homeopathy in the United States conditions but that their patterns of was virtually dead and medical histori- acute conditions over the years allow for ans predicted the complete death of this a classification of chronic tendencies “medical heresy” by 1980. toward types of disease. These chronic But instead, by the late 1970s Ameri- tendencies Hahnemann called miasms, can homeopathy was well into a revival. the patient’s inherited predisposition By 1996, the bicentennial anniversary of toward certain types of illness. By know- Hahnemann’s discovery of homeopathy, ing the miasmatic type, a homeopathic more books and articles were being physician could now treat preventively, written about homeopathy than at any and this tendency could be mitigated so time since the turn of the century. Sales that the next generation’s health could be of homeopathic medicines have improved. Hahnemann had intuited the increased by 30 percent per year in the basis for treating genetic disorders. United States since 1990. In 1831, a cholera epidemic swept Europe. The Hahnemannian protocol Eight Fundamentals for treating cholera, which also includ- The fundamentals of homeopathy, as ed cleanliness, ventilation, and disin- laid down by Hahnemann, are as fol- fection, resulted in a drastic reduction lows: in mortality. Records at that time indi- cate that under homeopathic treatment 1. There is a natural and universal sci- mortality was between 2 and 20 percent entific law of cure, namely, that likes while conventional treatment carried a can be cured by likes. This means mortality of over 50 percent. that small amounts of any sub- Homeopathy began to spread to Eng- stance that causes disease in a land and the United States. By 1844 the healthy person can be used to treat American Institute of Homeopathy was that same disease in a patient. founded by homeopathic physicians 2. The knowledge of the action of reme- from New York, Philadelphia, and Boston. dies is harvested from single- or dou- The first national medical organization in ble-blind experiments in which small the United States, it was established to doses are given to healthy subjects promote standardization of the practice who later record their detailed reac- and teaching of homeopathy. tions to the test substance. This is This period in American homeopa- called a homeopathic proving. The thy was its golden age. There were liter- knowledge base for a particular sub- ally thousands of homeopathic books stance or remedy is also determined and journals published. There were no from case histories of treatment with12
  • 44. Homeopathy the substance, which has not under- 8. There is a distinction between acute gone a proving but which has yield- or epidemic diseases and chronic dis- ed a cure in clinical practice. Added ease patterns of patients. Preventative to this is the information of symp- homeopathic care requires an under- toms produced by accidental poi- standing of these chronic patterns. sonings with toxic substances. The proving, clinical, and toxicological Despite more than 200 years of clinical data form the materia medica of the efficacy, the way that these remedies remedy. work is still a mystery. We do not yet3. The ability of an organism to feel, possess the technology or the method- sense, act, or achieve homeostasis ology necessary to unlock homeopa- (or equilibrium) is maintained by a thy’s secrets. non-material principle called the Philosophically, homeopathy is holis- dynamis. This dynamis, or “spirit- tic (not merely alternative) because the like” vital force is, according to Hah- essential task is to understand the nemann, similar in nature to gravity patient as a whole person. As a method, or magnetism. It is a force that to homeopathy is a synthesis of the natural date has eluded explanation or clas- science approach and the phenomeno- sification by the natural sciences. logical or descriptive approach. The Diseases, therefore, are not actual physician must blend his or her natural material things; rather they are science training in anatomy, physiology, descriptions or classifications of pathology, biochemistry, physical diag- symptom patterns. Symptoms are nosis, etc., with observation of the not things to be removed or sup- patient and understanding of the pressed by drugs; rather they are an patient’s self-description. The challenge expression of the vital force’s of homeopathy, even in the treatment of attempt to heal. The properly pre- apparently purely physical conditions, is pared, selected, and administered to select a few probable remedies from homeopathic remedy somehow the thousand or more possible remedies. “resonates” with the vital force and Just like a novel with many chapters stimulates the healing process. and plot twists, so a patient’s cure4. A single remedy at a time is given. Sin- unfolds. The process is highly individ- gle-remedy administration also allows ual. The homeopathic physician will be a clear evaluation of its efficacy. guided by certain principles of cure:5. A minimum dose must be used. healing occurs from above downward, Small doses of a substance stimulate from the center to the periphery, from healing, medium doses paralyze the more vital organs to less vital organs patient, and large doses kill. and in reverse order of the appearance6. Individualization of the treatment is of the original symptoms. essential. No two people are exactly alike in either sickness or health, Practicing Homeopathy and although homeopaths use clas- A typical session with a homeopathic sifications of disease types, finer, physician begins with the patient’s his- individual distinctions must always tory. The patient is allowed to tell his or be made since, although the action her story without interruption. Only of two remedies may often be simi- after the patient is finished will the lar, they are never exactly the same. physician ask specific questions to7. The mere removal of symptoms by understand the symptoms, namely how suppressive means is a grave danger they vary according to time of day or because it defeats the vital force’s season, rest or activity, temperature, attempt at homeostasis and puts the bathing, position, eating, thirst, sleep, patient at risk for a more serious dis- social intercourse, perspiration, external ease. stimuli, emotions, etc. 13
  • 45. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines Most important, the physician to stimulate a healing response. Having attempts to understand the patient’s given a dose of the indicated remedy, the personality. Inquiries are made into patient and physician must now wait. how the patient copes with stress, and Depending on the patient, the nature of about the patient’s fears and worries. the problem and the potency of the rem- The patient describes him- or herself. edy, a return visit is scheduled weeks or This process is often the most reveal- months after the initial dose. While there ing. have been miraculous homeopathic The physician uses these descriptions cures after just one dose, most chronic to generate an understanding of the cases take months or years to cure. The patient. He or she also obtains a conven- process is highly individual. tional medical and surgical history, and finally performs a physical examination. Benefits of Homeopathy The physician then attempts to rank Homeopathic treatment is appropriate various symptoms, modalities, and and safe for all ages and is especially use- generalities by degree of intensity. A list ful in childhood and during pregnancy, of symptoms is generated and the labor, and the postpartum period. Home- symptoms are then repertorized, that opathy has successfully treated patients is, they are cross-indexed with the with conditions such as otitis, bronchitis, remedies known to have caused or pneumonia, migraines, hepatitis, pan- cured these same symptoms. This creatitis, appendicitis, and cholecystitis. labor-intensive process was for cen- Historically, homeopathy has been used turies performed by hand, but is now to treat potentially dangerous infections done by computer. such as cholera, influenza, syphilis, gon- Having narrowed the field to several orrhea, scarlet fever, polio, measles, and probable remedies, the homeopathic tuberculosis. Chronic conditions such as physician must then determine whether arthritis, asthma, eczema, psoriasis, and the patient’s problem is an acute, chronic fatigue syndrome have all been chronic, or inherited illness, or perhaps alleviated by homeopathic treatments. It an illness due to the suppressive effects is reported that devastating diseases of previous treatment. such as multiple sclerosis can be brought The art of homeopathy is in the abil- to remission if treated early enough. His- ity of the homeopathic physician to torical homeopathic literature contains process all of this information into a many references to cures of various types synthesis, a “remedy portrait” or gestalt, of cancer, though admittedly these are which corresponds to the remedy likely some of the most difficult for any system The Importance of Women in Homeopathic Medicine Women figured prominently in the history of American homeopathy. By 1900 it is esti- mated that 12 percent of homeopathic physicians were women. The Cleveland Homeo- pathic College was one of the first coeducational medical institutions in the country. Women auxiliaries raised large amounts of money to open many of the homeopathic hospitals, and it was women, in their role of family caretaker, who were the lay pre- scribers introducing homeopathy to many communities. Some members of the early women’s suffrage movement were either homeopathic physicians or their patients. Dr. Susan Edson, a graduate of the Cleveland Homeopathic College, was personal physician to President Garfield.14
  • 46. Naturopathic Medicineof medicine to cure and are best dealt Roberts, Herbert. The Principles and Art of Curewith on a preventive basis. by Homeopathy. Santa Barbara, CA: Health Science Press, 1942. —Dr. Domenick Masiello Weiner, Michael, and Kathleen Gross.The Complete Book of Homeopathy. Garden City, NY: AveryResources: Publishing Group, 1989.The American Institute of Homeopathy Wright-Hubbard, Elizabeth. A Brief Study Course1585 Glencoc Street, Suite 44 in Homeopathy. St. Louis, MO: Formur, 1977.Denver, CO 80220-1338Tel: (303) 321-4105Facilitates conferences, publishes a journal, andprovides referrals.The National Center for Homeopathy NATUROPATHIC MEDICINE801 North Fairfax, Suite 306 NAlexandria, VA 22314 aturopathic medicine is a form ofTel: (703) 548-7790 health care that utilizes and inte-e-mail: grates different natural therapiesNonprofit organization that promotes homeopa- such as clinical nutrition, homeopathy,thy in the United States. Publishes monthly maga- hydrotherapy, botanical medicines,zine entitled Homeopathy Today. minor surgery, Oriental medicine, physi- cal medicine, lifestyle counseling, and other treatments with a knowledge of tra-Videotape: ditional diagnostic and medical therapies in order to treat a range of afflictions. AWinston, Julian. The Faces of Homeopathy: A Pic- licensed doctor of naturopathy (ND) torial History. Alexandria, VA: The National must graduate from a four-year program Center of Homeopathy, 1995. that specializes not only in naturopathic studies, but also basic medical science.Further Reading: Practitioners are then qualified to provide primary care, perform diagnostic testing,Cook, Trevor M. Samuel Hahnemann: His Life and and prescribe a course of treatment that Times. Middlesex, Eng.: Homeopathic Studies draws from a long list of natural remedies Ltd., 1981. and techniques.Coulter, Harris. Homeopathic Medicine. St. Louis: The Origins of Naturopathic Medicine Formur, 1972. The development of naturopathic medi- cine began with Benedict Lust, a GermanHahnemann, Samuel. Organon of Medicine. who immigrated to the United States in Translated by Jost Kunzli, Alain Nuadé, and 1892. A few years after arriving, Lust was Peter Pendleton. Los Angeles: J. P Tarcher, 1982. . struck down with tuberculosis. When American doctors couldn’t help him,———. The Chronic Diseases: Their Peculiar Lust returned to Europe and sought out Nature and Their Homeopathic Cure. New Father Sebastian Kneipp, a priest living Delhi: B. Jain Publishers, 1985. in Bavaria who was known for his “nature cure” treatments.———. Materia Medica Pura. New Delhi: B. Jain Kneipp did what Lust’s doctor could Publishers, 1984. not—he successfully treated Lust. This was a turning point in Lust’s life. InKent, James Tyler. Lectures on Homeopathic Philoso- 1896, Kneipp gave Lust permission to phy. Richmond, VA: North Atlantic Books, 1979. bring his treatments to America. Once 15
  • 47. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines back in the United States, Lust naturopathic healing. Illness is generally researched other natural health the result of many factors. Part of “whole philosophies and used them to reshape person,” or holistic, care is investigating and mold Kneipp’s ideas to appeal to not only physical symptoms, but emo- the American people. By broadening tional and mental ones too. How and the scope of his work, Lust and other what you eat, lifestyle habits, genetic Kneipp disciples developed what is now tendencies, as well as social interactions known as naturopathic medicine. are all important in assessing and treat- In 1902, Lust bought the word ing health problems. “naturopathy” from a New York physi- The final principle of naturopathic cian who had coined the term seven medicine is the emphasis on preventa- years earlier. In 1909, California became tive medicine. Practitioners aim to the first state to recognize the new disci- lessen and even eliminate the chance of pline by enacting regulatory laws disease by encouraging patients to take regarding the practice of naturopathic a proactive role in their health care by medicine. Popularity of naturopathy implementing and maintaining a rose significantly early in the century, healthy lifestyle. but began to decline with the improve- ment and accessibility of pharmaceuti- A Visit to a Naturopathic cal drugs. Alternative methods of health Practitioner care, including naturopathic medicine, Naturopathic physicians are often pri- have enjoyed a resurgence of interest as mary caregivers. This means they can people rediscover that natural remedies be your family or general practitioner, are also valuable. except they use natural treatments. When you call an ND’s office, a recep- The Five Principles of Naturopathic tionist will greet you and ask when Medicine you’d like to make an appointment, Today’s brand of naturopathic medicine much as in a medical doctor’s office. embodies five main principles. The first, On the day of your visit, you’ll find Vis medicatrix naturae, means “the that a naturopathic medical office is healing power of nature.” Naturopathic just that—a medical office. You might physicians use therapies that help the fill out some forms and then be invited body to heal itself. to see the doctor. Your naturopathic Primum non nocere, the second physician will ask what’s wrong, and principle, means “first do no harm.” will then spend about an hour to dis- This translates into safe, naturopathic cover the cause of your ailment. treatments that have no or minimal Your ND will take a lengthy medical side effects. Naturopathic physicians history and perform a thorough physi- refer patients to other health-care prac- cal examination. Laboratory tests will titioners, such as medical doctors be ordered as needed. An ND relies on (M.D.s), when it is appropriate for the both standard medical lab tests and patient. specialized tests more fitting to a natur- True health can be achieved only al medical practice. when your doctor practices Tolle causam, Your ND then recommends treatment or “finds the cause.” Diagnosing the true based on his or her investigation. Diet is cause of disease and illness is fundamen- discussed, and perhaps vitamins or other tal to naturopathic care. Sometimes it is nutrient supplements suggested. Herbs as simple as poor diet or sleeping habits. are common medicines used by NDs as These basic issues can significantly affect well as homeopathic remedies, which are one’s health. Other times, more complex specially prepared substances used to factors are responsible. boost healing. Various techniques like A commitment to treating the whole hydrotherapy, exercise, or ultrasound, person is an important principle of just as physical therapists use, might be16
  • 48. Naturopathic Medicineemployed. And where appropriate, NDs take their role as teacher very seri-stress management or counseling is ously as they instruct their patients insuggested. how to stay healthy. NDs are trained to perform minor As primary caregivers, NDs cooper-surgery such as repairing superficial ate with other medical and health pro-wounds, but will refer you to surgeons fessionals. An ND, like any generaland other doctors for major operations. practitioner, is the gatekeeper for yourSome states allow qualified NDs to pre- health care. When you’re sick, you seescribe some drugs like antibiotics. your ND first. He or she will consult with It’s perfectly appropriate, and some- or refer you to other physicians and spe-times desirable, to mix and match cialists when appropriate.naturopathic therapies with allopathictreatment. This should be done onlyunder professional guidance to prevent —Lauri M. Aesoph, NDpotential problems. While all naturo-pathic doctors are trained in the basics Resources:of Oriental medicine, there are somewho specialize in acupuncture, herbal American Association of Naturopathic Physiciansmedicine, and related therapies. Some (AANP)NDs offer natural childbirth, including 601 Valley Street, Ste. 105pre- and postnatal care, for pregnant Seattle, WA 98109women. Tel: (206) 298-0125 Web site: of Naturopathic Medicine physicianNaturopathic medical care is suitable e-mail: 74602.3715@compuserve.comfor all age groups and most acute and This professional organization provides referrals tochronic conditions. Its whole-person, naturopathic physicians in the United States. Anatural-care approach allows you to myriad of information on naturopathic medicineattain the best health possible in an is also available.effective and safe manner. Becausenaturopathic physicians are concerned Bastyr Universitywith solving, not masking, symptoms, 14500 Juanita Dr. NEhealing can take longer than with Bothell, WA 98011conventional treatment. Naturopathic Tel: (206) 823-1300medicine also requires that patients Web site: www.bastyr.edutake an active role in their health care. Four-year postgraduate university that offers A Naturopathic Medical Career Before applying for naturopathic medical school, one must complete a minimum of three years of college, including specific prerequisite courses. It takes four years of grad- uate-level study to earn the degree of Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine. Anatomy, phar- macology, gynecology, and radiology are just some of the medical sciences taught. Training in natural therapeutics is also included, as is time spent working in a clinical set- ting seeing patients. While an ND degree specifically prepares you for naturopathic medical practice, there are other career opportunities. NDs also teach, do research, work for the natural health industry, write, lecture, and work as consultants. As natural medicine expands and grows, so does the potential for naturopathic medicine. 17
  • 49. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines degrees in naturopathic medicine and related Ullman, Robert, and Judith Reichenberg-Ullman. health care disciplines. The Patient’s Guide to Homeopathic Medicine. Kent, WA: Pacific Pipeline, 1995. Canadian Naturopathic Association 4174 Dundas Street W, Suite 304 Etobicoke, ON M8X 1X3 Canada Tel: (416) 233-1043 SHAMANISM Fax: (416) 233-2924 S This professional group offers referrals to naturo- hamanism is an ancient healing pathic doctors throughout Canada. method that allows a person to enter and interact with an unseen National College of Naturopathic Medicine world of spirits. Contemporary shaman- 049 SW Porter ism encompasses a wide range of spiri- Portland, OR 97201 tual practices originating in civilizations Tel: (503) 499-4343 in North and South America, Siberia, Web site: Indonesia, Australia, Southeast Asia, A postgraduate, four-year institution that provides Japan, and Tibet. Throughout history, classes in naturopathic medicine. shamanic healers have been known by many names, including medicine man Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine & or medicine woman, witch, warlock, or Health Sciences in African-based vodoun religions— 2140 East Broadway priest or priestess. The word shaman Tempe, AZ 85282 was derived from the Asian word Tel: (602) 858-9100 saman by nineteenth-century Euro- Fax: (602) 858-0222 pean scholars intrigued by the cultures Web site: and practices of ancient shamanism. naturopathic/aanp/SW/ Currently many Western medical Four-year postgraduate college that offers degrees researchers and psychologists are in naturopathic medicine and related health care exploring shamanism, not as a curiosi- disciplines. ty, but as a creative and constructive way of viewing the world. Further Reading: The Early Shamans Aesoph, Lauri. How to Eat Away Arthritis. Para- In ancient times, shamans served many mus, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1996. roles in their societies. They performed rituals to mark the migrations of the ani- Brown, Donald. Herbal Prescriptions for Better mals that their societies hunted. Hunters Health. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing, 1996. consulted shamans to learn where ani- mals could be found. The shamans also Kirchfeld, Friedhelm, and Wade Boyle. Nature designed and performed rituals to mark Doctors: Pioneers in Naturopathic Medicine. the changing of seasons, the migration of East Palestine, OH: Buckeye Naturopathic their people to different locations, and Press, 1994 (distributed by Medicina Biologi- individual rites of passage such as birth, ca, Portland, OR). the transition from adolescence to adult- hood, marriage, and death. Murray, Michael, and Joseph Pizzorno. Encyclope- Early shamans were also teachers. In dia of Natural Medicine. Rocklin, CA: Prima many early societies, storytelling was an Publishing, 1991. important part of the shaman’s skills. Often, the stories he or she told taught Murray, Michael. The Healing Powers of Foods, lessons about the society’s beliefs, fears, New York: Ballantine Fawcett, 1993. and traditions.18
  • 50. Shamanism Photo: Corbis-Bettmann A Navajo shaman ministers to a mother and baby for better health. Shamans were also healers. Since of gods, goddesses, and monsters in themany societies believed that all illnesses narratives of their mythologies.had a spiritual source, the shamans Shamanism is founded on a beliefwere often chosen for their ability to that most diseases and grievancescommunicate with the spirit world. between individuals or nations areHealing rituals designed to remove caused by an imbalance in the naturalharmful spirits from individuals or order of the seen and unseen worlds. Acommunities often took place in sacred shaman interacts with the invisiblespaces such as caves or mountains and world of forces and energies and restoresincluded wearing ceremonial clothing, the balance. His or her stories, rituals,using herbs, playing drums, rattles, and and dances are used to subdue or stimu-flutes, and dancing. late feelings that may bring new hope, motivate a person to act, or simplyThe Unseen World increase energy for healing and change.Shamans believe that there are two reali-ties: the “seen” world, which is the world Shamanism in Today’s Worldwe perceive through our five senses, and It is unlikely that you will find the ser-the “unseen” or “invisible” world, which vices of a shaman advertised at yourour five senses cannot detect. The unseen family health clinic, but many clinics doworld can be compared to the world of refer patients to therapists who usedreams, emotions, instincts, and intu- techniques borrowed from the shaman-ition. Emotions, such as fear, joy, love, ic tradition. For example, psychologistsand grief, or human sexual drives, cannot and hypnotherapists use hypnosis andbe seen but are very real forces in human mental visualization (a traditionallife. Ancient shamanic cultures honored shamanic technique) to help peoplethe forces of the unseen world in the form stop smoking, control their appetite, 19
  • 51. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines Photo: © Anako Traditional shamanic practices in Comalapa, Guatemala.20
  • 52. Shamanismreduce anxiety, manage chronic pain, and image clearly in the person’s mind, therecover from an addiction. Mental visual- shaman or shamanic counselor begins aization is a process in which a person sets steady rhythm with a hand drum, a rattle,a goal by imagining himself or herself or recorded music. He or she may use aaccomplishing it. For example, a person rhythm similar to the human heartwho wants to calm his or her anxiety beat—between fifty-five and seventybefore delivering a speech may imagine beats per minute. This rhythm puts thegetting up on the podium, confidently person into a light trance, allowing him ordelivering a successful talk, and receiving a her to relax and enter a dreamlike state.standing ovation. For many people these Upon entering the trance state, theimages can replace the old memories that person might meet and work with ancaused the fear. While shamans helped inner guide or adviser. During the jour-their communities by telling stories or per- ney, the person might ask his or herforming rituals, today’s practitioners guide questions, listen for answers, andsometimes use “guided imagery” to possibly carry on a dialogue for severalachieve a similar goal. minutes or more. Eventually, the There is also an increasing number of shamanic counselor will change theorganizations teaching traditional rhythm of the drum to indicate that theshamanic practices throughout the world. person should return to the “seen”Courses are taught by anthropologists, world. After returning, there might bepsychologists, and shamans from Native further discussion with the shamanicAmerican, African, Hawaiian, South counselor to help the person interpretAmerican, Australian, or other traditions. the meaning of the journey.Typical workshops might include lecturesabout basic principles of shamanism,drumming workshops, and experiences in Benefits of Shamanismthe basic shamanistic technique of “jour- Although many people still view theneying” into the unseen world. practices of shamanism as more fiction Shamanic counseling is available than fact, a growing number of peopletoday in many parts of the United States. value the emphasis these practices placeIt is used to aid a person’s physical, emo- on the unseen world of emotions,tional, or spiritual health. A typical session dreams, and spiritual forces to help healmay begin with a “smudging” ceremony. illnesses and guide them in living a healthy and fulfilling life. While shaman-This consists of burning a small amountof dried sage, often mixed with other ism rarely offers a quick fix for acute ill- nesses, many people have reportedherbs such as sweet grass and cedar. profound physical and emotional reliefSmoke from the smudge pot might be through contemporary shamanic prac-wafted with a feathered fan over the per- tices. With a history as long and enduringson’s body, sometimes from head to toe. as humankind itself, it is hard to find aShamans believe that the person is more time-tested method for bringing“cleansed” as the smoke lifts away dark or harmony and comfort to body and mind.negative influences and energies. The smudging ceremony may be fol-lowed by a “journey” in which the —Hal Zina Bennettshaman enters the unseen world inorder to consult guiding spiritual forces. Resources:A person may also journey to the unseenworld for him- or herself. In this prac- Conference on the Study of Shamanism and Alter-tice, the shamanic counselor may begin native Modes of Healingby discussing the person’s problem. The Ruth-Inge Heinze, Ph.D.person may then be told to close his or 2321 Russell Street, Suite 3Aher eyes, relax, and imagine the journey Berkeley, CA 94705that he or she is about to make. With the Promotes shamanism as a healing practice. 21
  • 53. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines Other Shamanic Techniques Vision Quests: In this practice, a person spends a day or more alone in the wilderness. There he or she is able to fast and meditate without distractions. This can be used to help people contemplate their own inner worlds, their fears, dreams, strengths, and gifts. It can also be used to experience a oneness with nature. Sun Dances: The sun dance was originally used to help warriors get in touch with their inner strengths and to draw strength from the spirits of nature such as those found in trees, rocks, clouds and sky. Usually over a period of several days, the young warrior was prepared through fasting, meditation, and counsel with an elder. Then small hooks or barbs were placed in the fleshy portions of his chest. Cords fastened these hooks to a tree or post and the dancer leaned back against them, naturally causing some pain. The dancers stood in this way from dawn to dusk, usually in the hot sun. It was a test of one’s endurance and one’s ability to deal with his or her own fears and dis- comforts. People who experienced the sun dance claimed to have gained dramatic self-knowledge. Even today there are those who repeat the sun dance every year. Drumming Circles: This practice uses drums for therapeutic purposes. Usually there is a lead, or “mother,” drum with a deep voice that sets a simple rhythm based on the heartbeat. People participate in these circles to help focus their energies, rather than to perform or make music. During a drumming circle, there are many conversations with the drums, which are used to teach participants how to listen and communicate with one another. Some people look upon drumming circles as times of communion, where people are brought together at a deep spiritual level. Medicine Wheel: The medicine wheel is an important practice in most shamanic tra- ditions; evidence of its use can be found in every part of the world. People form a wheel by gathering in a circle to discuss a problem or to bring about a change that affects them all. At the wheel, all people have equal status and an equal chance to speak. The wheel is used to allow a joining of their “spirits,” that is, the inner worlds of each participant. It is understood that no single person at the wheel ever has the ulti- mate answer; rather, the solution is to be found as a community. Sweat Lodge: A dome-shaped structure is constructed with willow branch poles, cov- ered with hides or blankets. Prayers are offered and each participant is blessed upon entering the lodge. Then rocks, which have been heated at a fire outside the lodge, are brought inside and placed in the center. Water is poured over the rocks and the heat inside the lodge rises. In this steamy, hot environment, the participants meditate and contemplate their own lives or the lives of their community. The ceremonies and ritu- als that are performed vary with each lodge. Some create a medicine wheel. Others may sing. Still others may eat ritual herbs or peyote, a drug that produces hallucina- tions. The purpose of the sweat lodge, as with most shamanic practices, is to get in touch with the forces and energies of the invisible world in order to improve the qual- ity of life.22
  • 54. Traditional Chinese Medicine traces its mixture of herbal medicine,The Foundation for Shamanic Studies acupuncture, and massage therapy backP Box 1939 .O. to the origins of Taoism and Confucian-Mill Valley, CA 94942 ism. With a heavy emphasis on under-Tel: (415) 380-8282 standing the patient and his or herSponsors workshops on shamanic training. Call or needs, as opposed to focusing on the ill-write for a catalog of their workshops. ness and its symptoms, TCM offers a counterpoint and complement to theFurther Reading: bio-science of Western medicine. TCM has been studied and practicedBooks: in many Asian countries such as Japan as long ago as 600 CE. Some Asian countriesAndrews, Lynn. Medicine Woman. San Francisco: such as Korea and Japan have developed HarperCollins, 1981. their own modifications to TCM. For thisBeck, P. V., Anna Lee Walters, and Nia Francisco, reason, the term Oriental medicine is eds. The Sacred Ways of Knowledge, Sources of sometimes used instead of Chinese med- Life. Flagstaff, AZ: Northland Publishing Co., icine. However, all forms of traditional 1990. Oriental medicine are considered to have originated from the work done in ChinaBennett, Hal Zina. Spirit Guides. Ukiah, CA: during the Han dynasty. Tenacity Press, 1997. Because of the sociopolitical climate———. Zuni Fetishes: Using Native American in modern China, a wide gap exists Objects for Meditation, Reflection, and Personal between current TCM theory and tradi- Insight. San Francisco: HarperCollins, 1995 tional TCM. Unfortunately, English translations of TCM have been avail-Campbell, Joseph. Primitive Mythology. New York: able for only the past fifteen years, even McGraw-Hill, 1978. then usually for a modern, officially sanctioned version of TCM. DifferentCastaneda, Carlos. The Teachings of Don Juan: A translations often contain confusing Yaqui Way of Knowledge. New York: Ballantine, variations. For example, an important 1968. word we will discuss later like qi may beHarner, Michael J. The Way of the Shaman: A spelled chi (using an older translation Guide to Power and Healing. San Francisco: system) or ki (Japanese). All three ver- HarperCollins, 1980. sions have the same meaning. In this essay, the modern Pinyin form of Chi-Morgan, M. Mutant Message. New York: Harper- nese will be provided when possible. Collins, 1994. Understanding these translation princi-Journals: ples can help you to read and under- stand other books and articles on theShaman’s Drum: A Journal of Contemporary subject of TCM. Shamanism. The History of TCM In China an extremely organized systemTRADITIONAL CHINESE of healing developed during the period known as the Han dynasty (approxi-MEDICINE mately 213 BCE–240 CE). At this time in Chinese history the country was finally reunited into one empire after hundredsT raditional Chinese medicine of years of fighting in the Warring States (TCM) is an ancient approach to period (476–221 BCE). Both Confucian health care. Still practiced today in and Taoist philosophies emerged fromone form or another by almost one the Warring States period, and both ofquarter of the world’s population, TCM these philosophies had an important 23
  • 55. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines Photo: Bruce Hands / © Tony Stone Images While discussing a patient’s state of health, TCM doctors observe other indicators, including skin color- ing, body structure, tone of voice, and scent. impact on TCM. At the time of the Han The lines or pathways are usually called dynasty there were many different kinds meridians. Places where the qi comes of healers and teachers in China. Confu- right up to the surface are called acu- cianism was the main political power in points. The qi is believed to circulate court. During this time Ssu-ma Chien through this system connecting the became the Grand Historian of the Court, deepest internal organs to places on the and great importance was placed on skin where the energy can be influenced organizing and recording written records. and treated. The points can be treated During this time three books were with needles (acupuncture), heat (moxi- written that are still considered the cor- bustion), or manipulation (acupressure). nerstones of TCM. The first was called The qi system was described in more the Yellow Emperor’s Internal Classic detail in the second book, called the (Huang di-nei Jing or simply Nei Jing). Classic of Difficult Issues (Nan Jing). The The Nei Jing refers to both Taoist and Nan Jing is believed to have been written Confucian concepts. The Taoist perspec- at least one hundred years after the Nei tive of health emphasizes living in har- Jing. The Nan Jing refers to information mony with nature and achieving in the Nei Jing and expands on those longevity. The Confucian ideals describe ideas. The Nan Jing goes so far as to say an integrated system within the human that a person’s health can be directly body that reflected the orderly social analyzed just from carefully feeling the structure finally made possible in one qi and blood as it moves through the unified state. radial artery in the wrist. This is called This organized structure was eventu- the radial pulse. Modern practices of ally mapped into the specific lines and TCM still use this map of the qi system pathways we see on acupuncture charts. to diagnose and treat their clients.24
  • 56. Traditional Chinese Medicine The third book is believed to have The introduction of Western culturebeen written around 220 CE. Written by a in China began a period of slow declinevery famous physician and scholar for TCM. The obvious realities revealednamed Zhang Zhong-Jing, it is called through anatomical study made manythe Treatise on Harm Caused by Cold Chinese physicians and scholars feel less(Shang Han Lun). This book deals with confident in some of TCM’s less tangiblehow outside influences such as colds, theories. The Chinese government alsoflu viruses, and plagues can attack and applied political pressures that affectedmake people sick, and describes how to the publication of certain literature.treat these problems with Chinese Eventually there began a trend to weedherbal medicine. out the more “esoteric” ideas from Chi- Zhang Zhong-Jing described six nese medical literature. While ideas asspecific layers of the body’s defense sys- fundamental as the qi and bloodtem and matched these with already rec- remained intact, references to the spiri-ognized meridian pathways. He tual components became more anddescribed the qualities of illness as they more simplified. Under the Communistinvaded each layer and gave specific regime, many ideas came to be viewed asherbal formulas that could be used for superstitious and unscientific. Thesetreatment. Using a wide variety of herbs ideas were disregarded and systematical-given in specific dosages, he created for- ly eliminated from revised texts.mulas that could match detailed patterns To this day very little of original TCMof diagnosis. Zhang’s use of herbal medi- literature has been translated into West-cine introduced a whole new level of ern languages. Subsequently, TCM issophistication within the possibilities of often described in terms of the clinicalTCM. While he cannot be credited with approach presently being used in hospi-inventing Chinese herbal formulas, his tals in mainland China. While this sys-ability to understand and match patterns tem offers very effective clinicalof illness with the herbs that will cure applications for the treatment of dis-them place him as one of the founding ease, much of the broader perspectivefathers of Chinese herbal medicine. and theories remain buried in literary Over the next 1,500 years, China con- Chinese characters.tinued to develop and perfect the ideasthat originated in the Han dynasty. Many Guiding Principlesphysicians and scholars continued to Influenced by its Taoist origins, TCMpractice and write about their ideas and views the human body as an image of theresults. Ideas that were originally used natural world. This is reflected in the ter-by particular authors and schools of minology of TCM. Energy is said to flowthought were eventually homogenized through the body in “rivers,” often to ainto guiding principles for one predomi- bodily “reservoir” or “sea.” A diagnosisnant system of medicine. might describe an ailment as “liver fire,” By the end of the Ming dynasty (1643 or an entire organ system as part of theCE) another idea, now described as the water element. These terms do noteight principles, began to emerge. This reflect a lack of sophistication on the partmodel included all of the dynamics that of TCM, but rather a conscious decisionimpact health. These are internal and to accept that the human body is a par-external factors, hot and cold, yin and ticipating, not an isolated, part of theyang, and excess vs. deficiency. This surrounding world. The language ofmodel was used to integrate many of the TCM reflects how the ancients tried toprevious models in TCM. The Ming was reconcile their observations of thethe last dynasty in which traditional human body with what they observed inChinese medicine continued to evolve nature.and flourish without being influenced Continuous, dynamic movement isby Western thought and medicine. something the ancient Chinese observed 25
  • 57. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines in both the human body and in all the body can be treated as entirely sep- nature. They viewed this movement as arate from the whole. an interaction between two opposite but TCM uses the term resonance to complementary energies that they describe the relationship between the called yin and yang. In Chinese philoso- five essential substances and their role phy these forces are understood to com- in our health. Resonance describes the plement and help nourish each other. idea that certain qualities may be iden- Neither can exist without the other. tified as similar within different spheres Examples of dynamic interaction of existence. For example, the morning between pairs of opposites can be seen time of day has a quality of energy that in the constant interplay of day and is similar to or resonates with the spring night, male and female, or hot and cold. time of the year. This quality of rising All the organs and actions of the body energy identifies them as a particular may be categorized as either yin or yang. stage in a cycle of change. TCM identifies five “essential sub- Such stages of change are referred to stances” at work in the human body: as elements or transformations. The spring and morning are categorized as 1. Spirit (shen), which determines how belonging to the wood element stage of people direct and conduct them- what is known as the five-element cycle. selves in life. This cycle is used to explain how energy is 2. Energy or electromagnetic force constantly changing. It can be applied to (qi ), a Chinese concept that cannot the day, the year, the human body, or any- be translated into just one English thing else we want to understand. word. Qi is how the spirit moves and In TCM the five-element cycle has becomes materialized in the body. proved to be an exceptionally versatile It describes both activity and a frame of reference for explaining the material substance. The concept of patterns of dynamic change in our phys- qi bridges the line of distinction ical bodies. Each of our ten primary that the English language makes organs is correlated with one of the five between energy and matter. elements of nature: fire, soil, metal, 3. Blood is the same blood we refer to water, and wood. Doctors of Chinese from a Western anatomical view, but medicine then correlate the ways in from the TCM perspective, it is which these elements interact in nature imbued with the nutritional and at large with the way these organs and energetic qualities TCM attributes the dynamic qualities of yin and yang to qi. This aspect of blood is called work together in the physical body. For the ying qi and it circulates with and example, an inflamed liver might be in the blood, as it moves through seen as having too much fire. The solu- the vessels and performs its various tion to the problem is best deduced from functions. the way nature cools fire with water. In 4. Body fluids ( jin ye), which include the case of “liver fire,” a yang excess con- sweat, tears, cerebral spinal fluid, dition, the patient will naturally be very and other fluids of the body. thirsty and want to drink large quantities 5. Essence ( jing), which in English may of cold water. The practitioner treating be understood as potential. This such a condition knows that the excess includes our genetic potential as “fire” needs to be dispersed or drained well as the potential of any person or and more “water” quality added to the thing to take an action. meridian in order to keep the fire in These essential substances are under- check. Using either needles, acupres- stood to exist as a continuum of each sure, magnets, or other techniques, a other. None can be considered as skilled practitioner will choose to use a entirely separate, just as no one part of dispersing technique on the fire point of26
  • 58. Traditional Chinese Medicinethe liver meridian and will tonify the cian to create formulas that skillfullywater point. Understanding that the match the patient’s condition.entire kidney organ system reflects the Chinese herbal medicine stores canwater element, a practitioner may also usually be found in any major city of thechoose to bring in more water or yin United States where there is a significantquality using specific kidney meridian Asian population. Often these herbpoints. shops are owned or run by practitioners Just as the five essential substances or “doctors” of Chinese herbal medicine.are all seen as part of one living whole, When this is the case “customers” havethe dynamic interplay of yin and yang the option of becoming “patients” whenenergies and the five elements are they go into the store. Often a number ofunderstood as having a complex inter- practitioners in one area will refer allactive relationship with one another. their patients to one local herb store inExtensive study of Chinese medicine is order to have their herbal prescriptionsneeded to truly understand and effec- filled. In this way Chinese herbal medi-tively direct these complex interactions. cine stores act as pharmacies.Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine Four ExaminationsOver the last two decades, the ancient TCM practitioners use a system calledarts of acupuncture, Chinese herbology, the “four examinations” to diagnose aand Oriental bodywork therapy have patient and determine a proper courseemerged from the privacy of Asian- of treatment. The examinations includeAmerican communities and into the the following steps:greater American consciousness. Unlike acupuncture and Oriental 1. Questioning : Starting with informa-bodywork therapy, which use physical tion about a specific complaint orpressure and manipulation to effect condition, the experienced practi-changes in the way a patient’s body tioner asks about other symptomsfunctions, Chinese herbal medicine and signs that can help point towardcounts on the properties of different a specific pattern. In the Mingplants and foods to stimulate or calm dynasty Zhang Jie-Bin developed adifferent parts of the body. In many set of ten specific questions, andways, this is similar to the drugs of modified versions of this are stillWestern medicine, but because Chinese useful today.herbal medicine employs “whole” natu- 2. Looking : The practitioner carefullyrally occurring food substances, the risk observes the patient’s appearance.of causing harmful side effects is greatly This usually includes looking at thereduced. person’s tongue, face, and body Chinese herbal medicine must be structure.studied as a distinct skill. Its practition- 3. Touching: The practitioner carefullyers must learn the pharmacopiae, a feels the radial pulse in the patient’sname for the knowledge of the names, wrist for a very specific assessment ofcharacteristics, and actions in the body the patient’s qi, blood, and otherof all the individual herbs. Dosage for- essences. Some practitioners can getmulas must be memorized along with most of their information from thisvarious modifications for each. Knowl- one source. If the person’s complaintedge of contraindications and hidden is a pain or injury, then the practi-effects for specific herbs is an important tioner must examine the injured orpart of what must be studied. This painful area. A number of other setsinformation can take years to assimi- of points and microsystems (thelate. Nevertheless, all this information hand, foot, ear) may also be used foris necessary for the experienced clini- palpation. 27
  • 59. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines 4. Listening and smelling : This aspect certification through the National Com- of the four examinations involves mission for Certification of Acupuncture listening to the patient’s voice, and Oriental Medicine (NCCAOM) is noticing any strange odors (which one clear way to be sure that a practi- could, for example, indicate infec- tioner is at least competent. It is quite tion), and otherwise gleaning infor- possible, however, to find master-level mation that a patient does not practitioners who have not chosen to get actually report to the practitioner. such a credential. Once the assessment is clear, the doc- —Cindy Banker tor of herbal medicine writes out a pre- scription to be filled with exact dosages of Resources: each herb. Some prescriptions call for bags or batches of herbs, which are often American Association of Acupuncture and Orien- packed in wrapped paper. For such pre- tal Medicine scriptions, dosage is determined by the 4101 Lake Boone Trail, Suite 201 number of bags to be cooked and used Raleigh, NC 27607 within a specified time frame. Patients Tel: (919) 787-5181 who are unfamiliar with their formulas Offers information on TCM. need to be instructed on how to cook their prescription into a tea or soup. Some- National Commission for Certification of times one or two herbs need to be added Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine separately to make their cooking time (NCCAOM) longer or shorter than other ingredients. 1424 16th St. NW, Suite 501 For less serious problems, experienced Washington, DC 20026 customers are able to use the herbal store Provides certification for practitioners of acupunc- as a pharmacy, buying familiar, simple ture, Chinese herbal medicine, and Oriental body- remedies without a prescription. work therapy. The New Center for Wholistic Health, Education Benefits and Risks and Research The three disciplines of traditional Chi- 6801 Jericho Turnpike nese medicine have evolved over thou- Syosset, NY 11791 sands of years and are considered to be Promotes the study and practice of TCM. safe for almost anyone who wishes to try them. Many schools for TCM have adjusted their programs to incorporate Further Reading: more training in modern Western sci- ence. More medical schools, such as Cheng, Xinnong, editor. Chinese Acupuncture and Harvard Medical School, are including Moxibustion. Beijing: Foreign Language Press, courses to help Western physicians to 1987. refer to and work with alternative medi- Enqing, Dr. Zhang, editor. Practical English-Chi- cine. For this reason, anyone thinking nese Library of traditional Chinese medicine. about choosing a full program of TCM Shanghai: Publishing House of Shanghai Col- should consult with both TCM and lege, 1990. Western doctors to understand the strengths and shortcomings of each. Kaptchuk, Ted J. The Web That Has No Weaver. As with all health programs, choosing New York: Congdon & Weed, 1983. a therapist is a crucial decision. To decide Unschuld, Paul, editor. Introductory Readings in whether your herbalist or therapist is Classical Chinese Medicine. Dordrecht, Nether- properly qualified, a prospective patient lands: Kluwar Academic Publishers, 1988. should carefully ask the doctor where and how he or she learned this discipline. For Yubin, L. & L. Chengcai. Advanced Traditional Chi- Chinese herbal medicine, national nese Medicine Series. Amsterdam: IOS Press, 1996.28
  • 60. WellnessWELLNESS entities. Descartes’ premise, known as the Cartesian Principle, led to the mech- anistic paradigm, which eventually ledW ellness programs are based on to the belief that the human body acts holism, sometimes called holis- like a machine and the way to treat dis- tic wellness, a philosophy of ease and illness (the opposite of health)health that believes well-being is not just was through medications and surgery.a condition of physical health or the The wellness paradigm holds thatabsence of disease and illness. Rather, there is no separation between mind,health is a balance of elements that body, spirit, and emotions. All aspects ofinclude the mental, emotional, spiritual, the human condition are so tightly con-and physical aspects of the human condi- nected that it is impossible to distin-tion. In other words, wellness is the inte- guish one from the other. An ancientgration, balance, and harmony of mind, theory that is supported by manybody, spirit, and emotions, where the experts in several disciplines suggestswhole is thought to be greater than the that each aspect of the human condi-sum of the parts. Wellness professionals tion is comprised of energy, with thebelieve that the lines separating the men- most dense energy being the most obvi-tal, physical, emotional, and spiritual ous and tangible: the physical body.aspects exist in theory, but not in actuali- Here then are definitions for eachty. Research in the field of psychoneu- aspect of the wellness paradigm:roimmunology (the relationship between • Emotional well-being is best definedemotions and the body) reveals that there as the ability to feel and express theis no division between these aspects, and entire range of human emotionsthey should be regarded as one. from anger to love, and to control them, not be controlled by them.History of the Wellness Approach • Physical well-being is defined as theAlthough the concept of wellness is optimal condition of each of thethousands of years old, the word well- body’s physiological systems. Theseness was introduced into the American include pulmonary, cardiovascular,vernacular in the 1960s. Thought by nervous, immune, reproductive, uri-many to be an expansion of the fitness nary, endocrine, musculoskeletalmovement of the late 1970s and early and digestive.1980s, wellness is considered to be a • Mental well-being is understood asmore comprehensive approach to opti- the ability to gather, process, recall,mal health than standard health educa- and communicate information. Liketion programs that treated specific a computer, the mind can gather andsymptoms or were used to prevent dis- store mass quantities of information.ease. Addressing more than physical ail- • Spiritual well-being is defined as thements, wellness programs integrate, maturation of higher consciousnessbalance, and harmonize the physical, as developed through the dynamicmental, emotional, and spiritual aspects integration of three facets: relation-of the wellness paradigm. Today pro- ships (internal, how you relate tograms are offered in corporate, commu- yourself and a higher power, howevernity, hospital, and fitness club settings. you conceive this to be; and external, how you relate and interact with all people in your life), a personal valueThe Basic Principles of Wellness system, and a meaningful purpose inIt may seem as if mind, body, spirit, and life.emotions are separate aspects—apremise proposed by the French philoso- An important figure in the wellnesspher René Descartes (1596–1650) stated area, Dr. Elizabeth Kübler-Ross, outlinesthat the mind and body are separate a theory that suggests that although all 29
  • 61. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines Spiritual Emotional Well-being Well-being Mental Physical Well-being Well-being The wellness model of a complete human being. four components are always present in years. As Kübler-Ross and others note, the human condition, each component there are many people who never move dominates in our lives as we journey into this phase of development because through the life cycle. The first compo- of laziness, mistrust, or fear. nent is the emotional, in which we experience the array of human emo- How Wellness Works tions. During this time, we may be con- With the help of a thorough personal ditioned by parents, guardians, or even history and open discussions between society to suppress our feelings, which the patient and practitioner, the practi- could likely result in emotional dys- tioner will be able to recognize an function later in life. The influence of imbalance or problem in one of the four physical development begins to domi- areas. He or she will then be able to nate at puberty and continues well guide the patient to a program or ser- throughout the teen years. The mental vices that address the patient’s needs. or intellectual aspect kicks in during the The wellness professional has a whole college years and endures well into mid- range of programs to choose from and is life, as we exercise our mental capabili- aware of how these services and pro- ties through the thinking processes of grams interact and affect the patient. the right and left brain and the con- Wellness professionals work in partner- scious and unconscious minds. The last ship with their patients and recom- section of the wellness paradigm, the mend treatments that support the spiritual, emerges during the mid-life body’s natural healing system.30
  • 62. Wellness Wellness ProgrammingWhen evaluating the dynamics of wellness applications, there are many programsand services that need to be considered. Below is a partial list of wellness programservices, by their respective holistic components. Keep in mind that a service listed inone area has a crossover effect in all the other areas.Physical Well-being: Spiritual Well-being:Aerobic Fitness Values Clarification and AssessmentCholesterol Screenings Journal WritingBlood Pressure Screenings Dance TherapyBlood Sugar Screenings MeditationWeight Training Communing with NatureNutritional Assessments Inner Resource DevelopmentBiofeedback Human Potential DevelopmentMassage Therapy Community Service ProjectsHatha Yoga Social Support GroupT’ai ChiMental Well-being: Emotional Well-being:Meditation Humor TherapyMental Imagery Music and Art TherapyStress Management AromatherapyTime Management Codependency TherapyCreativity & Creative Problem Solving Grieving TherapyCommunication Skills Communication SkillsDream Analysis Creative Anger Management Stress Management 31
  • 63. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines The Benefits of a Wellness Approach National Wellness Institute 1045 Clark St., Suite 210 to Health Stevens Point, WI 54481-0827 Wellness programs focus on reaching Tel: (800) 243-8694 higher levels of wellness as well as pre- Fax: (715) 342-2979 venting illness. Many patients are moti- Founded in 1977, this is a full resource center for vated by the energy and vitality that wellness practitioners and those interested in well- result from a holistic approach to life, ness programs. especially when they realize that the benefits could continue and allow them to feel good for many years. Further Reading: —Brian Luke Seaward, Ph.D. Edlin, Gordon, Eric Golanty, and Kelli McCormack Brown. Health and Wellness. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 1996. Resources: Travis, John, and Regina S. Ryan. The Wellness National Wellness Association (NWA) Workbook, Second Edition. Berkeley, CA: Ten 1045 Clark St., Suite 210 Speed Press, 1988. Stevens Point, WI 54481-0827 Tel: (715) 342-2969 Fax: (715) 342-2979 e-mail: Web site: A nonprofit professional membership organization that disseminates information and provides ser- vices to professionals working in wellness areas.32
  • 64. PART II: SKELETAL MANIPULATION METHODS Chiropractic • CranioSacral Therapy • Network Chiropractic • Osteopathy • Zero Balancing® Skeletal manipulationmethods are a group ofhealing practices that focuson the form of the skeletonto improve the functioningof the whole person. Theyare part of a larger group ofpractices that have come tobe known collectively asbodywork. Bodywork is ageneral term describing awide variety of methodsthat use touch to improveawareness of feelings and Photo: Still National Osteopathic Museum, Kirksville, MOsensations in the body andimprove physical function-ing. Bodywork methods arealso used to relieve painand encourage relaxation.There are many disciplinesin this book included in thebodywork category. Theycan be found in the sec-tions entitled Acupunctureand Asian Bodywork, Body-Oriented Psychotherapies,Massage, Movement Ther- Dr. Andrew Taylor Still, founder of osteopathy, championed the idea that a thorough knowledge of the human skeleton could be the basisapy Methods, Somatic for a complete health care method.Practices, and Subtle Ener-gy Practices. The oldest methods in this section, chiropractic and osteopathy, developed inresponse to the conventional medical practices prevalent in America in the mid- tolate nineteenth century. The other skeletal manipulation methods evolved from theseseminal practices. In addition to their historical roots, these methods also share a the-oretical framework. They view the human being as an integrated whole of body, mind, 33
  • 65. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines and spirit, possessing its own innate healing and balancing mechanisms that guide communication between the interrelated systems of the body. The goal of all of these drugless methods is to remove any structural alterations to the natural skeletal align- ment that may impede the operation of these innate healing and balancing mecha- nisms. The older methods, osteopathy and chiropractic, are used by millions as primary health care modalities for treating a wide variety of health problems. The younger methods derived from them are generally used to treat specific problems or to enhance general physical health and emotional well-being. The Development of Skeletal Manipulation for Health The practice of manipulating the skeleton for optimal health is ancient and wide- spread. Some medical historians report that the Egyptians used such techniques. The earliest written record of skeletal manipulation comes to us from China, where meth- ods of bodywork were developed several thousand years ago as part of a complete health care system. The Asian bodywork methods practiced today that are derived from these ancient practices are similar to the skeletal manipulation methods described in this section in that both of them manipulate the physical body with the goal of influencing a vital life force. There is no evidence that these Eastern practices directly influenced the development of the earliest skeletal manipulation methods. But it is very likely that the philosophy upon which these Eastern practices are based, which was introduced into American cultural discourse in the late nineteenth centu- ry, indirectly influenced the founders of chiropractic and osteopathy. Hippocrates (c. 430–377 BCE), the father of modern Western medicine, is reputed to have said that dislocations of the spine are the origin of many ailments, but it is unclear how this belief affected his medical practice. The recorded history of manip- ulating the skeleton as a means of treating disease and creating optimum health begins in the West with the work of Andrew Taylor Still (1838–1917). A controversial figure in American medical history, Still rebelled against the medical practices of his day, which included heavy use of drugs, purging, and bloodletting. He formulated the gentle, drugless, noninvasive principles and techniques of osteopathy and estab- lished its first school in Kirksville, Missouri, in 1892. Unlike Still, Daniel David Palmer (1845–1913), the founder of chiropractic, had no formal medical training, but practiced various forms of energy healing popular at the end of the nineteenth century. Chiropractic was formally introduced as a healing modality in 1895. Some medical historians report that Palmer was treated by Still in Kirksville in 1893. Whether or not this particular treatment occurred, given Palmer’s lifelong interest in unconventional healing techniques, it is certainly probable that he was familiar with Still’s groundbreaking work. Both osteopathy and chiropractic have had long, arduous struggles for accep- tance within the conventional medical establishment. Today doctors of osteopathy (D.O.s) and doctors of chiropractic (DCs) are licensed to practice throughout the United States and Canada. In recent years a number of D.O.s and DCs have added their own insights to these century-old healing modalities to create more personal- ized approaches to healing the whole person through manipulation of the skeleton. These new methods include CranioSacral therapy, which focuses primarily on manipulating the bones of the skull; network chiropractic, which blends Western34
  • 66. psychotherapeutic theory with gentle chiropractic techniques; and Zero Balancing®,which integrates Eastern concepts of energy with skeletal manipulation.Using the Body’s Inborn Healing Potential All the methods described in this section believe that the body has an inborn heal-ing potential. This potential is called by many names, such as “energy,” “spirit,” or“innate intelligence,” by the practitioners of these methods. Andrew Taylor Stillbelieved this energy was transmitted primarily through the blood, whereas DanielDavid Palmer postulated that it moved primarily through the nervous system. Ineither event, both methods, and all the methods derived from them, when practicedin their most pure form, are drugless, concentrating on releasing structural misalign-ments in the skeleton and thereby allowing the body’s own internal healing and bal-ancing systems to work freely. Practitioners of skeletal manipulation methods see the relationship between struc-ture and function in the body to be interdependent. Just as the wooden or steel frameof a building supports its heating, plumbing, and electrical systems, practitioners ofskeletal manipulation methods see our bones as the supporting framework of all othersystems of our body. If the framework is faulty or collapsing at any point, it is likely tocause damage to the interior systems. Likewise, if there is a problem in an interior sys-tem such as a leaky pipe, which on a body level might correspond to a diseased organsuch as kidney, liver, or heart, that malfunction will eventually cause a structuraldefect in the building such as a bulge in a wall with peeling paint, or buckling wallpa-per. On a body level these changes in structure will appear as misalignments in theskeleton and as pain caused by muscles responding to the skeletal changes. Furthermore, skeletal manipulation methods view the systems of the body asinterrelated. A common everyday activity such as reaching high for something tuckedaway on a closet shelf or vigorously swinging a baseball bat could initiate a series ofsystemic changes that begin as a small change in the alignment of the upper spine. Ifleft unchecked this dislocation could cause localized muscular pain in the shoulder orupper back area, and then shortness of breath as muscles between the ribs in theupper torso contract in response to the structural change. Restricted breath may inturn lead to any number of complicated health problems, including bronchitis, asth-ma, heart conditions, and even depression. In a like manner, emotional problems such as a traumatic experience, phobias, andeven addictions, which can cause chemical toxicity, are seen as possible causes ofstructural changes in the body. These structural changes then initiate a chain reactionin the interdependent systems of the body, which stimulates further emotional orphysical cravings. Many practitioners of skeletal manipulation methods extend thisholistic view of the causes and effects of alterations to skeletal alignment to everyaspect of a person’s life including genetic inheritance, diet, exercise, daily activities,and stress from work and personal relationships.Experiencing Skeletal Manipulation Practitioners of skeletal manipulation methods rely predominantly on the use ofthe hands, physical contact, and knowledge of anatomy to diagnose patients. Touch-ing and physically moving the patient in various ways allows the practitioner to feel 35
  • 67. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines the alignment of the skeleton and the state of the muscular system. In this way they are able to treat a spectrum of chronic and acute health problems. Each of these disciplines has its standard techniques for manipulating the skele- ton. Chiropractors focus on the manipulation of the spine itself. They see the flow of information from the central nervous system housed inside the spine as the primary self-regulating system of the body. CranioSacral therapists focus on the relationship of the bones of the skull to each other to monitor the wavelike flow of cerebrospinal fluid, which they believe to be a barometer of healthy functioning throughout all the systems of the body. Zero Balancers focus on special joints, called foundation joints, which they believe are the primary regulators of energy throughout the body. Osteopaths may manipulate the spine, including the skull, or any other joint of the skeleton where they feel skeletal misalignment is negatively affecting the whole per- son. Although in their original and most pure forms osteopathy and chiropractic used only manipulation techniques, today many D.O.s and DCs add other tech- niques to treatment plans, including recommendations of specific exercises, dietary or lifestyle changes, and in some cases herbal or pharmaceutical remedies. Providing Relief for Millions of People Each Year Skeletal manipulation methods are reported to help more than 15 million people each year who are suffering from a variety of physical and emotional problems. They have been found to help with problems that have not responded to conventional Western medical practices. Whether you are looking for a comprehensive health modality or relief from a specific pain or condition, these methods may offer unique, drug-free, holistic approaches to healing and maintaining optimum health of body and mind. —Nancy Allison, CMA Resources: Fax: (312) 280-3860 Web site: American Chiropractic Association Offers educational and professional support to 1701 Clarendon Boulevard osteopathic physicians. Arlington, VA 22209 Tel: (703) 276-8800 Further Reading: Provides information about chiropractic, including monthly publications, newsletters, and clinical Montague, Ashley. Touching: The Human Signifi- councils. cance of Skin. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986. American Association of College of Osteopathic Medicine (AACOM) 5550 Friendship Blvd. Suite 310 Chevy Chase, MD 20815-7231 Tel: (800) 621-1773, ext. 740136
  • 68. ChiropracticCHIROPRACTIC “done by hand,” evokes ancient Hippo- cratic teachings, virtually all its princi- ples and techniques are late nineteenthC hiropractic is a mode of bodywork century in derivation. Manual “bone- that promotes self-healing by setting” was accepted practice, and manipulating the spine so as to irregularities in the nervous systemremove blocks in the transmission of were commonly viewed as the cause ofnerve impulses from the brain through illness. The third major component inthe spinal nerves and out to all parts of chiropractic, the use of the hands tothe body. It postulates that malfunction harmonize the circulation of nervousin any aspect of the individual can be energy, came from Palmer’s experienceattributed to subluxations, misalign- as a magnetic healer, or Mesmerist. Inments of the vertebrae that disturb the Mesmerism the hands are passed overspinal nerves in their mediation of the person’s field of electromagneticmind and body. Further, chiropractic energy with the aim of correcting imbal-subscribes to the basic principle that ances regarded as the cause of illness.the immune system will function per- Palmer advanced beyond Mesmeristfectly and maintain the person in concepts as his work progressed, but herobust, good health as long as misalign- never relinquished its vision of a treat-ments of the spine do not constrict the ment that bypasses drugs and surgerynervous system. Other therapeutic in favor of direct contact between themethods such as nutritional counseling hands of the healer and the life force ofmay be included in chiropractic, but the person. By 1895 he had put togethertreatment always focuses upon detec- the basic principles of chiropractic andtion and adjustment of vertebral mis- was winning renown throughout thealignments. Chiropractic is the second- Midwest for “miracle cures” of appar-largest primary health care field in the ently irreversible Proponents credit it with a wide Palmer’s son, Bartlett Joshua Palmerrange of benefits, from relief of chronic (1881–1961), transformed chiropracticback pain to successful treatment of into a profession with a following thatasthma and depression. was devoted but rocked by persistent controversy. Doctors of medicine wereA Long History generally opposed to the growth of aThere is strong evidence that adjust- competing system of health care andment of the spine has been used as a led efforts to make chiropractic illegal.form of medical treatment since civi- Attacks on its lack of scientific rigorlization first began. A Chinese manu- intensified debate about the interpre-script of 2700 BCE records details of soft tation of Palmer’s legacy within the chi-tissue manipulation, and the Greeks are ropractic community. “Straights”known to have developed similar prac- argued that chiropractic should consisttices around 1500 BCE. In a treatise of the solely of hands-on vertebral adjustmentfifth century BCE, Hippocrates encour- and condemned as traitors those whoaged his patients to “get knowledge of “mixed” spinal adjustment with otherthe spine, for many diseases have their forms of therapy or used mechanicalorigin in dislocations of the vertebral devices in lieu of their hands.column.” Present-day chiropractors continue to David Daniel Palmer is responsible identify themselves as either “straights”for developing the form of spinal or “mixers,” but the struggle to win publicadjustment used today. Born in 1845, respect and authority for chiropractic isPalmer was an American who worked as largely over. During the 1930s John J.a healer through most of his life but had Nugent started a movement that gradual-no formal medical training. While its ly raised the standards at chiropracticGreek name, chiropractic, meaning schools and set up chiropractic licensing 37
  • 69. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines Photo: Martha Tabor / Impact Visuals Chiropractic techniques manipulate the spine to aid the healing process in any part of the body. laws in all the states. More recently chiro- study of symptoms generally overlooks practic has benefited from a swing the true cause of the crisis. Ninety-five toward natural medicine that stimulated percent of all disease, he contended, is broad interest in its history and potential attributable to vertebral misalignment as an alternative mode of health care. that interferes with the transmission of Because of the experiments of “mixers,” information from the “innate intelli- chiropractic is rapidly becoming more gence” to the spinal nerves. diversified and offers nutritional coun- Contemporary chiropractors are seling, massage, and an increasing use of more apt to speak of an inborn switch- mechanical devices. board than of “innate intelligence,” but they adhere to Palmer’s belief that ill- Finding the True Cause nesses are often caused by subluxated Palmer believed the human being is vertebrae and in numerous instances born with an ever vigilant “innate intel- are misdiagnosed because the symp- ligence” or “innate mind” that superin- toms do not point directly to back trou- tends all the body’s functions and seeks ble. For example, chronic bladder to achieve homeostasis, a state of bal- infection may be the result of a mis- ance that extends “to every individual alignment of the lower vertebrae that cell in the living organism.” Thus in chi- irritates the nerves leading to the blad- ropractic, much as in therapeutic touch der. Palmer performed his most famous or osteopathy, virtually unlimited pow- cure, restoring the hearing of a man ers of self-healing are imputed to the deaf for seventeen years, by correcting a person, and drugs are seen as detrimen- subluxation of the upper spine. tal to the workings of the body’s own Diagnosis and treatment in chiroprac- defense mechanisms. Palmer also tic are therefore organized, not around taught that diagnosis of disease through disease, but around signs of systemic38
  • 70. Chiropracticmalfunction likely to start in vertebral often described as relaxing, relieving, lib-misalignment: aberration of muscu- erating, or energizing. Length and fre-loskeletal development, or kine- quency of the sessions are established bysiopathology; abnormality in the the chiropractor and patient and dependmuscles proper, or myopathology; irri- on the nature of the problem.tation of the nerves, or neuropathology;inflammation indicative of abnormality The Benefits of Chiropracticin the blood cells, or histiopathology; A wide variety of health problemsand deterioration of the sense of mental respond favorably to chiropractic treat-and physical well-being, or pathophysi- ment. It is beneficial for musculoskele-ology. The misalignments themselves tal disorders, particularly whiplashare attributed to any of several causes, injuries, neck and back pain, scoliosis,such as injury, mental or physical stress, sciatica, arthritis, and bursitis. It can beand genetic defect or predisposition. effective in alleviating migraine headaches and other organic condi-Experiencing Chiropractic tions, sinusitis, gastrointestinal disor-Chiropractic treatment begins with the der, bronchial asthma, high bloodtaking of a thorough case history and a pressure, and heart trouble. Spinalphysical examination that includes adjustment is also regarded as a drug-analysis and touching of the spine to free means of releasing nervous tensiondetermine imbalances and subluxations. that contributes to the formation ofX rays of the spine are sometimes made mental and physical disability. Exten-to get additional information. Recom- sive research today is also testing themendations for rest, physical therapy, or efficiency of chiropractic in the treat-diet may be made as part of a therapy ment of addictions.plan that generally entails spinal adjust-ments carried out over a series of ses- —Dr. Trina Marxsions. The adjustments are done throughhands-on contact that varies from gentletouch to firm pressure depending on the Resources:needs of the patient and the orientationof the chiropractor. Some advocate a American Chiropractic Associationmaneuver in which the joint is stretched 1701 Clarendon Boulevardto just beyond its normal range of Arlington, VA 22209motion and makes an audible click. Oth- Tel: (703) 276-8800ers rely upon a repertory of “non-force” Provides a myriad of information about chiroprac-techniques to manipulate the vertebrae. tic, including monthly publications, newsletters,The adjustments are not painful and are and clinical councils. Chiropractic Training Chiropractic education consists of a four-year, postgraduate program similar in overall structure to medical school. Graduates receive the degree, Doctor of Chiropractic (DC), and are required to take courses basic to Western health care during the first two years of training. Study in the third and fourth years is devoted to the diagnostic and therapeutic tools specific to chiropractic. Work with patients at clinics affiliated with the chiroprac- tic school is a standard part of advanced training. 39
  • 71. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines International Chiropractors Association a twenty-year period by Dr. William 1110 North Glebe Road Sutherland, an osteopathic physician Suite 1000 intrigued by the movement of different Arlington, VA 22201 bones in the skull. He discovered that by Tel: (703) 528-5000 exerting gentle pressure on selected A professional organization dedicated to chiro- areas of the skull or the rest of the body, practic. a craniosacral therapist can effectively treat chronic pain, lowered vitality, World Chiropractic Alliance recurring infections, and dysfunctions 2950 N. Dobson Road, Suite 1 affecting the head, spine, and whole Chandler, AZ 85224 body. Tel: (800) 347-1011 Fax: (602) 732-9313 Web site: Origins of CranioSacral Therapy A professional support group that provides refer- CranioSacral therapy developed from rals for chiropractors nationwide. cranial osteopathy, the origin of which dates back to the 1890s, when Dr. Andrew Still founded the osteopathic Further Reading: profession. Distraught by the death of his wife and two children from meningi- Coplan-Griffiths, Michael. Dynamic Chiropractic tis and not knowing whether the disease Today: The Complete and Major Guide to This or the mercury used to treat them was Major Therapy. San Francisco: Harper-Collins, responsible, Dr. Still began an intensive 1991. study of anatomy and non-drug-based healing ways. He realized everything in Gevitz, Norman. Other Healers: Unorthodox Medi- nature was ordered: that the body func- cine in America. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins tions as a unified whole; structure and University Press, 1988. function are interrelated; the body has an inherent self-corrective mechanism; Martin, Raquel. Today’s Health Alternative. and that drugs can be harmful. Based Tehachapi, CA: American West Publishers, 1992. upon these principles, Dr. Still founded the first osteopathic college. Moore, J. Stuart. Chiropractic in America: The His- Dr. Still’s star student was William tory of a Medical Alternative. Baltimore: The Sutherland. Dr. Sutherland was Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993. intrigued by the idea that the bones of the skull were structured to allow for Palmer, Daniel D. The Chiropractor’s Adjuster. movement. For more than twenty years Davenport, IA: Palmer College Press, 1992 (first he explored this concept, eventually published 1910). developing a system of treatment known as cranial osteopathy. In 1970 osteopathic physician John E. Upledger observed the rhythmic movement of the craniosacral system during surgery. Dr. Upledger and his CRANIOSACRAL THERAPY colleagues could not find an explana- tion for this mysterious movement. After studying the work of Dr. Suther- C ranioSacral therapy is a gentle land, Dr. Upledger worked to scientifically form of bodywork based on releas- confirm the mobility of the cranial bones ing restrictions in the craniosacral and the subsequent existence of the cran- system to help people achieve their high- iosacral system. From 1975 to 1983, he est levels of physical, mental, and emo- served as clinical researcher and a profes- tional well-being. It was developed over sor of biomechanics at Michigan State40
  • 72. CranioSacral TherapyUniversity. There he supervised a high- One unique feature of CranioSacrallevel team of anatomists, physiologists, therapy is its emphasis on very delicatebiophysicists, and bioengineers to test palpation. Therapists are taught to use,and document the influence of therapy appreciate, and develop profoundon the craniosacral system. insights through applying a very light, This team developed the theoretical gentle touch—generally the pressure isPressureStat Model to describe how the equal to the weight of a nickel. It iscraniosacral system functions. Dr. believed that this light touch allows theUpledger’s continued work in the field therapist to receive as much informa-resulted in the further development of tion as possible from the patient’s body,CranioSacral therapy, including a ten- and to interact in a respectful, highlystep protocol used to alleviate a range of therapeutic manner.conditions. Another distinction of CranioSacral therapy relates to its facilitation of the body’s self-corrective ability. Cran-Insights Through Touch ioSacral therapists believe engagingThe craniosacral system consists of the body restrictions with a gentle touch cancentral nervous system, brain, and break down tissue, emotional, and ener-spinal cord, as well as the membranes getic blocks to self-release. CranioSacraland cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds therapy is not a manipulative therapeu-and protects the cord. The central ner- tic modality in which therapists imposevous system interconnects with the con- what they think should happen on theirnective tissue that surrounds it, which in patients. Rather, therapists are trained toturn interconnects with all other bodily follow their patients’ bodies to facilitatestructures. Functionally there is one their own healing process.uninterrupted tissue sheath from the CranioSacral therapy aims to be verytop of your head to the tips of your toes. direct yet highly respectful of theTherefore, CranioSacral therapists are patient. A gentle touch directed towardhighly trained in sensing through touch a patient’s primary restrictions isa restriction in your system and deter- believed to provide profound access tomining how it affects other areas in your the very fabric of an individual’s being.body. For instance, practitioners believe This respect for the patient’s own heal-a restriction in your leg might have a ing abilities reflected through touch cre-profound effect on your lower back, ates a safe environment for people toshoulder, neck, or even head. Cran- frequently access deep, non-consciousioSacral therapists are highly trained in parts of themselves they may havesensing through touch to track, identify, blocked or simply couldn’t access byand release root restrictions affecting themselves.the person. The training of a therapist’s touch by How does CranioSacral therapy the CranioSacral therapy technique iswork? First, as cerebrospinal fluid filters recognized as a profound foundationinto the craniosacral system, pressure for advancement in manual therapies,builds. As the amount of fluid increases, massage, and therapeutic bodywork.the increased pressure forces the fluidto travel down the spinal cord. As thefluid moves, the membranes surround- Practicing CranioSacral Therapying the fluid and the interconnected fas- A typical session of CranioSacral thera-cial tissue of the entire body pulse in a py lasts forty-five minutes to an hour.rhythmic fashion, normally at a rate of The client is fully clothed and lies on asix to twelve cycles per minute. It is this comfortable, padded table. In a veryrhythm that the therapist monitors gentle manner, the therapist evaluateswhen evaluating and performing a the patient by testing for craniosacralCranioSacral therapy session. motion in various parts of the patient’s 41
  • 73. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines body. Experienced practitioners are able Resources: to feel the craniosacral rhythm any- where on a patient’s body. They can Kenneth I. Frey, PT, Diplomate CST quickly gain valuable information by Director, Institute of Physical Therapy palpating the craniosacral motion for 30 W. 60th St., Suite 1BC rate, amplitude, symmetry, and quality. New York, NY 10023 Lack of craniosacral rhythm or an Tel: (212) 245-1700 asymmetrical craniosacral rhythm is World recognized for its clinical services and as a used to locate problems throughout the educational resource center in New York City dedi- body. The problem may be any type that cated to the application and development of causes loss of natural physiological advanced holistic physical therapies. Treatment inte- responses, pain, trauma, adhesions, neu- grates whole body evaluation and advanced manual rological and orthopedic disorders, sys- therapies, clinical sciences, and therapeutic exercise. temic disease processes, and others. The therapist’s job is to restore the symmetri- The Upledger Institute, Inc. cal craniosacral motion to problem areas. 11211 Prosperity Farms Rd., D-325 As the asymmetry is eliminated and nor- Palm Beach Gardens, FL 33410-3487 mal physiological motion is restored, the Tel: (800) 233-5880 ext. 9283 problem is being or has been alleviated. An educational and clinical resource center that integrates the best of conventional health care with Benefits of CranioSacral Therapy advanced complementary techniques. Dedicated to CranioSacral therapy has been used to the natural enhancement of health, it is recognized improve the functioning of the brain and worldwide for its continuing education programs, spinal cord, to alleviate pain and the clinical research, and therapeutic services. effects of stress, and to enhance general health as well as resistance to illness and Further Reading: disease. It has been especially effective for conditions such as migraines, hyper- Claire, Thomas. Bodywork. New York: William activity, chronic neck and back pain, Morrow, 1995. TMJ pain and dysfunction, chronic fatigue, eye difficulties, stress and ten- Sutherland, William. Teachings in the Science of sion-related problems, scoliosis, emo- Osteopathy. Portland, OR: Rudra Press, 1990. tional difficulties, motor-coordination impairments, central nervous system Upledger, John E., and Jon D. Vredevoogd. Cran- disorders, learning disabilities, child- ioSacral Therapy. Chicago: Eastland Press, 1983. hood developmental disabilities, and many others. Upledger, John. Your Inner Physician and You. —Kenneth I. Frey, PT, Diplomate CST Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books, 1991. The Growth of CranioSacral Therapy Dr. Upledger is credited with introducing CranioSacral Therapy to a broad spectrum of the world’s health care professionals representing diverse specialties. In 1985 he founded The Upledger Institute to educate the public and health care practitioners about the ben- efits of CranioSacral Therapy. To date, this health care resource center and clinic based in Palm Beach Gardens, Florida, has trained more than 25,000 health care practitioners worldwide in the use of CranioSacral Therapy. Alumni include osteopaths, medical doc- tors, psychiatrists, psychologists, dentists, physical therapists, occupational therapists, acupuncturists, doctors of chiropractic, nurse practitioners, massage therapists, and bodyworkers.42
  • 74. Network ChiropracticNETWORK CHIROPRACTIC using the hands to apply leverage and thrust to a joint to restore function to the joint or muscles, nerves, and tissueN etwork chiropractic is a branch of around the joint. This therapy relies on chiropractic, a health care the body’s ability to recover without method that views all health as a surgery or drugs.result of the body’s inability to express, Network shares the historical philos-relay, and distribute energy and infor- ophy of chiropractic, which is based onmation through the nervous system. the concept that the information theChiropractors aim to enable the brain body needs to function is conveyedand the body to better communicate through oscillation, or vibration. Thethrough the elimination of disruptions nervous system coordinates all vibrationin the central nervous system, which is through the body, relaying energy andhoused in the protective bones of the information to all body parts, andspinal column. To do this, they use gen- influencing all body functions. Tensiontle manual pressure and adjustment to on the spinal cord or the nerves exitingreduce muscular tension, skeletal tor- from the spinal cord causes an energysion or twisting, and compression of the disturbance. Network chiropractic seeksspinal cord or the nerves branching to enhance communication betweenfrom it which may result in a disruption the brain and the body through the cor-of the body’s essential energy and infor- rection (adjustment) of vertebral sub-mation highway. luxations. Network chiropractic is a form of Network practitioners believe thatchiropractic that seeks to develop the subluxations are caused by physical,body’s self-corrective mechanism. It is emotional, mental, or chemical stress-believed that this improvement will es. In network care it is common for theenhance a person’s health, wellness, body to express the energy unavailableand quality of life. to the body as spontaneous muscular movement, stretching, or the outwardEstablishing a Network expression of emotion such as laughterDonald Epstein, D.CA., a 1977 graduate of or crying. This liberates the spine fromNew York Chiropractic College, devel- the interference caused by the inabilityoped this method of chiropractic, which to effectively “move the energy” and cir-has been researched through the Depart- culates the body’s information.ment of Anatomy and Neurobiology andSociology at the College of Medicine at The Practice of Network Chiropracticthe University of California–Irvine, and at Before beginning sessions, the chiro-the University of Southern California, practor will request that individualsDepartment of Engineering. Epstein’s complete a questionnaire that discussesmethod resulted from his efforts to incor- the individual’s physical, emotional,porate many different approaches and mental, and chemical stresses and histo-theories into a single “network” of estab- ry. The spine will be evaluated for pos-lished chiropractic techniques. Also ture, muscle tension patterns, tension inknown as network spinal analysis, the the extremities that may be related tosystem has been evolving since 1982 and spinal cord tension, range of motion, oris currently practiced by chiropractors the involvement of spinal motion withunder the trade name network chiro- respiration. Some practitioners may uti-practic. lize various noninvasive instrumenta- tion to further assess the functioning ofEnhancing Communication the nervous system. Spinal X rays are notAdjustment is a central technique of chi- routine, however, and are taken as indi-ropractic doctors. Adjustment means cated on an individual basis. 43
  • 75. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines Photo: courtesy of Dr. Donald Epstein Dr. Donald Epstein, founder of network chiropractic, demonstrates the light pressure tech- niques he developed to release tension. A chiropractor’s office usually con- emotional tension occurs. The practi- tains a special device called an adjust- tioner will reassess the patient regularly, ing table, which allows patients to sit or perhaps every two months, until the lie in the optimal position for receiving desired improvement has been made. care, whether that be faceup, facedown, seated, or on the side. Time spent on the Benefits and Risks adjusting table is often ten minutes or Network chiropractic is one of the most so—not an extended period. nonaggressive types of adjustment Rather than addressing the structur- available. Adjustments are not given in al misalignment as a primary distortion, the areas of maximum tension, fixation, the network practitioner views it as a swelling, or pain. Most adjustments are protection for a spinal cord under ten- very gentle. The practitioner is not seek- sion. The doctor begins with light pres- ing to inhibit the body or alter pain; sure applied to the tissue around the instead, the objective is to enhance the spine. Precise touch adjustments and body’s own self-corrective, self-healing touches are used to release tension in mechanism. For these reasons, network the spinal cord and to assist the body in is considered a very safe application of recognizing the distortion and generate chiropractic. self-correction. It is common that as tension is relieved from the spine a spontaneous release of —Donald Epstein, D.CA.44
  • 76. OsteopathyResources: Journals: Journal of Vertebral Subluxation Research, Vol. 1,Association for Network Chiropractors No. 1 (1996).444 North Maine StreetLongmont, CO 80501Tel: (303) 678-8101Professional organization of network chiroprac-tors. OSTEOPATHY OInternational Chiropractors Association steopathy is a holistic and drug-1110 North Glebe Rd. less approach to health and dis-Suite 1000 ease. It is based on the idea that aArlington, VA 22201 human being is not merely a collectionTel: (703) 528-5000 of parts but a totality imbued with spir-Provides information on practitioners. it. The human body functions as a unit and possesses self-healing and self-reg-World Chiropractic Alliance ulating mechanisms. Osteopathy main-2950 N. Dobson Rd., Suite 1 tains that there is a reciprocalChandler, AZ 85224 relationship between structure andTel: (800) 347-1011 function, that is, an alteration in struc-Promotes the practice of network chiropractic. ture (the musculoskeletal system) through injury, will result in a change in function (in internal organs), namely,Further Reading: disease. Likewise, a diseased internal organ will result in an alteration in theBooks: musculoskeletal system. The osteo-Epstein, Donald, and Nathaniel Altman. The pathic physician, by his or her intimate Twelve Stages of Healing: A Network Approach knowledge of human anatomy, can rec- to Wholeness. San Rafael, CA: Amber-Allen Pub- ognize even subtle deviations from nor- lishing, 1994. mal bodily functioning and by the application of various techniques canMaynard, Joseph E. Healing Hands: The Story of restore the proper structure and func- the Palmer Family, Discoverers and Developers tion and assist the inherent self-healing of Chiropractic. Fourth edition. Woodstock, GA: powers of the body. Jonorm Publishers, 1992. A Rejection of Conventional MedicineWoodham and Peters. Encyclopedia of Healing The practice of osteopathy was devel- Therapies. New York: DK Publishers, 1997. oped by Andrew Taylor Still, M.D. Health and Well-Being The largest study of health and wellness benefits of a chiropractic method was per- formed at the University of California–Irvine. Patients evaluated their own improve- ments through a wide range of health and wellness indicators. The study showed evidence of significant improvement in the areas of physical symptoms, emotional and mental state, stress evaluation, life enjoyment and overall quality of life. 45
  • 77. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines Photo: Still National Osteopathic Museum, Kirksville, MO The first class of the American School of Osteopathy in Kirksville, Missouri, winter term (1892-1893). (1828–1917), the son of an itinerant of a disease with such agents, a doctor Methodist preacher who supported his should attempt to discover the cause of family by farming and practicing medi- the disease itself. He originated the con- cine. It was during the time spent with cept of wellness and developed princi- his father tending to the medical needs ples of proper exercise and diet to of Native Americans that Still decided to prevent disease. He also created a sys- take up medicine himself, under the tem of manipulating various joints and guidance of his father. He studied the tissues to realign the bones and muscles standard medical texts of the time, and thereby increase blood circulation including ones on anatomy, physiology, and nerve functioning. pathology, surgery, and other topics. In the 1870s, in America, this holistic Early on, Still became aware of the perspective was heresy. Still’s early life limitations of the medical practice of his provided many unfortunate opportuni- day, particularly the almost total preoc- ties to witness the shortcomings of con- cupation of conventional, or “allopath- ventional medicine. He lost his first ic,” medicine that focused on wife and six children to infectious dis- identifying symptoms and suppressing eases of one kind or another. He saw them. Still thought that this under- the impotency of medical care during standing of disease was crude at best his service as an Army field surgeon and and was based on vague notions of when he cared for Native Americans “physiological tension” that needed to during epidemics. He had pneumonia be relieved by such devices as purging, for three months and took three years bloodletting, and the administering of to recover from typhoid. In many ways large doses of morphine, opium, alco- osteopathy was Still’s unique synthesis hol, and mercury. Still believed that of his personal experience and several rather than treating only the symptoms major intellectual and philosophical46
  • 78. Osteopathymovements making their way across and Still was later reported to have saidAmerica during his lifetime. that he thought women made better Over the years Still continued to osteopaths than men.practice conventional medicine— Still was assisted in his teaching byincluding service as a surgeon in the William Smith, M.D., an 1889 graduateUnion army during the Civil War—and of the University of Edinburgh. Afterto develop his unique healing methods. one year Still determined that for theHe devised a system of manipulation most part his attempt to teach osteopa-and spinal reflexes with which he treat- thy was a failure. He issued certificatesed all types of conditions. but beseeched the graduates to return Despite his therapeutic successes he for another year of instruction. Somewas viewed as a medical heretic, a grave did not return.robber, and a “crazy crank” because of However, in 1893, Still did receivehis unorthodox views, study of corpses, some confirmation that his methodlong hours of solitary study, and casual could be successfully learned when twodress. His methods obtained results of his sons saved many lives during athat were seemingly inexplicable, so black diphtheria epidemic in Minneso-some viewed his practice as the work of ta. Graduation for those members of thethe devil. In 1873, while living in first class who had returned was held onKirksville, Missouri, Still saved many March 4, 1894. Slowly, the curriculumlives during an epidemic of infectious improved, more and better studentsdiarrhea, without the use of any drugs. graduated, and an infirmary was built inDespite this success, his reputation as 1895. In that year Still and his studentsan eccentric followed him and he was performed thirty thousand osteopathicshunned by most until he cured a treatments. By the late 1890s his school,prominent Presbyterian minister’s crip- infirmary, and new surgical hospitalpled daughter. were increasingly successful, both acad- In 1874 Still severed his ties to con- emically and financially.ventional medicine and announced the In its struggle for acceptance, orga-founding of his new medical science, nized osteopathy had to battle the pow-which he called osteopathy. This new erful American Medical Association,school of medical thought was con- which sought to maintain its control ofceived as a reformation or improvement the practice of medicine in America.of conventional medicine, not an alter- Denied the right to serve as physiciansnative system. During the 1880s he con- in the military and other governmenttinued to refine his science and made jobs, the osteopathic profession lobbiedseveral attempts to train others. hard for inclusion.Although he initially had trouble train- It wasn’t until the Vietnam War thating others in the practice of osteopathy, osteopaths were allowed to serve theirStill hoped to establish an osteopathic country as physicians. Today there areschool. During this time patients seventeen osteopathic colleges. Some areflocked to Kirksville from all over Amer- state-supported schools where facultyica for his treatment. Hotels were built and facilities are shared with students ofin the town to house the many patients allopathic medicine. Osteopathic physi-arriving daily, and several railroad com- cians can now practice in all medical andpanies advertised train service to surgical specialties and serve in allKirksville. branches of the military and government On November 1, 1892, the American health service organizations.School of Osteopathy was opened. The The curriculum at osteopathic schoolsfirst class of eleven students consisted is identical to its allopathic counterpartof former patients, family friends, and with the exception that D.O.s learn osteo-five of Still’s children. Five women were pathic philosophy and manipulation.among the members of this first class, However, with equality comes paradox. 47
  • 79. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines As the osteopathic curriculum improved osteopathic manipulation could relieve over the years, it became more like con- the restrictions to the free flow of blood ventional medicine. Today there are and nerve power by removing the bony approximately 35,000 osteopathic physi- dislocations and easing muscle con- cians in practice in the United States. tractions. Moreover, Still revealed to one Only about 3 to 5 percent of osteopaths of his students toward the end of his life practice the original healing art as envi- that he was able to see the human aura, sioned by Still. Yet the original osteopath- the human energy field. ic concept is powerful and has made a Modern doctors of osteopathy take a lasting impression on medicine through- holistic approach to the human body and out the world. Chiropractic, Rolfing, and mind and, accordingly, take a patient’s CranioSacral therapy borrow heavily from emotional and mental states into consid- much of Still’s pioneering work. eration, as well as his or her physical con- The osteopathic concept has also dition. Osteopaths emphasize the spread worldwide. There are colleges in interaction between the brain and ner- England, Canada, and Europe. To date, vous system and the musculoskeletal sys- thirty-two countries have granted tem, paying particular attention to the osteopathic physicians unlimited prac- musculoskeletal system, which they tice privileges, with an additional nine believe influences all other organs and countries granting privileges limited to systems. They contend that physical and manipulation. emotional disease is brought about by interrupted nerve flow caused by muscle Holistic Approach to the Body spasms, injury, or improper alignment of In many ways osteopathy was Still’s the spine and other bones. By applying unique synthesis of his personal experi- hands-on manipulation, palpation, and ence and several major intellectual and other physical therapies to the spine, philosophical movements that were bones, muscles, and connective tissues, making their way across America dur- D.O.s (doctors of osteopathy) treat a vari- ing his lifetime. He viewed disease as an ety of disorders. effect of derangement from the anatomical perfection intended by God, Experiencing Osteopathy the divine architect. A typical office session with an Still was most influenced by Herbert osteopath begins by taking a history of Spencer, a nineteenth-century British the current problem, including all med- philosopher who coined the term “evo- ications or other therapies being used. lution” and influenced the thinking of This is augmented to include all past Charles Darwin. In Still’s philosophy of medical and surgical treatments and, osteopathy one can find many of especially, any physical or emotional Spencer’s ideas—the concepts of cause traumas. Family and occupational his- and effect, the relationship between tories are also obtained. In the case of structure and function, the holistic an infant or child, the medical history nature of humans, and the interrelated- includes the details of the pregnancy, ness of parts. The fascinations with labor, delivery, and perinatal period for phrenology, spiritualism, and Mes- that individual, and questions about merism, prevalent in the nineteenth developmental milestones are asked. century, also had an influence on Still. Next comes a physical exam based on These systems theorized the exis- the patient’s history, and laboratory and tence of the flow of certain healing and imaging studies (X rays, CT scans) may self-regulating electromagnetic and be ordered if appropriate. spiritlike fluids in the body, and Still In addition, the osteopathic physi- incorporated these concepts into his cian performs either a regional (focus- notion of the healing effects of an unim- ing just on the problem area) or a peded flow of blood. According to Still, complete body examination, searching48
  • 80. Osteopathyfor areas of somatic (body) dysfunction, Resources:that is, impaired or altered functioningof parts of the musculoskeletal system. American Association of College of OsteopathicThe dysfunction may lie in bone, joint, Medicine (AACOM)fascia, and muscle, or in related vascu- 5550 Friendship Blvd. Suite 310lar, lymphatic, cerebrospinal, and neur- Chevy Chase, MD 20815-7231al elements. Once a diagnosis is made, Web site: http://www.aacom.orgtreatment can begin. The entire body Promotes the study of osteopathic medicine. Pro-may be treated with a wide variety of vides information on the seventeen osteopathicnatural techniques, using varying schools in the United States.degrees of force according to the natureof the problem and the patient. Any American Osteopathic Association (AOA)point on or within the body that can be 142 E. Ontario St.reached with the hands can be treated Chicago, IL 60611osteopathically. Tel: (800) 621-1773, ext. 7401 The treatments are given on a Fax: (312) 280–3860padded table to a patient wearing com- Web site:, loose-fitting clothing (although Offers educational and professional support tothe patient may have to undress partial- osteopathic for the initial screening examination).If it is performed properly, there is nocontraindication for osteopathic manip- Further Reading:ulative treatment. In osteopathic hospitals treatments Gevitz, Norman. The D.O.’s: Osteopathic Medicine inare given to patients in intensive care America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1982.units, emergency rooms, labor anddelivery rooms, and newborn nurseries, Hildreth, Arthur Grant. The Lengthening Shadowas well as in general medical and surgi- of Dr. A.T. Still. 3rd ed. Kirksville, MO: Osteo-cal units. After the first session the pathic Enterprise, 1988.patient’s condition and treatment planare discussed. Return visits are sched- Magoun, Harold Ives, Sr. Osteopathy in the Cra-uled based on the individual’s response nial Field. 3rd ed. Kirksville, MO: Journal Print-to the first treatment and not on a fixed ing Company, 1976.or routine schedule. Still, A. T. Autobiography. Kirksville, MO: privately —Dr. Domenick Masiello printed, 1897. Popularity of Osteopathy There are currently around 35,000 osteopathic physicians in the United States, yet only about 500 osteopaths practice the original healing art, as many use manipulation tech- niques merely as an adjunct to their conventional practices. Nevertheless, the original osteopathic concept has made a lasting impression on medicine throughout the world. Osteopathic and conventional forms of research have validated and confirmed many of Still’s original ideas. Today even the conventional medical world has many manual med- icine societies, and the specialties of psychiatry and rehabilitation medicine benefit from Still’s pioneering work. The osteopathic concept has also spread worldwide. There are colleges in England, Canada, and continental Europe. To date, thirty-two countries have granted osteopathic physicians unlimited practice privileges, with an additional nine countries granting privileges limited to manipulation techniques. 49
  • 81. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines ———. Philosophy of Osteopathy. Kirksville, MO: years. The son of a prominent chiro- privately printed, 1899. practor, Smith trained as an osteopath and medical doctor in the 1950s, and ———. Philosophy and Mechanical Principles of later as a five element acupuncturist Osteopathy. Kirksville, MO: privately printed, with Professor J. R. Worsley. He was also 1902. a student of shakti yoga as taught by Swami Muktananda, a massage thera- ———. Osteopathy: Research and Practice. pist and certified Rolfer (while he was Kirksville, MO: privately printed, 1910. studying with Ida Rolf he was her model for seven of the ten-hour sessions). Out Still, Charles F., Jr. Frontier Doctor, Medical Pio- of these various experiences he formu- neer: The Life and Times of A.T. Still and His lated his own distinct set of ideas and Family. Kirksville, MO: The Thomas Jefferson techniques that later became known as University Press, 1991. Zero Balancing. Sutherland, William Garner, and Ann L. Wales, eds. Teachings in the Science of Osteopathy. Fort The Basic Principles of ZB Worth, TX: Sutherland Cranial Teaching Foun- According to Dr. Smith, Zero Balancing dation, Inc., 1990. draws from Eastern concepts of energy and yet is fully consistent with contem- Trowbridge, Carol. Andrew Taylor Still: 1828–1917. porary quantum physics and the view- Kirksville, MO: The Thomas Jefferson Universi- point that matter is composed of both ty Press, 1991. particle and wave. In ZB the practition- er considers both of these components Ward, Robert C., ed. Foundations for Osteopathic as they are found in the body—particle Medicine. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1997. is represented by structure or matter, and wave by energy or vibration. If we compared the body to a sailboat, the sail would represent the structure and the wind the energy. ZB focuses on the ZERO BALANCING ® interface and relationship of where the wind meets the sail—where the energy meets structure within the body and Z ero Balancing® (ZB) is a hands-on mind—knowing on another level that body-balancing and integrating all these aspects are forms of energy. approach that aligns body energy Smith postulates that the strongest fields with body structure. ZB is based fields of energy are in the bones of the on the Western understanding of anato- skeletal system. This is the densest tis- my and physiology but is distinct in that sue in the body and therefore entraps it uses Eastern concepts of energy as the densest energy of the body. Whereas working tools as well as guiding princi- ZB also addresses soft tissue, its main ples for the integration of the whole focus is on the skeletal system. Within person. Alignment through ZB balances the skeletal system its main focus is on body energy and structure, creates the foundation and semi-foundation clearer fields of vibration throughout joints of the body—those joints that the body, releases tension patterns from have more to do with the transmission, the body tissue, the mind, and the emo- absorption, and equalization of energy tions, and allows the vibration of stress in the body than with locomotion or to pass more freely through the person. movement. Examples of these joints are the sacroiliac joints, the tarsal and The History of Zero Balancing® carpal joints of the feet and hands, and Fritz Frederick Smith, M.D., developed the inter- and costo-vertebral articula- the system of Zero Balancing over several tions of the spine.50
  • 82. Zero Balancing ® In addition to being intimately permission to use the registered trade-involved with energy forces in the body, mark of ZB. It is not designed or intend-these joints have several other charac- ed to give the student any specific legalteristics that make them especially recognition or permission to work inimportant in energy medicine. They the health care field. ZB is practicedhave small ranges of motion, and when under the umbrella of other health carethey become compromised in function studies.the body tends to compensate aroundthe dysfunction rather than resolve it ZB in Practicedirectly. The compensatory patterns The Zone Balancer assesses the body bythat result impact not only the physical testing and evaluating the currentsbody but the mind, emotions, and spir- and/or stagnation of energy withinit as well. This means that these joints bone, within the foundation joints of(and other tissues that hold vibration) the skeleton, and within certain soft tis-can lock imbalances within the whole sues of the body. In places where theperson. Many of these imbalances are at energy and structure are not well bal-first subtle and do not come to the level anced, the ZBer uses touch to create aof a person’s awareness until symptoms fulcrum or balance point in the tissue.(such as muscle pulls, increasing irri- When this balancing field of tension istability, stress burnout) have ensued held stationary for a few seconds itand magnified the problem. The struc- allows the two variables—energy andtural/energetic work of ZB can release structure—to reorganize in terms ofthese patterns while they are still hid- each other. Improved function, move-den from awareness and before they ment of energy, and feelings of well-create symptoms. ZB can also improve being ensue. By repeated use of fulcra,the fundamental imbalance after a per- placed properly and where necessary,son develops symptoms and create a the skilled Zero Balancing practitionerclimate in which nature can improve or can balance a person in terms of theheal the person’s complaint. person’s own energy and structure. ZB is taught as a postgraduate stud- A typical ZB session requires abouties program for the health care practi- thirty to forty minutes and is done withtioner. It is not designed as a start-up a person fully clothed. It is done in twoprogram for the beginning student of positions, with a person first sitting andhealth care. A program of training has then lying on his back, comfortably, on abeen established; the graduate of the massage table. Everything in ZB shouldprogram receives in-house recognition either feel good to the client or “hurtas a certified Zero Balancer and is given good.” If any of the Zero Balancing is Another Way to Consider ZB ZB has been conceived of as analogous to wind (energy) and the sail (structure) of a sail- boat—knowing that somewhere the wind meets the sail. A well-functioning body is one in which the body and its parts are well tacked into the movement of energy as it passes through the system. The person is well tacked into his or her life. Clinical experience has shown that if the relationship of energy and structure within the body is discordant, it can be improved and aligned through touch, which results in enhanced performance and feelings of well-being. 51
  • 83. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines ever uncomfortable or “hurts bad,” the where a medical opinion is mandatory. client should notify the ZBer. ZBing is not meant to delay or replace standard medical care, but rather is an Why Practice ZB? adjunct to high-level function and feel- Zone Balancing’s major strength arises ings of well-being. from the ability to balance and integrate a person in terms of his or her own body —Fritz Smith, M.D. energy and body structure. This ability comes from integrating Eastern con- Resources: cepts of energy as working principles and tools into the practice of body han- Zero Balancing® Association dling. ZB is extremely effective in reliev- P Box 1727 .O. ing stress and assisting a person as he or Capitola, CA 95010 she is going through stressful periods in Tel/fax: (408) 476-0665 life. When a person is well balanced e-mail: between energy and structure, the Web site: vibration of stress passes through the Conducts training programs throughout North body more easily and has less tendency America. Continuing education credit is granted to become stuck, to cause tension pat- for most programs by the Board of Nurses (Califor- terns, and to progress to physical or nia), Acupuncture Committee (California), and the emotional dysfunction. ZB also has a National Certification Board for Therapeutic Mas- particularly important place in relieving sage and Bodywork [NCBTMB]. pain and suffering if they are the result of blocked energy. Of course, like any system of balanc- Further Reading: ing or healing, it is not always the appropriate therapy for a given situa- Smith, Fritz Frederick, M.D. Inner Bridges: A Guide tion. The ZBer is schooled as to where to Energy Movement and Body. Atlanta: ZB is of particular value, as to specific Humanics New Age, 1990. risks for the use of ZB, and to situations52
  • 84. PART III: NUTRITIONAL ANDDIETARY PRACTICES Herbal Medicine • Orthomolecular Medicine Nutritional and dietarypractices are body-minddisciplines that adhere tothe popular adage, “Youare what you eat.” Advo-cates of these practicesbelieve that everything youingest becomes a part ofyou, affecting your physicalhealth, mental abilities, andemotional outlook. Nutri-tional and dietary practicesare some of the oldest body-mind disciplines known tohumankind. Although thereare many specific practices Photo: George Ancona / International Stockpopular today, this sectionexamines one ancient andone modern practice cur-rently used to maintainwellness, prevent disease,and treat specific condi-tions, both chronic andacute.The Development of Herbs are the primary ingredient in many commercial pharmaceuticals.Nutritional and DietaryPractices The roots of nutritional and dietary practices are firmly planted in the deepest bio-logical and psychological instincts of the human race. When ill, humans and manyother animals instinctively fast, which cleanses and rests the digestive system. Inaddition, animals have been observed in their natural environments searching outand eating specific plants for medicinal purposes. Indigenous peoples also use plants from their surrounding environment for medici-nal purposes. Much of our knowledge of herbal medicine comes from anthropologists 53
  • 85. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines who have lived with these peoples and learned their age-old wisdom. The diets of these peoples invariably include a variety of fruits, vegetables, grains, and sometimes animal products native to their area. These locally produced diets create a chemical balance within each person’s body and between the people and their environment. Nutritional practices and herbal medicine form an integral part of all classical healing systems. Both ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine doctors diagnose patients, in part, by knowledge of their dietary preferences and cravings. Both systems prescribe dietary changes and herbal medicines to balance the body-mind disharmonies they per- ceive through their diagnostic methods. Like those of indigenous peoples, both of these highly developed healing systems are based on a belief that disharmony of body and mind, or of the body-mind complex and the surrounding environment, is the root cause of disease. In classical Greece, where the modern Western healing system originated, the physician Hippocrates (c. 460–c. 377 BCE) also believed in health as a balance between the individual and his or her environment. Discussing the prescription of food as medicine, Hippocrates is believed to have said, “Food or drink which is in itself slight- ly inferior, but more pleasant should be preferred to that which is better in itself, but less pleasant.” In this recommendation Hippocrates seems to affirm not only a belief that food could be used as medicine, but that the human organism has the innate ability to direct its own healing, in part at least, through the sense of taste. Throughout European history people continued to rely on their sense of taste to develop a varied, balanced, moderate diet that made use of local fruits, grains, and ani- mal products. They also used various herbs and foods to heal specific conditions. For example, garlic has been used by people in many European countries for centuries to heal infections. Chamomile tea has long been recommended to calm the nerves. The French chemist Louis Pasteur (1822–1895) was the first person to see bacteria under a microscope. This momentous discovery led to many innovations in Western health care including sterilization of surgical instruments, hygienic standards of cleanliness in hospitals, and the process known as pasteurization of milk and other liquids. It also led to the development of the germ theory of disease in which all dis- ease was believed to be caused by outside organisms invading the human body. In order to fight the outside invaders, biochemists developed an arsenal of antibi- otics and other pharmaceutical germ-killers. These medicines appeared to work more quickly and to be more effective than the traditional dietary and herbal cures. Doctors began to pay less and less attention to the diet of their patients. Instead they began to rely more and more on a growing stockpile of synthesized drugs to relieve painful and uncomfortable symptoms. Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries there were many voices of dissent against this shift away from natural whole-food diets and toward dependence on pharmaceutical drugs for healing. Some of those voices, such as that of American doctor Sylvester Graham (1794–1851), were dismissed as alarmists by allopathic, or conventional Western, doctors. Other individuals such as Japanese doctor Michio Kushi, a leading proponent of macrobiotics, were dismissed as exotic and extremist. In the mid-twentieth century scientists such as two-time Nobel Prize winner Linus Pauling (1901–1994) began using Western biochemical methods to study the effects of54
  • 86. the individual vitamins found in foods on various physical, mental, and emotionalconditions. The discoveries made by Pauling and other scientists form the basis oforthomolecular medicine, a contemporary scientific nutritional practice that recom-mends individualized whole food diets and high doses of vitamins instead of drugs toheal disease and create optimum health. In the 1960s a growing number of people became increasingly disillusioned with theuse of pharmaceutical drugs. Some people felt, as many feel today, that the drugs are cost-ly, increasingly ineffective, and that they often produce as many side effects and compli-cations as they appear to cure. For these reasons many individuals, and eventually the U.S.government through the National Institutes of Health, began to reconsider nutritional anddietary practices as a safe and effective means of disease prevention and health care.Eating to Maintain the Body’s Natural Chemical Balance The basic theoretical foundation of all dietary and nutritional practices is the beliefthat whatever we take into our bodies will affect our bodies. If we eat a diet that main-tains the natural chemical balance of our cells and provides for extra vitamins and min-erals in times of stress or high demand, we will remain healthy. However, if we don’t eata balanced diet we may create an imbalance in our cellular chemistry. This may lead ourorgans and systems to malfunction and eventually may lead to disease and illness. Many scientific studies conducted by the National Institutes of Health and privatefoundations such as the National Cancer Institute have pointed to a strong connec-tion linking diets high in fats, especially saturated fats, and low in fiber to diseases andconditions such as coronary artery disease, strokes, diabetes, high blood pressure,and breast and colon cancer. Conversely, changes in diet or eating specific herbs andnutrients seem to activate the body’s natural defenses, enabling it to heal itself. Todayscientists are looking at whole foods, specific vitamins, and herbs to discover, in sci-entific terms, how diet can prevent and cure illnesses. Among the things they have dis-covered are that orange and dark green vegetables like carrots, sweet potatoes,pumpkins, spinach, broccoli, and kale, which all contain high levels of beta carotene,seem to help prevent certain kinds of cancer. High doses of vitamin B3 (niacin) havebeen used with positive results to help people suffering from a variety of mental andemotional symptoms often diagnosed as schizophrenia. And Hypericum perforatum,more commonly known as St. John’s wort, seems to be a safe and effective remedyagainst mild to moderate depressions.Nutritional and Dietary Methods in Practice Many different nutritional and dietary practices are in use today. Naturopaths, tra-ditional Chinese medicine doctors, ayurvedic physicians, osteopaths, chiropractors,and bodyworkers may prescribe or suggest nutritional or dietary practices during acourse of treatment. Herbalists and orthomolecular physicians are two types of prac-titioners who focus specifically on dietary or herbal practices as a means of maintain-ing health and curing disease. A visit to one of these practitioners can be like a visit to a general practitioner. Bothwill want to know about the nature of your problems and information about your diet.The orthomolecular physician may make use of tests, whereas the herbalist may rely 55
  • 87. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines more on his or her physical observations and questioning of you to arrive at a diagnosis. Once diagnosed, both will probably recommend changes in your diet and pre- scribe specific supplements. An herbalist may recommend that you buy a specific herb or combination of herbs that can be prepared and eaten in various ways, where- as the orthomolecular physician may recommend various doses of vitamins. Whichever practice you follow, these practitioners work with you and your other health care professionals to help you attain your maximum state of health. Learning About Your Body Like other body-mind disciplines, nutritional and dietary practices require that you take responsibility for your own health and healing. After all, an herbalist or orthomolecular physician can prescribe a course of treatment, but no one can make you prepare the prescription or take it! Some people enjoy the heightened awareness of the body-mind connection that develops over time as they participate in a particular dietary or nutritional practice. Others find the process cumbersome, time consuming, or too restrictive. In addition, some people find the scents and tastes of various herbal cures unpleasant, whereas others enjoy the experience of preparing their own remedies and tonics. Nutritional and dietary practices are designed to balance your body chemistry in order to develop its natural resilience and resistance to disease. After working with a dietary or nutrition professional, balancing your body chemistry, and becoming more knowledgeable about your nutritional needs, you may formulate a delicious and enjoyable diet that will help you heal minor ailments, prevent disease, and create opti- mum health of both body and mind. —Nancy Allison, CMA Resources: Web site: Founded in 1994, this organization lists and recom- American Botanical Council (ABC) mends orthomolecular practitioners in Canada. Also P Box 201660 .O. publishes the periodical Journal of Orthomolecular Austin, TX 78720-1660 Medicine. Tel:(800) 373-7105 Fax:(512) 331-1924 Further Reading: e-mail: Web site: Books: Nonprofit research and educational organization. Gladstar, Rosemary. Herbal Healing for Women. Offers a quarterly magazine called HerbalGram, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993. which publishes the latest herbal research, legal and regulatory issues regarding herbal medicine, Kowalchik, Claire, and Hylton Williams, eds. detailed profiles of herbs, conference reports, and Rodale’s Illustrated Encyclopedia of Herbs. book reviews. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press,1987. The International Society for Orthomolecular Santillo, Humbert B.S., MH. Natural Healing with Medicine Herbs. Prescott Valley, AZ: Hohm Press, 1984. 16 Florence Avenue Toronto, ON M2N 1E9 Journals: Canada Willoughby, John, “Primal Prescription.” Eating e-mail: Well ™ Inc. (May-June 1991).56
  • 88. Herbal MedicineHERBAL MEDICINE sales in the United States in 1996, and sales are increasing at the rate of about 25 percent per year. A poll conducted in earlyH erbal medicine has become one of 1997 indicated that one-third of adult the most popular forms of alter- Americans are using herbal medicines, native medicine in the United spending an average of $54 per personStates today. People use herbal reme- annually, thus creating a total estimateddies for a variety of reasons: to aid retail market of $3.24 billion. Once founddigestion; to relax; to alleviate minor only in health food stores, mail-order cat-aches, pains, and headaches; to stave alogs, and marketing organizations,off disease; and to diminish the symp- herbal medicines are now sold in drug-toms of the common cold or flu. Besides stores, supermarkets, and mass-marketaddressing specific symptoms or needs, retailers, where herbal preparations con-some herbalists believe that these stitute one of the fastest growing areas.remedies bring the body and mind into Increased popular interest in herbsbalance and can therefore cure chronic has been fueled in part by the passage ofor long-term illnesses. the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA). In 1993Herbal Medicine Throughout the Ages and 1994, when the act was being con-Herbal remedies have been utilized in sidered, Congress received more mailmany cultures throughout time to alle- from American voters concerning thisviate pain and cure disease. The ways new law than they had concerning anythat herbs are used in diverse geograph- other single issue since the Vietnamical areas reflect the philosophy and val- War. This overwhelming response sug-ues of each particular culture as well as gests that consumers are interested inwhat herbs are available in each region. using herbs and other dietary supple-For instance, in traditional Chinese ments for their health.medicine, herbs are used to restore bal- In addition, the heightened interest inance in the body and are part of a long- herbal medicine reflects consumer con-term treatment that seeks to maintain cern about the high cost of Western med-the health of both mind and body. In icine in general and pharmaceuticalWestern medicine, herbal medications drugs in particular. Further, there is ahave been developed to treat particular growing perception among consumersphysical symptoms immediately. This that many conventional medicines arepharmacologically based system has toxic and produce adverse side effects,been especially successful in the treat- despite the fact that they have beenment of acute illness. approved by the Food and Drug Adminis- Herbs form the basis of many mod- tration (FDA). These concerns haveern pharmaceutical drugs. Today, about revived interest in many traditional herbs25 percent of all prescription medicines and medicinal plants, as well as otherare derived from medicinal plants. forms of alternative medicine. ManyPharmaceutical companies are doing Americans have also become interestedresearch on herbs from the Brazilian in this area because of the increasedrain forests. In fact, the word drug media coverage in alternative medicinederives from the old Dutch word droge, and the creation of the Office of Alterna-which means “to dry.” During the Mid- tive Medicine (OAM) at the Nationaldle Ages, Dutch pharmacists dried Institutes of Health (NIH) to study herbsplants for use as medicines. and other alternative modalities. In 1994 an estimated 17 percent of allAmericans used herbs for some medicinal A Description of Herbal Medicinesor health reason. The herbal industry is Herbs are popular all over the world.estimated to have earned $2 billion in The World Health Organization (WHO) 57
  • 89. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines Photo: Hilary Marcus / Impact Visuals An herbalist teaches about the medicinal use of common trees and plants. estimates that about 80 percent of peo- Herbal medicines can be as simple as a ple in developing countries still rely on cup of chamomile tea (Matricaria recu- some form of traditional medicine for tita) to help digestion after a big meal, to primary health care. In every type of tra- ease an upset stomach, or to help as a ditional medicine, that is, medicine relaxing beverage before bedtime. Other based on historical uses and used by simple herbal medicines include an indigenous cultures, herbs and medici- extract of the roots or leaves of echi- nal plants constitute the major basis for nacea (Echinacea spp.) to help reduce the the remedies used. severity or duration of a cold or flu, espe- In a very real sense, herbs are not cially when taken at the onset of symp- alternative medicine; they are integral to toms; the use of feverfew leaf (Tanacetum the development of all medicinal sys- parthenium) to allay migraine headaches; tems, both modern and traditional. and valerian root (Valeriana officinalis) to Despite the fact that many modern help assure a good night’s sleep, espe- drugs are derived from plants, there is a cially for persons with insomnia or other major distinction between a plant- sleep disorders. derived drug (e.g., quinine) and an Today many people are also using herbal medicine. Plant-derived drugs herbs to help prevent long-term illness. are single chemical compounds that are Cardiovascular disease is the the biggest extracted and purified from plants. killer of all Americans. Millions of Amer- Herbal medicines, on the other hand, icans are turning to such simple reme- can be defined as a whole plant or plant dies as garlic (Allium sativum) to help part that is used for its medicinal prop- reduce cardiovascular risk factors. In erties. Thus, an herbal remedy contains fact, the German government approves small amounts of many naturally occur- garlic for such use, including lowering ring chemicals from the plant. of the LDL cholesterol, known as the Most herbal medicines are used for “bad” cholesterol—a property of garlic minor, self-limiting conditions or illnesses. that has been documented in more than58
  • 90. Herbal Medicinetwo dozen clinical studies. Because the care to help treat senile dementia andGerman government allows such claims short-term memory loss in elderlyon garlic tablets, garlic is the biggest- patients. Another useful phytomedi-selling over-the-counter medicine sold cine is the standardized extract of milkin German pharmacies. thistle fruits (Silybum marianum). This Another increasingly popular use for preparation is a safe and effective tonicherbs is as alternatives to modern syn- to the liver, especially for persons whothetic prescription drugs. Millions of suffer from alcohol-induced cirrhosisAmerican men have begun to use the of the liver, who have been exposed toextract of the fruits of the native Ameri- toxic industrial chemicals, or who suf-can saw palmetto plant (Serenoa repens) fer from certain types of a safe and clinically documented rem-edy for benign prostatic hyperplasia How Herbal Remedies Are Used(BPH), nonmalignant enlargement of the Herbal medicines can be taken as teasprostate that affects about half of men that have been either steeped or boiledover fifty years of age. Gaining popularity in water, known as an infusion andis the standardized extract of St. John’s decoction, respectively. They can bewort (Hypericum perforatum), which is ingested as powdered herbs in capsulesconsidered a safe and effective remedy and tablets, or as liquid extracts madefor mild to moderate depression. The with water and alcohol or just alcohol.efficacy of this herb, called a phytomedi- They can also be taken as standardizedcine in Europe, has been established in extracts, which have recently been devel-numerous clinical studies. oped. In these extracts, the level of one There are many more examples. naturally occurring chemical compoundStandardized extract of ginkgo leaf or group of compounds is chemically(Ginkgo biloba) has been shown in guaranteed from one batch to another inmany clinical studies to be safe and order to ensure reliable content.effective in stimulating peripheral cir- Herbs can also be used topically.culation, especially in the brain. This Fresh aloe gel (Aloe vera) can be directlyherb is especially useful in geriatric applied to the skin to help reduce the Types of Herbs and Their Uses Adaptogenic: Helps to reduce and resist stress. Alterative: Improves health and increases energy. Anthelminitic: Kills or expels intestinal worms. Anti-inflammatory: Soothes and lessens inflammation. Antimicrobial: Strengthens resistance to dangerous microorganisms. Antispasmodic: Reduces cramps and tension in skeletal muscles. Astringent: Produces a barrier against infection. Bitter: Functions as a general aid to disease prevention. Carminative: Improves the operation of the digestive system. Demulcent: Reduces inflammation. Diuretic: Stimulates production of and increases the elimination of urine. Emmenagogue: Aids in the functioning of the female reproductive system. Expectorant: Helps to remove mucus from the lungs. Hepatic: Strengthens the liver. Hypotensive: Lowers blood pressure. Laxative: Stimulates bowel movements. Nervine: Promotes the healthy functioning of the nervous system. Stimulating: Increases the metabolic activity of the body. Tonic: Invigorates, supports, and calms the body. 59
  • 91. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines pain of a minor burn or sunburn. Aloe Austin, TX 78720-1660 is used as an ingredient in sunburn Tel: 1-800-373-7105 creams, skin lotions, and even shaving Fax: (512) 331-1924 creams—all of which attests to the pop- e-mail: ularity and widespread acceptance of Web site: the healing dermatological properties Leading nonprofit research and educational orga- of this plant recognized since ancient nization. Offers a quarterly magazine called times. In addition, in Germany many HerbalGram, which publishes the latest herbal skin-care products rely on extracts of research, legal and regulatory issues regarding chamomile for their scientifically herbal medicine, detailed profiles of herbs, confer- proven skin-healing properties. Also in ence reports, and book reviews. Germany, manufacturers sell echinacea products intended for external use for American Herbalists Guild slow-healing wounds. P Box 1683 .O. Sequel, CA 95073 Enduring Popularity of Herbal Medicine Provides a directory of schools and teachers of A qualified herbalist or a well-respected herbal medicine. herbal guide or specialist should be con- sulted for the most effective herbal treat- Further Reading: ment. Herbs have certain qualities and must be used with care. Like conventional Castleman, Michael. The Healing Herbs. Emmaus, drugs, they are not recommended in every PA: Rodale Press, 1991. instance. For example, the herb ephedra (Ephedra sinia, commonly called by its Foster, Steven. 50 Herbs for Your Health. Loveland, Chinese name, ma huang), functions as a CO: Interweave Press, 1996. stimulant and is not recommended for those with high blood pressure, diabetes, Hoffmann, David. The New Holistic Herbal. Rock- glaucoma, and related conditions where port, MA: Element Books, 1992. hypertensives are contraindicated. The world of plants is rich and diver- Tierra, Leslie. The Herbs of Life. Freedom, CA: sified and produces numerous herbal Crossing Press, 1992. remedies that have been used for thou- sands of years. Modern scientific research continues to document and validate the historical traditional uses of many herbs as well as new uses of some traditional medicines. The safe and responsible use of herbal medicines offers an important way to lower health care costs and increase the ORTHOMOLECULAR MEDICINE wellness of the American public. It is most O likely that more scientific research will rthomolecular medicine strives to continue to place herbs in a position to achieve optimum health of its offer many benefits in the new medicine patients, as well as treat and pre- of the twenty-first century. vent disease, by creating the uniquely individual levels of nutrients needed in each body through diet, vitamin supple- —Mark Blumenthal mentation, and lifestyle changes. Practi- tioners employ what is more commonly Resources: known as megavitamin therapy, which is the use of large doses of certain vitamins American Botanical Council (ABC) based on thorough biochemical analysis P Box 201660 .O. to correct ineffective or destructive60
  • 92. Orthomolecular Medicinechemical balances in the body. Ortho- interest in vitamins because peoplemolecular medicine also addresses a believed that they were a quick way tovariety of psychiatric disorders, such as good health. From 1925 to 1940, manyschizophrenia and severe depression. were isolated from food, then identified and synthesized. Nutritional pioneersHistory of Orthomolecular Medicine began exploring the clinical uses ofIt was Linus Pauling, the two-time Nobel these newly available substances andPrize winner (one for chemistry, the using amounts that were above the lev-other for peace), who, in 1968, first els considered necessary to preventcoined the term orthomolecular medi- deficiency-state diseases such as scurvy,cine to describe more accurately what beri-beri, and pellagra.had been popularly known as megavita- In North Carolina, a country doctormin therapy. named Fred Klenner used large doses of Pauling’s concept was to create an vitamin C effectively against viral illness.optimum nutritional micro-environ- The infants delivered by mothers on hisment for every cell in the body by giving supplement program were so robust andit the “right amounts of the right mole- healthy that the local hospital staff nick-cules”—vitamins, minerals, amino named them the “vitamin C babies.” Inacids, enzymes, and other substances Canada, two physician brothers, Evan andused by the body. This would not just Wilfrid Shute, found that vitamin E offeredcorrect the deficiencies or imbalances a valuable treatment against heart disease.that make us more susceptible to dis- In the early 1950s, two other Canadianease and degeneration. It would also physicians, Abram Hoffer and Humphreypromote the highest level of health, Osmond, began to use high doses ofenabling us to reach our physical, men- niacin (vitamin B3) and other nutrients total, and spiritual potential and enjoy a help schizophrenic patients. The nutri-maximum life span. The path to this tional treatments they pioneered for agoal, according to Pauling, is accom- variety of mental conditions were later for-plished through dietary changes and malized into orthomolecular psychiatry.supplementation. Over the years, the orthomolecular For many years before his death in arsenal has expanded dynamically from1994 at the age of ninety-three, Pauling just a few vitamins. Today, it includes awas an outspoken champion of non- broad spectrum of vitamins, minerals,toxic therapies and nutritional supple- amino acids, enzymes, hormones, andmentation. He attracted considerable plant-derived supplements.attention—and controversy—with his Many commentators believe that allo-books on the beneficial effects of vita- pathic, or more conventional, medicinemin C supplementation against the has given little respect to nutritional ther-common cold and cancer. apy in an age of pharmaceutical, surgical, Pauling formulated a modern nutri- and high-tech techniques. In the past, vit-tional paradigm—an approach empha- amins and minerals were considered nec-sizing optimum intake of nutrients for essary only in tiny amounts in order toachieving powerful prevention and prevent certain diseases; furthermore,healing benefits. Orthomolecular conventional Western medical practition-physicians have used this approach to ers maintained that if people ate right, itsuccessfully treat schizophrenia, would result in obtaining enough nutri-depression, alcoholism, drug abuse, ents from food. As a result, conventionaland individuals with gastrointestinal medical schools have not thoroughly edu-disorders, arthritis, cardiovascular dis- cated their students about the role ofease, and even cancer. nutrition in causing and healing disease. During the first half of the twentieth Times may finally be changing. Therecentury, there was much excitement and is a growing interest in alternative 61
  • 93. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines treatments because of the cost and side sophisticated technology. Practitioners effects of pharmaceuticals and the fail- of alternative medicine, among them ings of modern conventional medicine orthomolecular physicians, regard food to impact the crisis of chronic disease and nutrition as the bedrock of their and runaway medical costs. A growing professions. number of medical schools are offering Orthos is a Greek word meaning programs in nontoxic treatments and “straight.” Just as orthopedic medicine clinical nutrition. In addition, there has refers to the straightening of deformed been quite a bit of research proving that or broken bones, and orthodontics to vitamin supplementation, at doses high- the straightening of crooked teeth, er than those usually present in the diet, orthomolecular medicine literally has a significant preventive and thera- means to straighten or correct the peutic effect and represents a potent, body’s molecules. safe, and inexpensive medical option. Orthomolecular practitioners base In 1992, the New York Academy of Sci- their recommendations to patients on ence convened a landmark conference the concept of biochemical individuali- called “Beyond Deficiency: New Views on ty, an idea put forward by Roger the Function and Health Effects of Vita- Williams, Ph.D., the University of Texas mins.” At this meeting, researchers pre- scientist who discovered vitamin B5. sented new findings on the positive effects This concept holds that each of us is of vitamins and minerals against cancer, uniquely different. We look different, heart disease, and other illnesses. A joint react to stress and chemicals differently, United Nations and World Health Organi- live and work in different environments, zation conference in 1996 on healthy have different genetic makeup, drink aging reflected a growing recognition of different water and eat different food, nutrition in the fight against disease. and have different requirements for var- ious nutrients. Although the number of necessary nutrients is the same for each The Basic Principles of of us, the optimum amounts we need Orthomolecular Medicine individually are very different. “Let food be thy medicine and thy med- For this fundamental reason, ortho- icine be thy food,” said Hippocrates to molecular physicians regard the govern- his students. More than 2,500 years ment-promoted RDAs (recommended later, this advice from the “father of daily allowances) and MDRs (minimum medicine” has been overlooked, but not daily requirements) as irrelevant. “Even if altogether ignored, by modern doctors 90 percent of any population required using pharmaceutical drugs and only the minimal daily requirement of Is Orthomolecular Therapy Dangerous? Some people have argued that high doses of certain vitamins can be dangerous, even toxic, to those who take them. Studies have shown that the dangers are minor compared to the dangers of taking high doses of pharmaceutical medications. If symptoms occur, or you feel that you are taking too much of a certain vitamin, ask your orthomolecular practitioner. He or she will be aware of the dangers and can tell you all you need to know about your treatment. If you are taking too much of a certain nutrient, the practitioner will lower your dosage immediately, and the level of that nutrient will adjust within a very short time. The most important issue is to keep your doctor aware of any changes or symptoms you might experience during orthomolecular therapy.62
  • 94. Orthomolecular Medicinevitamins, it would leave huge numbers of Resources:people needing 10, 100, or 1,000 times asmuch,” contends orthomolecular physi- International Academy of Nutrition & Preventivecian Abram Hoffer. “With sick people the Medicinerange of need is many times greater.” P Box 18433 .O. The perspective of pioneers like Hof- Asheville, NC 28814fer and other orthomolecular specialists Tel: (704) 258-3243is that their form of medicine is not a Offers a list of practitioners by state. Publishes thecure-all or a replacement for convention- Journal of Applied Nutrition, a quarterly journalal treatment. Rather, explains Hoffer, “a that covers nutritional issues.proportion of patients will require ortho-dox treatment, a proportion will do better The International Society for Orthomolecularon orthomolecular treatment, and the Medicinerest will need a skillful blend of both.” 16 Florence Avenue Toronto, ON M2N 1E9How Orthomolecular Physicians Can Canada e-mail: centre@orthomed.orgHelp Web site: www.orthomed.orgOrthomolecular physicians practice Founded in 1994, this organization lists and rec-throughout the world. They are primari- ommends orthomolecular practitioners in Cana-ly medical doctors (M.D.s), but also da. Also publishes the periodical Journal ofosteopaths (D.O.s), naturopaths (NDs), Orthomolecular Medicine.and chiropractors (DCs). Orthomolecular practitioners zero in The Society for Orthomolecular Medicine of Americaon the individuality of patients through 2698 Pacific Avenuelaboratory tests and comprehensive San Francisco, CA 94115medical reviews that consider diet, stress, Tel: (415) 922-6462exercise, levels of sensitivity to foods or Provides information on orthomolecular practi-chemicals, and the use of alcohol, drugs, tioners in the United States.or pharmaceuticals. These tests are per-formed in a physician’s office. Recommendations typically involve Further Reading:not just nutritional supplements butalso the elimination or reduction of Hoffer, Abram, and Morton Walker. Putting It Alldrugs, contaminants, and allergens, and Together: The New Orthomolecular Nutrition.the replacement of junk food and nutri- New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing, 1996.ent-poor diets with complete, fresh, andnourishing diets. Hoffer, Abram. Orthomolecular Medicine for Physicians—A Survey/Introduction Textbook.Benefits and Risks New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing, 1989.Orthomolecular medicine is beneficial Janson, Michael. The Vitamin Revolution infor a wide range of physical and mental Health Care. Greenville, NH: Arcadia Press,conditions, and its concepts are widely 1996.practiced by health-conscious individu-als concerned about preventative care. Pauling, Linus. Vitamin C and the Common Cold. To get comprehensive and effective San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1970.treatment, one should see an orthomo-lecular specialist first rather than trying to Pauling, Linus, with Ewan Cameron. Cancer andattempt self-treatment. Vitamin C. New York: Linus Pauling Institute of —Martin Zucker Science and Medicine, 1979. 63
  • 95. PART IV: MIND/BODY MEDICINE Biofeedback Training • Guided Imagery • Hypnotherapy • Interactive Guided Imagery SM • Psychoneuroimmunology Mind/body med- icine is a contem- porary term used to describe a number of disciplines that study or approach healing the physi- cal body, or trans- forming human behavior, by engag- ing the conscious or unconscious powers of the mind. While “mind/body medi- cine” is a term used in this section of the encyclopedia to describe a growing field of study and practice in contem- porary Western Photo: Corbis-Bettmann medicine, it is also used by others to describe ancient Eastern disciplines such as yoga, medi- Franz Anton Mesmer (1734–1815), now called the “Father of Hypnosis,” was one of the earliest Western scientists to investigate the connection tation, traditional between body and mind. Chinese medicine, and subtle energy therapies. The vari- ety of disciplines that comprise mind/body medicine in this encyclopedia combine a theory of the relationship between body and mind that has much in common with these ancient Eastern disciplines with Western scientific models of biology and chemistry. These disciplines are also characterized by an emphasis on individual64
  • 96. motivation in the healing process and a more personal relationship between caregiv-er and receiver. These practices have been used to treat stress-related conditions,such as chronic pain, allergies, chemical and emotional dependencies, and perfor-mance anxiety.Mind/Body Medicine—Ancient and Modern While the disciplines discussed in this section emerged from a context of contem-porary Western science, the theories and techniques they use have much in commonwith approaches to healing developed by ancient cultures and still in use worldwide.Both ancient and modern approaches to mind/body medicine believe that the causeof disease is not restricted to the physical body. For ancient disciplines, the non-phys-ical causes of disease may include spirits, emotions, or the mind, which bridges spir-it and body. Contemporary Western methods of mind/body medicine attempt tounderstand the cause of disease by investigating the effect of thoughts or emotions onbehavior and the physical workings of the body. Shamanism, an ancient method of healing, is based on the belief that all illness isa result of disharmony between the spirit world and the material world. Traditionalshamanic practices include trance states and mental focusing techniques similar tothose used by hypnotherapy and guided imagery today. The highly disciplined Indian practice of hatha yoga is driven by the belief that allmatter is a materialized form of the one great spirit motivating the universe. Itincludes numerous health-enhancing physical exercises, internal cleansing tech-niques, and breathing practices to help people refine the physical body and experi-ence its spiritual nature. Hatha yoga practitioners develop a control of the bodysimilar to that developed through biofeedback today. In China, healers practiced within the framework of the ancient Chinese religionof Taoism, which seeks a balanced, harmonious existence between humankind andnature. Over thousands of years, Chinese herbal treatments evolved by correlatingobservations of the interaction of elements in nature with the physical, emotional,and mental characteristics associated with human illnesses. The relationships Chi-nese healers noted between elemental balances, emotional states, and physicalhealth are similar to those recognized by psychoneuroimmunology today.The Development of Mind/Body Medicine in the West While ancient Greek medical practices were originally holistic, ways of viewing thebody began to change with the influence of the philosophical pragmatism of Aristotle(c.384–c.332 BCE) and his desire to know and categorize all aspects of the material world.Ancient Greeks began to separate the observation and treatment of matter, or body, fromthe observation and treatment of spirit, or mind. This trend in Western thinking andhealing was later reinforced by the medieval Christian church, which glorified the devot-ed mind of humankind as the true channel to the spirit of God while denigrating thephysical body as an instrument of the devil. In the seventeenth century, the Frenchphilosopher René Descartes helped establish the philosophical foundation of theEnlightenment by proclaiming the mind a non-material, transcendent aspect of humanbeings, to be separate and infinitely more valuable than the physical body. 65
  • 97. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines Split off from philosophical or spiritual inquiry, Western medical science devel- oped by studying the physical body and treating it as a purely mechanical instrument that could be broken down into smaller and more knowable components. While this approach yielded many amazing, lifesaving achievements over the last 300 years, it investigated only the physical treatment of ailments. The relationship of the mind and body was not fully investigated by Western medicine until the beginning of this cen- tury, gaining ever more momentum in the last thirty-five years. The neurologist Sig- mund Freud’s (1856–1939) theory of the unconscious mind opened new ways of considering the mind’s effect on behavior and physical health. The research that inspired Freud’s theories employed many of the techniques that are a part of hyp- notherapy and guided imagery practices. Throughout the twentieth century, data pointing to a relationship between our thoughts, emotions, and health began to appear from many branches of science, including sociology, anthropology, and psychology. For example, in 1956 Hans Selye, a Canadian physiologist, revealed the devastating effects of traumatic experiences, which he termed stress, on an organism’s health. Then in the 1960s a more specific clue to the connections between mind and body appeared. Drs. Elmer and Alyce Green, pioneering researchers in biofeedback, documented the profound abilities of advanced yoga practitioners to control consciously their heart rate, temperature, and brain wave patterns. As the century continued, scientists in the newly developing field of psychoneuroimmunology presented evidence linking particular chemical sub- stances, such as endorphins, to specific human emotions, such as pleasure. They showed how certain levels of endorphins in the body may act as a chemical shield against invading viruses or germs. Today mind/body medicine practices are a respected part of treatment in many major hospitals and clinics throughout the United States. They may be used for relief of pain before or during surgery and to aid in the postoperative process. In addition, individuals seeking help for a variety of chronic physical conditions, including cancer and AIDS, as well as those seeking to change painful and destructive behavior pat- terns, such as chemical addictions or eating disorders, are enhancing traditional West- ern methods of treatment with mind/body medicine practices. Some Basic Mind/Body Medicine Beliefs The disciplines discussed in this section represent an expansion of traditional Western approaches to medicine. While research in each discipline has yielded differ- ent theories and techniques, together these fields share certain basic principles. First, approaches to mind/body medicine are unified by their belief that real and useful connections exist between our bodies and our minds. Whether the discipline uses the powers of the conscious mind to interact with and affect the systems of the body, as in biofeedback, or employs the powers of the unconscious mind to effect changes in behavior, as in hypnotherapy, the pathways between body and mind are at the heart of these healing modalities. The disciplines discussed in this section share the belief that a person’s emotions and attitudes will influence his or her body’s innate ability to heal. In clinical studies in the 1940s and 1950s patients were given a placebo, or neutral substance such as66
  • 98. sugared water, and told that it would relieve their chronic pain. The patients’ emo-tional attitudes about their pain, as well as their physical progress, were closely mon-itored. The results showed that patients who believe they will recover are much morelikely to do so than those who think they won’t, or those who think they will get worse.Mind/body medicine practitioners believe that these results strongly suggest thatemotions and mental attitudes play an important role in the body’s ability to heal. Finally, all mind/body medicine practices believe in the importance of personalmotivation in the healing process. This belief is supported by clinical research, whichshows that cancer patients who become actively involved in their treatment are morelikely to recover than those who passively accept their diagnosis and fail to examinetheir treatment options. Taking charge of one’s life fends off feelings of hopelessnessand lack of control, both of which have been shown through psychoneuroimmunolo-gy studies to reduce the number of disease-fighting cells in the body. By emphasizingpersonal responsibility, mind/body medicine practitioners aim to empower patientsto make a successful healing journey. Because mind/body medicine practitioners emphasize the individual’s participa-tion in the healing process, special attention is given to the relationship between care-giver and receiver. For instance, in guided imagery the caregiver is often referred to asa guide or knowledgeable aide. The guide’s role is viewed as helping the receiveraccess his or her own inner sources of physical, mental, and emotional health andoffering positive reinforcement as he or she learns to navigate the channels betweenbody and mind.The Future of Mind/Body Medicine Mind/body medicine practices have helped millions of people find relief from amultitude of physical and emotional problems. People suffering from migraineheadaches, insomnia, hypertension, asthma and other respiratory conditions, ulcersand other gastrointestinal disorders, incontinence, cardiac and vascular irregularities,muscular problems caused by strokes or accidents, arthritis, anxiety, attention andlearning disorders, depression, chemical and emotional addictions, and phobias andother stress-related disorders have all been helped by mind/body medicine practices.Although the field is still young, with continued research, creative and caring practi-tioners, and courageous health care consumers willing to view illness as a messagefrom the body to begin an active healing journey, mind/body medicine may providenew solutions for health care in the twenty-first century. —Nancy Allison, CMAFurther Reading:Borysenko, Joan. Minding the Body, Mending the Mind. New York: Bantam Books, 1988.Chopra, Deepak. Quantum Healing. New York: Bantam Books, 1989. 67
  • 99. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines BIOFEEDBACK TRAINING connection. Alyce and Elmer Green used the EEG to study the techniques that enable masters of yoga meditation B to alter the rhythms and responses of iofeedback training is a means of the body so extensively that they can enhancing mental awareness of become impervious to extremes of tem- body changes. It is a process that perature and pain. Under the direction offers techniques for regulating the of Joe Kamiya, volunteers in another body’s vital functions and fostering study learned to use feedback from the overall health. Electronic biofeedback EEG to recognize and achieve the alpha instruments supply information about state, an alert sense of effortless well- the body not usually available to the being normally associated with consciousness. Heart rate, muscle ten- advanced stages of meditation. sion, blood circulation, brain wave During the late 1960s the excitement activity, and other body functions are generated by the initial findings of made perceptible as visual and auditory biofeedback research led to overly opti- signals that enable an individual to mistic claims about “miracle cures” of monitor his or her physiological reac- the future. Nonetheless, it was clear that tion to various stimuli or situations. a fundamental concept in the human With the help of the biofeedback instru- sciences, the distinction between vol- ment it is possible to develop new, untary and involuntary nervous activity, healthier patterns of response through- had been discredited. Vital functions out the body’s systems, even those pre- like blood pressure were now seen as viously regarded as involuntary and subject to the control of the individual. outside the reach of the conscious Behavioral modification accordingly mind. Biofeedback training has a vast became an ever more accepted mode of range of diagnostic, therapeutic, and health care. The first professional meet- preventive applications, particularly in ing of feedback researchers was held in cases where stress and related psycho- 1968, chaired by Les Fehmi. In 1969 logical factors play a role. biofeedback researchers founded a pro- fessional support group, the Biofeedback The History of Biofeedback Training Research Society, later renamed the The use of biofeedback devices to mod- Association for Applied Psychophysiol- ify behavior started in 1938, when ogy and Biofeedback (AAPB). The volu- Hobart G. Mowrer introduced an alarm minous scholarly literature on various triggered by urine to stop children from aspects of biofeedback attests to the wetting their beds. Beginning in the interest it has attracted in the scientific 1940s muscle-tension biofeedback was community. successfully used in the field of neuro- muscular rehabilitation. Biofeedback The Theory of Biofeedback Training developed rapidly in America during Biofeedback training approaches the the 1950s and 1960s because of a coinci- brain as a control center that sends dence of two factors. There was growing impulses through the nervous system to awareness that stress was a principal program the body’s vital functions: cause of disease and an accompanying heart rate, blood pressure, circulation, interest in expanding the mind’s ability digestion, breath, perspiration, and so to respond to stress more positively and forth. By automatically signaling the nurture all parts of one’s self. At the different systems when to turn on or off, same time the invention of the elec- people live safely and comfortably in troencephalograph machine (EEG) and their surroundings without deliberating similar electronic equipment gave sci- over the body’s basic activities. But entists new tools for monitoring the stress, illness, or an accident can dis- internal workings of the body-mind rupt the natural process and cause it to68
  • 100. Biofeedback Training Photo: © Joel Gordon A biofeedback machine translates some aspects of a client’s physical functioning, such as heart rate or blood pressure, into a sound or visual signal.send signals that produce common muscles and a fall in body temperature,health problems like insomnia, muscu- that the person may never have noticed.lar or vascular pain, and irritable bowel Furthermore, the machines serve as a pre-syndrome, to name just a few. While cise, objective gauge of the physiologicalthese stress-aggravated processes make effects accomplished by using a relaxationthe body seem unpredictable and technique such as visualizing a pleasantbeyond control, biofeedback training scene or soothing color. The true source ofcan help reverse overreactions. the self-healing promoted and reflected by The use of electronic instruments to biofeedback training are techniques thatmeasure and reflect the status of body normalize physiological functioning.functions is only one element of biofeed- These techniques enable the person toback training. It also uses relaxation tech- stabilize erratic or unhealthy physicalniques derived from ancient meditation responses and to take responsibility for hispractice and requires participants to be or her own to the idea of attentional flexibility.Contrary to popular belief, the machines Biofeedback Training in Practicedo not intervene in the information travel- In its most frequent application,ing between the body and mind. Instead, biofeedback training is used to teachthe instruments act as a mirror of one’s people techniques for coping withinternal reactions, allowing an individual health problems that have already beento observe this behavior and to be aware of diagnosed by a medical doctor or psy-harmful reactions. This information helps chologist. The role of the certified prac-uncover hidden patterns of physiological titioners who administer biofeedbackreactions to stress, for example, tensing of training is to show the client how to 69
  • 101. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines interpret control and the electronic flow biofeedback. However, there is a biofeedback. The client sits during growing movement toward providing training and remains fully clothed, other types, especially neurofeedback, though sensors are placed on the skin for a variety of disorders. The most com- over the region to be monitored. The mon applications are for headaches, sensors do not cause pain or discom- pain management or pain dissolution, fort. Body information from the and general stress reduction. Stress biofeedback instrument is presented in reduction is therapeutic for a variety of any of several forms: flashing lights, symptoms such as irritable bowel syn- beeping sounds, patterns on a comput- drome, migraine headaches, hyperten- er screen, or tactile sensations. Current- sion, breathing difficulties, cardiac and ly available instruments have the vascular irregularities, anxiety, depres- capacity to monitor skin temperature, sion, insomnia, as well as symptoms electrical conductivity in the skin, mus- related to addiction, attention disor- cle tension, heart rate, brain wave activ- ders, and for the reduction of other ity, and other body processes. learning disabilities. The AAPB can pro- The nature of the work in a training vide a list of clinical symptoms that session varies according to the needs of have responded favorably to biofeed- the client. In the case of compulsive teeth back treatment as well as a referral to a grinding and temporomandibular joint certified biofeedback provider in your (TMJ) disorder, for example, training area. focuses on regulation of muscular ten- sion in the jaw. Attention deficit disorder —Les Fehmi, Ph.D. can be addressed by means of a comput- er game controlled by brain wave activity. The client watches the game but cannot Resources: play unless he or she produces brain Association for Appl