The illustrated encyclopedia of body mind disciplines by nancy allison cma


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The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body Mind Disciplines by Nancy Allison CMA

The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines, a comprehensive new reference covering over 120 disciplines, has been published by The Rosen Publishing.

As alternative medicine is gaining recognition in traditional health care, this timely volume is a welcome and essential resource. The 500-page, one-volume encyclopedia features practical details as well as historical and theoretical information about body-mind practices within all of the major disciplines, from the familiar martial arts, meditation and massage to lesser-known therapies and techniques. While the approaches of the different practices often vary widely, their purpose of incorporating the body with the thinking and feeling processes of the mind is universal -- to enable a person to live a long, meaningful, and healthy life.

Written by over 125 experts in their respective fields, the lavishly-illustrated encyclopedia includes boxed insets highlighting important facts about each discipline, annotated resource lists, and sources for further reading.

Editor Nancy Allison, CMA, currently teaches Laban movement analysis and Bartenief Fundamentals at New York University School of Education. She is also on the faculty at the Lincoln Center Institute and the Laban-Bartenief Institute of Movement Studies.

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The illustrated encyclopedia of body mind disciplines by nancy allison cma

  1. 1. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines
  2. 2. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines Nancy Allison, CMA Editor The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. New York
  3. 3. Important notice to readers of this book: This book is not intended to substitute for diag-nosis or treatment by or consultation with a qualified, licensed health care practitioner. Aphysician should be consulted before deciding to participate in any body-mind discipline.The Publisher is not recommending or advocating the use or practice of any body-mind dis-cipline or program of treatment mentioned or described in this book. The Publisher shall notbe responsible for any consequences or ill effects resulting from the practice of any programof treatment mentioned or described in this book.Published in 1999 by The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc.29 East 21st Street, New York, NY 10010© 1999 by Nancy AllisonAll rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in anyform without permission in writing from the publisher, except bya reviewer. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataAllison, NancyThe illustrated encyclopedia of body-mind disciplines/Nancy Allison, editor p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN 0-8239-2546-3 1. Alternative medicine—Encyclopedias. 2. Mind and body therapies—Encyclopedias.I. Allison, Nancy, 1954-R733.I46 1998615.5—dc21 98-24969 CIPManufactured in the United States of America
  4. 4. About the Editor Nancy Allison, CMA, has always been interested in the role of movement inhuman society, its inner impulses and outer forms. This interest led her to pursue acareer in dance. She performed during her childhood with the National Ballet ofWashington, DC, and with Moscow’s world-renowned Bolshoi Ballet during its 1963American tour. She graduated with honors from Ohio University with a B.F.A. inDance. While at Ohio University she augmented her study of dance with courses inphilosophy and psychology. As a young professional dancer she joined the Theaterof the Open Eye in New York City, founded by choreographer Jean Erdman and thelate Joseph Campbell. Allison distinguished herself as the leading interpreter ofErdman’s dance repertory from the 1940s and 1950s, producing the three-volumevideo archive Dance and Myth: The World of Jean Erdman. Inspired by both Erdman and Campbell, Allison expanded her exploration ofmovement to include the body-mind relationship. She has studied hatha yoga, t’ai chich’üan, the Pilates Method, bioenergetics, authentic movement, and Laban move-ment analysis, in which she earned a degree as a certified movement analyst. A muchsought after teacher, Allison has taught master classes and workshops throughout theUnited States. She currently resides in New York, where she teaches at the School ofEducation of New York University.Acknowledgments So many people have helped create this volume that it is probably impossible toname them all, but given this opportunity, I would like to try. I feel deeply indebtedto Joseph Campbell, whose personal encouragement guided my early explorationsinto the world of body-mind and whose spirit and knowledge are a constant well-spring of inspiration to me. I also want to thank my husband, who believed in myability to complete this project and nurtured both it and me with his constant loveand support. I am eternally grateful to all of the distinguished teachers, healers, and writerswho contributed entries to this volume. Their dedication to their respective fields andtheir generous gifts of time and knowledge to this project have earned my undyingrespect and admiration. I believe they are, each in their own wonderfully unique way,helping to make this world a better place. Certain writers and consultants have been particularly influential in my owndevelopment, and I want to acknowledge their gifts to me: T’ai chi master SophiaDelza, who passed away during the course of our work, taught me to follow the flowof the life force in its endless cycle from full to empty and back to full again; Ed Groff;Janet Hamburg; Clio Pavlantos and Jackie Hand, who taught me to recognize theendless permutations of that force through the language of Laban movementanalysis; Nina Robinson, who introduced me to the thrill of liberating that forcethrough bioenergetics; Lillo (Leela) Way, who taught me the true nature of a spir-itual practice; Jane Magee and Jackie Hand, whose healing hands managed tountangle the knots into which I seem to want to endlessly entangle my body; and Dr. v
  5. 5. Domenick Masiello, whose healing artistry has restored me and so many of my loved ones to a vibrant state of health. I am also indebted to Dr. Masiello for the many fine contributing writers he recommended to this project. In that regard I am also deeply indebted to Thomas Claire and Ken Frey. There are also those who, while not contributing writers, were important to my abil- ity to realize this project: Clifford Schulman, Jeff McMahon, Anne Johnson, Joanna Kosartes Vergoth, and Cynthia Reynolds, all of whom recommended contributing writ- ers to the project; Romana Kryzanowska, who gave me my first teaching job in the body- mind arena at the Pilates Studio; Carol Walker and Steven Giordano, who encouraged me to expand and explore that skill and knowledge at SUNY Purchase; Miriam Roskin Berger, who has supported so many of my creative endeavors and gave me the opportu- nity to develop my teaching at New York University, and all of my students over the years who continually show me through their amazing transformations that my approach to this material is valuable and life-enhancing. Finally, I would like to thank the staff at the Rosen Publishing Group, all of whom were extraordinarily helpful and supportive; especially Christine Slovey, who worked long and diligently to uphold cohesive reference standards while allowing each individ- ual voice to be heard; Michael Isaac and Margaret Haerens, who each offered their own perspective and editing skills; Kim Sonsky, whose artistic talents created the cover design; Vera Amadzadeh, whose tireless photo research efforts brought such vivid visu- al expression to the ideas contained in the writing; and Olga Vega, whose layout and design expertise give such visual clarity and accessibility to the volume. With such a huge task, spanning so many years, Im sure there are others I have missed. Please forgive me and know that you have my deepest respect and gratitude. —Nancy Allison, CMA, Editorvi
  6. 6. ContributorsAcupressure, Process Acupressure technique. She has a modern dance Aminah Raheem, Ph.D. and background, having choreographedDiplomate of Process Work, is a transper- and performed in New York City sincesonal psychologist, bodyworker, writer, 1983. She is on the faculty at SUNYand the originator of process acupres- Stony Brook in the music departmentsure, who has worked for many years and maintains a private practice in Newwith the integration of bodywork and York and Connecticut. She has writtenconsciousness. She was an adjunct facul- various journals on body-mind healingty member of the Institute for and has received a grant from the NewTranspersonal Psychology for ten years. York Cardiac Center to study and report on complementary medicine.Acupuncture Robert J. Abramson, D.D.S, M.D., Art Therapyhad a private dental practice for over a Cathy Malchiodi, M.A., ATR, LPAT,decade before earning his M.D. from the LPCC, is the director of the InstituteState University of New York and com- for the Arts and Health in Salt Lakepleting a bachelor’s course in acupunc- City, Utah. She is the editor of Artture at the College of Traditional Chinese Therapy: Journal of the American ArtMedicine in England. Dr. Abramson is Therapy Association and the author ofcurrently a privately practicing acupunc- several books and articles on the topicturist in New York City. of art therapy with trauma, child phys- ical abuse, and medical applications.Aikido Ms. Malchiodi has lectured at many Clio Pavlantos, M.A., CMA, holds a universities, agencies, and institutionsmaster’s degree in dance, a certificate in throughout the United States, Canada,Laban movement studies, and a black Europe, and Asia.belt in aikido. She has taught all three dis-ciplines at colleges, universities, and pri- Aston-Patterning®vate institutions. Dance and Laban Allison Funk has been working inmovement analysis helped her in learn- the fields of bodywork and movementing and teaching aikido, which she finds education for twelve years. A licensedto have many of the rhythms and expres- physical therapist assistant, shesive qualities of dance. received her Aston-Patterning® certifi- Marvin Bookman has been involved cation in 1996 and is currently enrolledin the martial arts for twenty years. He is in the faculty training program at thecertified as an aikido instructor by the Aston-Patterning Center in Lake Tahoe,United States Aikido Federation. In 1989, Nevada. Funk owns a private Aston-he founded Aikido of Greenwich Village. Patterning practice in Winter Park,Currently, Bookman gives seminars and Colorado, where she uses her skills toclasses throughout the United States. assist a variety of clients.Alexander Technique Authentic Movement Diane Young, NASAT, is a certified Daphne Lowell is a professor atteacher and trainer of the Alexander Hampshire College and the Five College vii
  7. 7. Dance Department. She is also codirec- coauthor of Out of Sight into Vision, a tor of the Hampshire College Program consumer self-help book presenting new in contemplative dance. models of seeing and vision therapy. Ayurvedic Medicine Bioenergetics Dr. Vasant Lad, BAMS (bachelor of Nina Robinson, ADTR, M.A., CMA, ayurvedic medicine and surgery), has been a dance/movement therapist MASc (master of ayurvedic science), is since 1973. She has taught in the New the founder, director, chairman of the York University dance therapy program, board, and principal instructor of the from which she received her master’s Ayurvedic Institute in Albuquerque, degree. She is a member of the Academy New Mexico. He practiced and taught of Dance Therapists Registered. She has ayurveda in Pune, India, before coming integrated bioenergetics into her dance to the United States and teaching at the therapy work throughout her career. She Santa Fe College of Natural Medicine began her many years of bioenergetic in 1981. therapy with Alexander Lowen, M.D., from 1965 to 1967. Bartenieff FundamentalsSM Janet Hamburg, CMA, M.A., directs Biofeedback the dance division at the University of Les Fehmi, Ph.D., organized and Kansas, Lawrence. She was a faculty chaired the first national meeting of member of the Laban/Bartenieff biofeedback researchers in 1968. He has Institute of Movement Studies a Ph.D. in physiological psychology Certificate Extension Program in New from UCLA and has been recognized by Mexico. She has taught LMA classes the Association for Applied Physiopsy- internationally, and throughout the chology and Biofeedback for his contri- United States Hamburg’s work with butions to the development of applied athletes has been featured on national physiopathology and biofeedback. He television, including the program directs biofeedback centers in New York Science World. City and Princeton, New Jersey. Behavioral Vision Therapy Body-Mind Centering® Dr. Joseph Shapiro is a behavioral Vera Orlock is an assistant profes- optometrist with twenty-five years of sor of dance at Kansas State University experience. He is the director of the and has taught at Indiana University, Center for Unlimited Vision in New Bloomington, and the University of York City. He received his doctor of North Carolina, Charlotte. Her chore- optometry degree from the ography has been recognized by grants Massachusetts College of Optometry from the Ohio Arts Council and the and did his intern and residency pro- New York State Council on the Arts. gram in vision therapy at the She is on the faculty of the School for University Optometric Center, State Body-Mind Centering® and is also a College of Optometry, State University certified practitioner of structural inte- of New York. He has taught rehabilita- gration, the work of Ida P. Rolf. Orlock tive optometry at six major hospitals in is frequently a guest artist/teacher in the New York metropolitan area. He is Europe and the United States.viii
  8. 8. Bodynamics Analysis Chiropractic Peter Bernhardt, MFCC, is director Dr. Trina Marx is a doctor of chiro-of the Clement Street Counseling Center practic with a degree in clinical nutri-Faculty at California Institute of Integral tion, also specializing in exerciseStudies in Somatics program, in San psychology and holistic treatments. InFrancisco, California, and a founding addition to her private practice, she ismember of the Bodynamics Institute, the chiropractor for the American TapUSA. He has led trainings and work- Dance Orchestra. Her volunteer workshops throughout the United States and includes providing chiropractic ser-Europe, has twenty years’ experience as vices for the Gay Men’s Health Crisisa body psychotherapist, and is in private and for children born with addictionspractice near Berkeley, California. and HIV. She has also written Body Almanac and Tap Dance.Bowen Technique Oswald H. Rentsch is the principal Connective Tissue TherapySMand founder of the Bowen Therapy Jackie Hand, M.A., is a certifiedAcademy of Australia, the official orga- Laban movement analyst (CMA) and anization of Bowtech®. From 1974 to 1976 registered movement therapist (RMT).he studied under Thomas A. Bowen, She is a movement consultant and awho commissioned Rentsch to docu- dance specialist, performing movementment and teach his original techniques. retraining and bodywork. On the facul-He has earned a diploma of osteopathy ty at the Laban/Bartenieff Institute offrom the South Pacific Council of Movement Studies, she integrates herNatural Therapies, an honorary doctor- years of dance training with her move-ate of massage therapy from the ment observation skills to educateAustralian Registrar of Massage clients in movement awareness andTherapists, and a diploma of homeopa- observation. She studied anatomy withthy ionization principles from the Irene Dowd and Connective TissueAustralian Academy of Homeopathy. Therapy™ with Theresa Lamb. She has aOswald Rentsch has twenty-two years holistic approach to movement andof experience with the Bowen technique bodywork and is nationally certified inand, together with his wife Elaine, has therapeutic massage and bodyworkspent ten years as a Bowtech teacher. (NCTMB).Brain Gym® Contact Improvisation Lark Carroll has been teaching Brain Paul Langland is a dancer, singer,Gym in the Bay Area since 1986. She choreographer, and teacher. A longtimecompleted certification in educational practitioner of contact and other improvi-kinesiology, neurolinguistic program- sational dance forms, he often presents hisming, acupressure massage, and own work, as well as performing withBowen Therapy. Additionally, she others. His work has been seen at Danceholds training in a variety of modali- Theater Workshop, PS 122, Franklinties, including CranioSacral therapy, Furnace, and Movement Research. SinceLiving VisionTM, meditation, Chinese 1983, he has been a core faculty member offive-element theory, and nutritional New York University’s Experimentalapproaches to health and balance. Theater Wing. ix
  9. 9. Core Energetics myofascial therapy and CORE structur- Pamela L. Chubbuck, Ph.D., LPC, is al integrative therapy. Kousaleos also on the senior international teaching fac- served as the general manager of the ulty of the Core Energetic Institute in British Olympic Sports Massage New York City, where she is also director Therapy Team (1994–1996). of faculty development. Dr. Chubbuck Gary N. Genna, LMT, is the founder is the director of Core Energetics South and owner of the CORE Institute of and has worked personally and exten- Tennessee. A graduate of SUNY Cortland sively with John C. Pierrakos, M.D., for with a degree in biology and education, more than twenty-five years. Dr. Genna has been an advanced instructor Chubbuck is the author of Passages to for the CORE Institute since 1989. He has Womanhood: Stories of Celebration for presented at various state and interna- Young Women, and numerous articles tional conferences and spent more than on the core energetics process. three years working as a neuromuscular therapist at St. Anthony’s Hospital Sports coreSomatics® Medicine and Orthopedic Rehabilitation Kay Miller is certified in the Center in St. Petersburg, Florida. He has Rubenfeld synergy method and the been both a massage therapist and a mas- Feldenkrais Method® and received her sage educator for more than twenty-five gestalt training in the three-year post- years, highlighted as the head coach for graduate program at the Gestalt the British Olympic Sports Massage Institute of Cleveland. She has served Team in 1995 and 1996. as consultant, staff, and/or workshop leader for the Pennsylvania Department CranioSacral Therapy of Education, the University of Kenneth I. Frey, PT, is director of Pittsburgh, Carlow College, the the Institute of Physical Therapy, a pri- University of West Virginia, Long Island vate practice and clinical resource cen- University, the Gestalt Institute of ter in New York City. Cleveland, and the Western Psychiatric Institute. Dance Therapy Anne L. Wennerstrad is a CORE Structural Integrative Therapy dance/movement therapist, clinical George P. Kousaleos has been a social worker, and dance educator work- licensed massage therapist specializing ing in mental health and education. in structural integration and myofascial Currently she is coordinator of under- therapy since 1978. A graduate of graduate dance education at New York Harvard University and the SOMA University, where she teaches and advis- Institute of Neuromuscular Integration, es students. She has presented and writ- he has practiced and taught in Germany, ten on the arts in education and therapy. Greece, and throughout America. In Her clinical work focuses on creative 1990, he founded the CORE Institute mind/body approaches to helping peo- School of Massage Therapy of ple with eating problems, anxiety, Tallahassee, Florida, a state-licensed and depression, and chronic mental illness. A nationally accredited program. He former professional dancer, she is also on trains massage therapists in continuing the staff of Career Transition for Dancers, education certification courses in CORE a nonprofit counseling service.x
  10. 10. Do-In Association (1984), the Organization John Kozinski has taught do-in, tra- Transformation Network (1985), theditional exercises, and healing through Massachusetts Association of Body-food and natural therapies throughout Oriented Psychotherapy and Counselingthe United States and in Asia and South Bodyworkers (1989), and the SomaticsAmerica. He offers seminars on do-in, Community of the Association fortraditional exercises, and the macrobi- Humanistic Psychology. In 1990 sheotic approach to health and healing at founded the Institute for Emotional-the Kushi Institute in Massachusetts, as Kinesthetic Psychotherapy. She has writ-well as in Connecticut and New York. ten a column on psychology for Spirit ofHe also has an active health counseling Change magazine for the past ten years.practice in which he recommends spe- She is the author of Living with Vision:cific traditional foods, remedies, and Reclaiming the Power of the Heart.natural lifestyle practices to foster heal-ing and general well-being. Enneagram Janet Levine is an author, educator,Drama Therapy and organizer. She is founder of Learning Professor Patricia Sternberg and The Enneagram, an educationalRDT/BCT (registered drama enterprise dedicated to spreading knowl-therapist/board certified trainer) is the edge of the enneagram system and itschairperson of the Board of Examiners of applications in education and relatedthe National Association for Drama fields. She has taught at Milton Academy,Therapy. She is a full professor of the Massachusetts, for ten years. She is direc-Department of Theater at Hunter College tor of the National Educators Institute forin New York and heads the developmen- Enneagram Studies at Milton Academy.tal drama program there. She is a play- She has presented her work on educationwright with more than twenty-five plays and the enneagram at national confer-produced and/or published and is the ences and many other of seven books, includingSociodrama: Who’s in Your Shoes? (with EurythmyAntonina Garcia). She is currently work- Beth Dunn-Fox was raised and edu-ing on her eighth, Theater for Conflict cated in northern California, where sheResolution. A well-known presenter and studied and performed ballet, charac-workshop leader, having presented both ter, and modern dance. A graduate ofnationally and internationally, Sternberg Eurythmy Spring Valley, she has touredis a practicing drama therapist and for throughout North America and Europethe past ten years has worked with a vari- with their professional ensemble forety of populations in both psychiatric twelve years. In addition to perform-and educational facilities. ing, she has also carried the finance and development work of Eurythmy SpringEmotional-Kinesthetic Psychotherapy Valley over a number of years. Linda Marks has practiced body-cen-tered psychotherapy with individuals, Eye Movement Desensitization andcouples, and groups for twelve years. She Reprocessinghas helped found and served on the Barbara A. Parrett, RN, M.S., is aBoard of the Interface Business nurse and psychotherapist who brings a xi
  11. 11. holistic approach to her work with er and coordinator, she has been prac- individuals and organizations. She has ticing and teaching focusing for twenty been thoroughly trained in EMDR and years. teaches this discipline to other thera- pists on an international scale, where Hakomi Integrative Somatics she is in much demand as trainer and Pat Ogden, M.A., is a founding mem- educator. ber of the Hakomi Institute, serves on its trainers’ board, and is the originator and Feldenkrais Method® director of hakomi integrative somatics. Alan S. Questel is a founding mem- Trained in a wide variety of somatic ber of Delman/Questel Associates, approaches, she is a structural integrator Inc., and is a Feldenkrais practitioner. (Guild for Structural Integration) and serves on the faculty of Ergos Institute Feng Shui (founded by Peter Levine, specializing in Marilyn Saltzman is a feng shui prac- healing the effects of trauma) and the titioner. She studied feng shui with Naropa Institute. Nancy SantoPietro, a certified teacher trained by Master Lin Yun. In addi- Halprin Life Art Process tion, she has studied Transcendental Daria Halprin-Khalighi, M.A., CET, Meditation and reiki, and she is a cer- is the cofounder and director of the tified rebirther and hypnotherapist. Tampala Institute. She maintains a pri- Saltzman has given lectures and work- vate practice in Marin County and is a shops on feng shui throughout Virginia certified expressive arts therapist. She and Maryland. is the author of Coming Alive: The Creative Expression Method. Flower Remedies Leslie J. Kaslof is an internationally Hanna Somatic Education® recognized pioneer, researcher, writer, Eleanor Criswell Hanna, Ed.D., is and educator in the field of holistic professor of psychology and former health, preventative medicine, and nat- chair of the psychology department, ural approaches to stress reduction. He Sonoma State University, California. In has written numerous articles in profes- 1975, she cofounded, with Thomas sional and popular publications and has Hanna, the Novato Institute for Somatic written many other works, including Research and Training, Novato, Herb and Ailment Cross-Reference Chart, California. She trained in somatic edu- the pioneering book Wholistic Dimensions cation with Thomas Hanna in his 1981 in Healing, and The Traditional Flower Australian training program; she has Remedies of Dr. Edward Bach: A Self-Help worked closely with him in the develop- Guide. ment of the field of somatics over the years. She is currently serving as presi- Focusing dent of the Somatics Society and editor Joan Klagsbrun, Ph.D., is a clinical of Somatics. A licensed psychologist, she psychologist practicing focusing-ori- maintains a private practice in psy- ented psychotherapy in private prac- chotherapy, biofeedback, and somatic tice in Boston, Massachusetts. A college education. She is the author of professor and a certified focusing train- Biofeedback and Somatics.xii
  12. 12. Herbal Medicine author of The Breathwork Experience: Mark Blumenthal is the founder Exploration and Healing in Nonordinaryand executive director of the States of Consciousness and The Ethics ofAmerican Botanical Council (ABC), a Caring: Honoring the Web of Life in Ourleading nonprofit research and educa- Professional Healing Relationships. Shetion organization in Austin, Texas. He has served as editor of the Inner Door,also edits the quarterly magazine the newsletter of the Association forHerbalGram. Holotropic Breathwork International.Holistic Health Hydrotherapy Suzan Walter, MBA, is cofounder Douglas C. Lewis, ND, is a naturo-and current president of the American pathic physician in Seattle, Washington.Holistic Health Association and pastpresident of the American Holistic HypnotherapyMedical Foundation. She is the creator Oscar A. Gillespie, Ph.D., is theand director of the Global Health Calendar president of NYSEPH, the New Yorkon the Internet at HealthWorld Online Milton H. Erickson Society for( She also facilitates Psychology and Hypnosis, and is onnetworking for speakers, practitioners, the faculty of its training program. Heand health care associations within this taught psychology at FordhamWeb site. University and currently is in private practice in New York City.Homeopathy, Osteopathy Domenick John Masiello, D.O., IdeokenesisDHt, CSPOMM, has been a solo, office- Andre Bernard teaches ideokenesis,based practitioner of traditional drawing upon his background in sci-osteopathy and classical homeopathy ence and the performing arts. He stud-in New York City since 1986. He was ied chemical engineering at thecertified with special proficiency in University of South Carolina, where heosteopathic manipulative medicine took his B.S. degree in chemistry andand is also certified in homeotherapeu- mathematics. Pursuing a professionaltics. He has written the foreword to acting career, he appeared in more thanOsteopathy: An Integrated Whole Body a hundred theatrical productions. HeTherapy and has been published in the also studied dance and toured exten-Journal of the American Institute of sively with the Charles Weidman DanceHomeopathy. Theater. He studied Mabel Elsworth Todd’s movement therapy techniques,Holotropic Breathwork™ the foundation of ideokenesis, with Kylea Taylor, M.S., is a certified Barbara Clark. He has been a memberHolotropic Breathwork™ practitioner of the faculty at New York University,and has been working in the field of teaching Todd’s work, since 1966.addiction recovery since 1970. She hasstudied with Christine and Stanislav Infant Massage TherapyGrof, M.D., Ph.D., since 1984 and is a Mindy Zlotnick has worked withmember of the teaching staff of Grof parents and their families as a teacherTranspersonal Training. She is the since 1975. She holds an M.A. in special xiii
  13. 13. education and worked for many years 1982. He was a founding member of the with deaf children, communicating in Scientific Advisory Board of the sign language. She was trained in mas- Institute for the Advancement of sage in 1987 and began communicating Health. He has written numerous arti- through touch in her practice with adults. cles and publications and was a winner She became a certified infant massage of the American Health Book Award in instructor in 1989, combining her love for 1987. teaching and her love of massage. Her practice includes teaching parents with Iyengar Yoga healthy babies as well as parents with Janet MacLeod teaches yoga full- babies who are medically fragile or have time, offering ongoing classes in San developmental delays. Francisco and teaching workshops around the country. She is on the faculty Integral Yoga of the Iyengar Yoga Institute of San Reverend Kumari de Sachy, Ed.D., Francisco teacher training program. She has been a student of Swami is a certified teacher at the intermediate Satchidananda since 1980. In 1981, she level and continues to study in Pune with became an integral yoga instructor and the Iyengar family on a regular basis. proceeded to teach at integral yoga insti- tutes, colleges, universities, and prisons. Jin Shin Do® Bodymind AcupressureTM In 1994, she was ordained as an integral Iona Marsaa Teeguarden, M.A., is yoga minister. For the past ten years, she the originator of Jin Shin Do® Bodymind and her husband have been living and AcupressureTM. She founded the Jin Shin serving as whole-time members at Do Foundation and began offering JSD Satchidananda Ashram–Yogaville with teacher training programs. She has writ- the spiritual master Sri Swami ten several books and articles on the Satchidananda. At Yogaville, she has practice of JSD. taught English and French, in addition to serving as director of the Yogaville Jin Shin Jyutsu® Physio-Philosophy Summer Program for Children and Ian Kraut is a practitioner of Jin Teens. She is also the editor of Integral Shin Jyutsu and a licensed massage Yoga Publications, which publishes therapist. He is a member of the staff at Swami Satchidananda’s books and the Jin Shin Jyutsu, Inc., in Scarsdale, quarterly magazine Integral Yoga. Arizona. He has a B.A. in music from SUNY Binghamton and has studied Interactive Guided Imagery Andean music in South America. Martin Rossman, M.D., is a 1969 graduate of the University of Michigan Journal Therapy Medical School and is board certified in Kathleen Adams, M.A., LPC, is a acupuncture. He is the founder and licensed psychotherapist and the director of the Collaborative Medicine founder/director of the Center for Center in Mill Valley, California. As the Journal Therapy in Denver, Colorado, codirector of the Academy for Guided an organization dedicated to teaching Imagery in Mill Valley, he has taught the healing art of journal writing to clinical guided imagery to more than individuals, groups, and mental health 9,000 health care professionals since professionals. She has specialized inxiv
  14. 14. journal therapy since 1985 and is one the author of numerous articles on theof the pioneers in the field. She is the KMP. She has given intensive courses onauthor of three books on the use of this material in Germany and Italy. She isjournal writing as a therapeutic tool. the coeditor of a textbook on the KMP published in 1997.Ju Jutsu, Karate Janet Kestenberg Amighi is an Stefan Nikander is a certified karate anthropologist who has done fieldworkand ju jutsu instructor. Having taught in Iran and Bali. She is the author ofsoccer to children since the age of fif- Zoroastrians in Iran: Assimilation,teen, he became certified as a soccer Conversion and Persistence. She coteachestrainer in 1983. He is also a certified a course on the KMP with Susan Lomannursery school teacher and has worked and is coeditor of a textbook on the KMP.professionally at schools and play cen-ters since 1990. He is the vice chairman Kinetic Awarenessof the children’s committee of the Ellen Saltonstall, M.A., MCKA, is aSwedish Budo Federation, a martial certified master teacher of kineticarts organization. His writing has awareness, a licensed massage thera-appeared in various martial arts maga- pist, and a teacher and practitioner ofzines in several countries, and he has hatha yoga. She has taught at the Newwritten columns for Scandinavian School, Columbia University, and Bardnewspapers on the subject of martial College and is currently is on the staffarts as a means to stop violence. He is of the Mind/Body Medical Institute ofcurrently training to become a personal St. Peters Hospital in New Brunswick,trainer and massage therapist. New Jersey. J. Robin Powell, Ph.D., CSW, MCKA,Kendo is a certified master teacher of kinetic Daniel T. Ebihara is the chairman of awareness and teaches at New YorkKen Zen Institute Ltd. and a member of University and other institutions, as wellthe board of directors of All United as privately. She is a founding boardStates Kendo Federation. He has written member of the Kinetic Awareness Center,several articles about the martial arts for Inc., and teaches in the teacher trainingvarious periodicals and is an advanced program.student of karate, kendo, and judo. Michelle Berne, M.A., MCKA, Bruce Robertson Smith is a first- introduced the first university course indegree black belt in kendo, having stud- body/mind therapies while on the fac-ied martial arts in Japan with the Budo ulty of New York University, where shemaster Fushi Sensei. He has trained taught for twelve years. As a profes-extensively in bodywork and structural sional dancer and choreographer inintegration and has done shamanic jour- New York, she presented original workneywork. with her own company and performed with others. She is a certified masterKestenberg Movement Profile teacher of kinetic awareness and cur- Susan Loman is the director of a mas- rently teaches kinetic awareness, neu-ter’s program in dance/movement ther- romuscular reeducation, and alignmentapy at Antioch New England Graduate in Los Angeles, California. She is also aSchool in Keene, New Hampshire, and celebration artist who choreographs xv
  15. 15. and produces large-scale community Magnet Therapy art events for cities and nonprofit orga- Dr. John Zimmerman earned his nizations across the country. Ph.D. in biological psychology and neurosciences at the University of Kung-Fu Wu Su Colorado at Boulder in 1981. He is a Oswald Rivera is a senior instructor member of the American Sleep at Alan Lee’s Chinese Kung-Fu Wu-Su Disorders Association and the North Association. He has practiced Shaolin American Academy of Magnetic style kung-fu for twenty-four years. He Therapy. Currently he serves as the is also the author of the novel Fire and laboratory director of the Washoe Rain and the cookbook Puerto Rican Sleep Disorders Center in Reno. Dr. Cuisine in America. Zimmerman is also the founder and president of the nonprofit organiza- Laban Movement Analysis tion called the Bio-Electro-Magnetics Ed Groff, M.F.A., CMA, is currently Institute (BEMI), which researches and director of graduate studies in the provides resources on magnet therapy. department of modern dance at the University of Utah. He has served on Martial Arts the faculties of Temple University, Michael Maliszewski received his Hampshire College, Connecticut Ph.D. in psychology from the College, Tufts University, and University of Chicago. He has held a Evergreen State College. He has taught number of positions at the University in the certification programs in Laban of Chicago and has conducted Movement Analysis at schools and insti- research and published in a variety of tutions in New York, Seattle, Salt Lake areas ranging from medicine to reli- City, Columbus, Rotterdam, and Berlin. gious studies. He is currently a consul- His choreography has been presented in tant in psychiatry at Massachusetts the United States, Europe, and Asia. General Hospital and lecturer at Harvard Medical School. He has been Light Therapy involved in the study of martial arts Dr. Brian J. Breiling is a licensed mar- and meditative traditions since 1970 riage, family, and child counselor and and has studied throughout the school psychologist. He is the co-editor United States and Asia. Included and publisher of Light Years Ahead: The among his publications in the martial Illustrated Guide to Full Spectrum and arts are the book Spiritual Dimensions Colored Light in Mindbody Healing. He is of the Martial Arts, as well as articles also the author of three chapters in this that have appeared in the Journal of book on the professional and self-care Asian Martial Arts, where he also applications of light therapy. For the last serves as an associate editor. ten years, he successfully used flashing colored light stimulation through the Massage eyes to aid his clients in uncovering and Katie Scoville is a New York State- working through emotional traumas, licensed massage therapist who prac- depression, and pain, as well as to tices Swedish massage, shiatsu, med- enhance learning and intellectual perfor- ical massage, and pregnancy massage. mance in adults and children. She has a private practice inxvi
  16. 16. Manhattan, Studio of Massage Arts Meditation(SOMA), and also works with physical Eugene Taylor, Ph.D., is a lecturertherapists. She is a shiatsu and clinic on psychiatry, Harvard Medical School;instructor at the Swedish Institute of executive faculty, Saybrook Institute;Massage Therapy and Allied Health and director of the Cambridge InstituteSciences in New York City and a mem- of Psychology and Religion.ber of the American Massage Therapy Marilyn Schlitz, Ph.D., is a socialAssociation. Katie holds a B.F.A. in anthropologist and director of researchdance and brings to her practice more at the Institute of Noetic Sciences inthan fifteen years of dance training Sausalito, California.and professional dance experience. Meir Schneider Self-Healing MethodMedical Orgone Therapy Carol Gallup works at the Center Dr. Peter Crist received his M.D. for Self-Healing in San Francisco,from the UCLA School of Medicine in California.1977. Dr. Crist is a fellow of theAmerican College of Orgonomy and Movement Pattern Analysishas been its president since 1991. As a Warren Lamb developed movementmember of the ACO training faculty, pattern analysis with Rudolf Laban. Inhe has been training medical orgono- 1950 Lamb joined Paton Lawrence & Co.,mists since 1982. He has authored clin- management consultants, to apply theical and theoretical articles as well as newly developed assessment reviews and is an assistant editor He has been a professional dancer, a pro-of the Journal of Orgonomy. Dr. Crist is ducer of plays, and a lecturer in thealso assistant clinical professor, United Kingdom and United States. InDepartment of Psychiatry, UMDNJ- 1952 he founded his own consultancyRobert Wood Johnson School of firm to use movement pattern analysisMedicine, New Brunswick, New for top management teams worldwide.Jersey. He has a private practice in His publications include Posture andBelle Mead, New Jersey. Gesture, Management Behavior, Body Code, Dr. Richard Schwartzman, D.O., and more than 100 journal articles.graduated from the PhiladelphiaCollege of Osteopathic Medicine in Multi-Modal Expressive Arts Therapy1966. He is a member of the faculty of Susan Spaniol, Ed.D., ATR-BC,Hahnemann University, an assistant LMHC, is assistant professor in theclinical professor of psychiatry, and Expressive Therapies Division ofmedical director of the Hahnemann Lesley College. She received her Ed.D.University Correctional Mental Health at Boston University and is a board-cer-Program. He is a fellow of the tified art therapist and a licensed men-American College of Orgonomy, tal health counselor. She serves aswhere he conducts the advanced train- associate editor of Art Therapy: Journaling seminar. He is an assistant editor of the American Art Therapy Associationand contributing author of the Journal and is an associate in psychiatry atof Orgonomy. Dr. Schwartzman main- Harvard Medical School.tains a private practice in medical Phillip Speiser, Ph.D., REAT, RDT, isorgone therapy in Philadelphia. director of Arts Across Cultures, Boston. xvii
  17. 17. Speiser is a psychodrama, drama, and work in music therapy has included expressive arts educator/therapist who child psychology, group therapy, and has been developing and implementing private practice. She studied musicolo- integrated arts programs since 1980. He gy and anthropology at the Hebrew is an adjunct professor at Lesley College University of Jerusalem, and classical in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and has guitar in Israel and London. She holds taught and lectured extensively at train- a master’s degree in musicology from ing institutes and colleges throughout Bar Ilan University and teaches at the Scandinavia, Europe, Israel, and the Institute for Art Therapy of David United States. He is the former chairper- Yellin College in Jerusalem and at the son of Very Special Arts, Sweden, and Department of Music Therapy of Bar the International Expressive Arts Ilan University. Therapy Association. Mariagnese Cattaneo, Ph.D., ATR, Myofascial Trigger Point Therapy LMHC, is a professor in the Expressive Elliot Shratter has been practicing Therapies Division at Lesley College, trigger point myotherapy since 1987. He Cambridge, Massachusetts. She is an is board certified by the National expressive therapist and has trained Association of Trigger Point Myo- expressive therapists for more than therapists Certification Board and the twenty-five years. Presently she is the American Academy of Pain Manage- coordinator of art therapy specializa- ment. He has served as president and tion and director of field training. journal editor of the National Association of Trigger Point Myotherapists and chair- Muscular Therapy person of the Trigger Point Myo- Ben E. Benjamin holds a Ph.D. in therapists National Certification Board. sports medicine and education and is He is currently in practice in the founder and president of the Albuquerque, New Mexico, at Synergy Muscular Therapy Institute in Physical Therapy. Cambridge, Massachusetts. He is the author of the widely used books in the Naturopathic Medicine field: Are You Tense?—The Benjamin Lauri M. Aesoph, ND, a graduate of System of Muscular Therapy, Sports Bastyr University, is a medical writer, Without Pain, and Listen to Your Pain— editor, and educator. Over the past ten Understanding, Identifying, and Treating years, Dr. Aesoph’s work has appeared Pain. He has been a regular contributor in dozens of magazines and numerous to the Muscular Therapy Journal since books. She makes her home in Sioux 1986. He has been in private practice Falls, South Dakota, with her husband for more than thirty-five years and has and two sons. been teaching massage therapists in workshops internationally since 1973. Network Chiropractic Mary Ann diRoberts, LICSW, CMT, Donald Epstein, DCA, is a chiro- is on the faculty of the Muscular Therapy practor and developer of network Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts. spinal analysis. He is the president of the Association for Network Music Therapy Chiropractic. He is also the author of Adva Frank-Schwebel has been a several articles on the practice of this music therapist for fifteen years. Her discipline.xviii
  18. 18. Organismic Psychotherapy the author of Movement in Psychotherapy Elliot Greene, M.A., is a counselor (1969) and Experience in Action (1973)who has specialized in body psy- and coeditor with John Crandell ofchotherapy for the past twenty-four Moving Psychotherapy: Theory andyears. His principal training has been in Applications of Pesso Boyden System/organismic body psychotherapy with Psychomotor Psychology (1991).Dr. Malcolm Brown and KatherineEnnis-Brown. He is also trained in Pilates Method of Body Conditioning®bioenergetics, gestalt, and other related Leah Chaback, director of thebody-oriented methods. In addition, he Movement Center, is a certified Pilatesis nationally certified as a massage ther- instructor and teacher-trainer. Sheapist and served as president of the began studying the Pilates Method inAmerican Massage Therapy Association 1986 at SUNY Purchase, New York.from 1990 to 1994. He has a private prac- Ms. Chaback has trained and workedtice in Silver Springs, Maryland. extensively with Romana Kryzanowska, disciple of Joseph Pilates and masterOrthomolecular Medicine teacher of his method for more than California freelance writer Martin fifty years. After teaching the PilatesZucker has been writing for many Method in New York City studios, sheyears about health, nutrition, and pre- opened the Movement Center in 1990.ventive medicine. He is a formerAssociated Press foreign correspon- Poetry Therapydent. He has written numerous pub- Nicholas Mazza, Ph.D., is a profes-lished articles, coauthored five books, sor at the School of Social Work atghostwritten several others, and writ- Florida State University. He is also edi-ten many safety and environmental tor of the Journal of Poetry Therapy. Hevideos for the National Safety Council has lectured and published extensivelyand other organizations. He has been a on the use of poetry and music in clini-contributing editor to Let’s Live, a lead- cal health magazine, since 1978.Pesso Boyden System Psychomotor Polarity Therapy Albert Pesso cofounded Pesso John Beaulieu, ND, Ph.D., is theBoyden system psychomotor (PBSP) author of the Polarity Therapy Workbookpsychotherapy with his life partner, (1994).Diane Boyden Pesso, in 1961. He ispresident of the Psychomotor Institute, Process Oriented PsychologyInc., Boston, Massachusetts, a nonprof- Dr. Joseph Goodbread is a long-it organization that promotes PBSP time student and colleague of Arnoldinternationally. He has been supervisor Mindell. He is a cofounder of theof psychomotor therapy at the McLean Research Society for Process OrientedHospital in Belmont, Massachusetts; Psychology in Zurich, of the Processconsultant in psychiatric research at the Work Center of Portland, Oregon, andBoston Veterans Administration Hospital; of the Global Process Institute inand director of psychomotor therapy at Portland. He is the author of Thethe Pain Unit of the New England Dreambody Toolkit: A PracticalRehabilitation Hospital. Albert Pesso is Introduction to the Philosophy, Goals and xix
  19. 19. Practice of Process Oriented Psychology Colorado Rocky Mountains, is an and Radical Intercourse: How Inevitable internationally renowned China schol- Relationships Are Created by Dreaming, a ar, qigong master, and health educator. book on the dynamics of therapeutic He has been teaching qigong for more relationships. He practices and teaches than twenty-five years and is helping process work in Portland and through- to build a bridge between qigong and out the world. medical science. He was one of nine “exceptional healers” studied in the Psychodrama Menninger Clinic’s Copper Wall Adam Blatner, M.D., is the author Project, where he demonstrated unusu- of several books and articles on the al physiological control while practic- practice of psychodrama. ing qigong. Cohen has written more than 150 articles and is the author of Psychoneuroimmunology The Way of Qigong. Leonard A. Wisneski, M.D., is a physician, board certified in internal Radix medicine and in endocrinology and Erica Kelley has shared the growth metabolism; he is also certified in of Radix since its inception in the late six- acupuncture and homeopathy, which ties, including its teaching, training, he has incorporated into his practice. facilities, and administration in the Dr. Wisneski is a member of the board United States and Europe. She maintains of directors of the Integral Health a part-time practice in Vancouver and Foundation. administers Kelley/Radix and K/R Leonard Sherp is a medical writer Publications. and reiki practitioner. Mr. Sherp is pro- gram director of the Integral Health Rebirthing Foundation. Maureen Malone is the director of the New York Rebirthing Center. Psychosynthesis Tony Lo Mastro is the director of Richard Schaub, Ph.D., cofounded the Philadelphia Rebirthing Center. the New York Psychosynthesis Institute with Bonney Gulino Schaub, M.S., RN, Reflexology CS. They have worked in every phase of Laura Norman is a certified reflex- mental health, alcohol and drug rehabili- ologist and New York State-licensed tation, and health care in careers that massage practitioner. She is also span thirty years. They teach internation- author of Feet First: A Guide to Foot ally in the fields of psychotherapy, recov- Reflexology. With a B.S. from Boston ery, higher self-education, clinical University and three master’s degrees imagery, and contemplation. They have from Adelphi University, she original- published numerous professional arti- ly embarked on a career in education. cles, are associate editors of Alternative She discovered the potency of reflexol- Health Practitioner, and are the authors of ogy when she used it in her early work Healing Addictions. with hyperactive and emotionally dysfunctional children at Maimonides Qigong Institute in Brooklyn. She established Kenneth S. Cohen, M.A., director the Laura Norman Method Reflexology of the Taoist Mountain Retreat in the Training Center in New York, offeringxx
  20. 20. a comprehensive training and certifi- Structural Therapy Institute, where hecation program. teaches bodywork problem-solving courses to health professionals. He isReiki also trained in the hakomi method of Elaine J. Abrams is a reiki master body-centered psychotherapy and ininstructor. In private practice in New CranioSacral therapy.York City since 1987, she brings her exten-sive experience with more than 800 ROM Danceclients and knowledge as a reiki instruc- Patricia Yu, M.A., co-creator of thetor to her workshops. As founder of the ROM dance, is the director of the T’ai-Reiki Group, she provides a continuing Chi Center in Madison, Wisconsin. Shesupport system for her practitioners. originally learned t’ai chi ch’üan and tao kung meditation in 1970 with Master LiuRelaxation Response Technique Pei Ch’ung in the Republic of China. She Richard Friedman, Ph.D., was a continues to practice daily.Professor of Psychiatry at the StateUniversity of New York, Stonybrook. Rosen Method Herbert Benson, M.D., is the Ivy Green is a professor of psychol-Mind/Body Medical Institute ogy, a certified Rosen method practi-Associate Professor of Medicine, tioner, a certified teacher of theHarvard Medical School; Chief of the Alexander technique, and a licensedDivision of Behavioral Medicine at the massage therapist. Her book on theBeth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; Rosen method, a psychospiritual body-and the founding president of the Mind work, was published in 1998./Body Medical Institute. A graduate ofWesleyan University and the Harvard Rubenfeld Synergy MethodMedical School, he is the author or co- Ilana Rubenfeld, a pioneer in inte-author of more than 150 scientific pub- grating bodywork with psychotherapy,lications and six books. has been an influential healer for the Patricia Myers is a research associate past thirty-five years. She originatedat the Mind/Body Medical Institute at the Rubenfeld synergy method in thethe Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital, early 1960s and started its professionalHarvard Medical School. Her areas of training program in 1977. Formerly oninterest include the economics of behav- the faculties of the NYU Graduateioral medicine and the use of behavioral School of Social Work and New Schoolinterventions in the treatment of pain. for Social Research, she currently teach- es at the Omega and Esalen InstitutesRolfing® and the Open Center. Allan Davidson was trained by IdaRolf in Big Sur and San Francisco, Sandplay TherapyCalifornia, in 1973-75. He has been Lois Carey, MSW, BCDSW, is aRolfing® and lecturing, teaching and practitioner of sandplay therapy.writing about Rolfing ever since. In the1980s, he cofounded the Chicago Sensory AwarenessSchool for Advanced Bodywork, a pio- Mary Alice Roche was cofounderneering clinic and forum for new ideas with Charlotte Selver of the Sensoryand technologies. He now codirects the Awareness Foundation. She served as xxi
  21. 21. managing secretary until she retired in B.A. from Bennington College and an 1988 but continued as bulletin editor M.A. from the University of Illinois. and archivist. She has a private practice She is Professor Emeritus at the and is a member of the Sensory University of Washington and a mem- Awareness Leaders Guild. ber of the Martha Graham and Merce Cunningham Dance Companies. Shamanism Hal Zina Bennett, Ph.D., is a long- Soma Neuromuscular Integration time student of shamanism. He is also Marcia W. Nolte, LMP, has a back- the author of twenty-five books, ground in movement studies ranging including ones on health (The Well Body from performance dance, as a profession- Book, with Mike Samuels, M.D.), psy- al ballet and modern dancer and teacher, chology (The Holotropic Mind, with Stan to a variety of therapeutic modalities of Grof, M.D.), and Native American spir- movement. She has been in private prac- ituality (Zuni Fetishes). He is an adjunct tice of soma bodywork since 1979 and faculty member at the Institute of continues to explore with her clients the Transpersonal Psychology, a private use of movement as medicine. graduate school in Palo Alto, Karen L. Bolesky, M.A., CMHC, California. He is a frequent contributor LMP, has been a mental health coun- to Shaman’s Drum magazine and Sacred selor since 1972 and a soma practition- Hoop, published in England. er since 1985. Karen trained with Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, M.D., and SHEN® Gregg Furth, Ph.D., in interpretation of Richard Pavek is director of the spontaneous drawings as an aid to the SHEN Therapy Institute. It provides creative process. information regarding SHEN research, development, and certification proce- Somato-Respiratory Integration dures. Donald Epstein is a chiropractor and developer of network spinal Shiatsu Massage, Therapeutic Touch analysis. He is the president of the Thomas Claire is a licensed massage Association for Network Chiropractic. therapist and author of the authoritative He is also the author of several articles book Bodywork: What Type of Massage to on the practice of this discipline. Get—and How to Make the Most of It. A graduate of the Swedish and Ohashi Sounding Institutes, he is a reiki master and a Don Campbell is an internationally practitioner of Swedish massage, shiat- renowned expert in music, sound, su, CranioSacral therapy, myofascial health, and learning. In 1988, he found- release, and therapeutic touch. His ed the Institute for Music, Health, and work has been featured in numerous Education in Boulder, Colorado, and publications, and he is a frequent guest served as executive director until 1995. on radio and television. He has written several books on the relationship between music, health, Skinner Release Technique and education and travels extensively Joan Skinner is the originator of the teaching musicians, teachers, physi- Skinner release technique. She earned a cians, therapists, and trainers. Presently,xxii
  22. 22. Mr. Campbell directs year-long study dancer, lecturer, and writer. She is cred-programs on the therapeutic and trans- ited as being the first Westerner toformational uses of sound and music. bring the martial art to the United States. She was the 1996 recipient of the Chinese Martial Arts Association’sSpatial DynamicsSM Lifetime Achievement Award. She Jaimen McMillan is the originator of died on June 27, 1996.Spatial Dynamics. He has trained hun-dreds of students as movement special-ists and has worked with a broad Tomatis Methodspectrum of clients ranging from Dr. Billie Thompson, founder andOlympic athletes to severely handi- director of Sound Listening & Learningcapped children. He is the director of Centers in Phoenix, Arizona, andthe Spatial Studies Institute, Inc., as well Pasadena, California, received her the Spatial Dynamics Institute. from Arizona State University in 1979. Dr. Thompson was one of the pioneers who brought the Tomatis method to theSwedish Massage United States. She edited the EnglishJanie McGee is a licensed massage thera- translations of Tomatis’s autobiography,pist with a private practice in New York The Conscious Ear, and his first book, TheCity for fifteen years. She is also a Ear and Language. She established thelicensed staff physical therapist in a geri- Phoenix Center in 1987 to provide bothatric facility. She studied physical therapy corrective and accelerated learningat Long Island University and premed- opportunities for individuals, corpora-ical studies at Hunter College. tions, and other organizations.Tae-Kwon-Do Traditional Chinese Medicine Mark V. Wiley, an internationally Cindy Banker is a certified instructorrenowned martial arts master and schol- and practitioner of Oriental bodyworkar, has been involved in the martial arts therapy. She began her shiatsu trainingfor twenty years. He has written the best- with Shizuko Yamamoto in 1976 andselling books Filipino Martial Arts: Cabales now uses both five-element shiatsu andSerrada Escrima and Filipino Martial Chinese herbal medicine in her privateCulture and is the author of more than practice. She is currently the Nationalfifty articles on the martial arts which Director of Education for the Americanhave appeared in leading martial arts Oriental Bodywork Therapymagazines and journals. He currently Association. She is an active member ofserves as martial arts editor for the the National Certification CommissionCharles E. Tuttle Publishing Company for Acupuncture and Oriental medi-and associate editor for the Journal of cine‘s task force, which is developingAsian Martial Arts. He is the cofounder of the first national certification exam fortalahib-marga, a contemporary, cross-cul- oriental bodywork therapy. She hastural, martial-meditative discipline. been teaching shiatsu in complete train- ing programs since 1983 and currentlyT’ai Chi Ch’üan owns and teaches at the New England Sophia Delza was the first western Center for Oriental Bodywork inwoman master of t’ai chi ch’üan, Brookline, Massachusetts. xxiii
  23. 23. Trager Psychophysical Integration anatomy coloring book published by Deane Juhan has been on staff at the Swedish Institute. She maintains a Esalen Institute since 1973 and a Trager private practice in Eastern bodywork, practitioner there since 1978. He lec- specializing in shiatsu, tui na, and tures on anatomy and physiology for nuad bo ran. bodyworkers and has recently pub- lished a major work on that subject, Unergi Job’s Body: A Handbook for Bodywork. Ute Arnold is an artist and thera- Deane is also an instructor at the Trager pist in private practice and is the Institute. director of the UNERGI Center. She is a certified Rubenfeld synergy practi- Transcendental Meditation tioner and trainer and holds degrees Robert Roth is the author of the in art and design from Schaeffer popular book Transcendental Meditation, School of Design, San Francisco, and which has now been translated into ten Chelsea School of Art, London. She languages. Roth has lectured and has been leading workshops and taught TM for more than twenty-five trainings since 1978 for centers in years to tens of thousands of people in Scandinavia, France, Canada, and the the United States, Canada, and United States. throughout Europe. He is a senior advi- sor to the Maharishi Corporate Wellness Development Program, the nonprofit Brian Luke Seaward, Ph.D., is a fac- organization that teaches the TM pro- ulty member of the University of gram in business and industry, as well Colorado. He is recognized internation- as a founder of the Institute for Fitness ally as a leading expert in the fields of and Athletic Excellence, which offers stress management, mind-body-spirit the technique to amateur and profes- healing, and human spirituality. Dr. sional athletes. Seaward is the author of the critically acclaimed collegiate textbook Managing Tui Na Stress: Principles and Strategies for Health Gina Martin is a licensed massage and Wellbeing and the popular best- therapist and chair of the Eastern seller, Stand like Mountain, Flow like Studies Department of the Swedish Water: Reflections on Stress and Human Institute School of Massage Therapy. Spirituality. She was chair of the New York State Board of Massage Therapy from 1994 Yoga to 1998 and is a current board member. Lillo (Leela) Way is certified by the Ms. Martin is recognized by the Integral Yoga Institute to teach hatha American Oriental Bodywork yoga asana (poses), prenatal yoga, Therapy Association as a certified panayama (breathing practices), deep instructor in fine element style shiatsu. relaxation, chanting, and meditation. She has been featured in the magazine She is an actor and dancer and has been First for Women and is a contributing the director of her own dance company. author to the Reader’s Digest Family Way taught at New York University for Guide to Natural Medicine. Her book seven years. She also taught at Hunter The Shiatsu Workbook is an Eastern College and was a visiting professor atxxiv
  24. 24. Princeton University. In addition to herprivate practice, she is currently on thefaculty of the Integral Yoga Institute andthe Soho Sanctuary in New York.Zero Balancing® Originator of Zero Balancing®, Dr.Fritz Smith has taught body energywork to hundreds of health care practi-tioners since 1973. He is an OsteopathicM.D., acupuncturist, and teacher. Dr.Smith is a pioneer in the blending ofEastern energy systems with Westernscience and bodywork. He is the authorof Inner Bridges: A Guide to EnergyMovement and Body Structure.Staff CreditsEditors: Margaret Haerens, Michael Isaac, Jane Kelly Kosek, Christine SloveyPhoto Researcher: Vera AhmadzadehBook Designer: Olga M. VegaProduction Designer: Christine Innamorato xxv
  25. 25. Table of Contents Introduction xxvi I. Alternative Health Models 1 Ayurvedic Medicine 5 Holistic Health 7 Homeopathy 10 Naturopathic Medicine 15 Shamanism 18 Traditional Chinese Medicine 23 Wellness 29 II. Skeletal Manipulation Methods 33 Chiropractic 37 CranioSacral Therapy 40 Network Chiropractic 43 Osteopathy 45 Zero Balancing® 50 III. Nutritional and Dietary Practices 53 Herbal Medicine 57 Orthomolecular Medicine 60 IV. Mind/Body Medicine 64 Biofeedback Training 68 Guided Imagery 71 Hypnotherapy 73 Interactive Guided Imagery 77 Psychoneuroimmunology 78 V. Sensory Therapies 82 Aromatherapy 86 Bates Method 88 Behavioral Vision Therapy 90 Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing 94 Flower Remedies 96 Hydrotherapy 99 Light Therapy 103 Sounding 109 Tomatis Method 111 .xxvi
  26. 26. VI. Subtle Energy Practices 115 Do-In 118 Feng Shui 119 Magnet Therapy 124 Polarity Therapy 126 Qigong 129 Reiki 133 SHEN® 137 Therapeutic Touch 139VII. Massage 142 Bowen Technique 148 Connective Tissue TherapySM 150 CORE Structural Integrative Therapy 152 Infant Massage 153 Muscular Therapy 157 Myofascial Release 158 Myofascial Trigger Point Therapy 160 Reflexology 163 Rolfing® 165 Rosen Method 168 St. John Method of Neuromuscular Therapy 172 Swedish Massage 174VIII. Acupuncture and Asian Bodywork 177 Acupressure 180 Acupuncture 183 Jin Shin Do® Bodymind AcupressureTM 187 Jin Shin Jyutsu® Physio-Philosophy 191 Process Acupressure 192 Shiatsu 194 Tui Na 197IX. Movement Therapy Methods 200 Alexander Technique 204 Aston-Patterning® 207 Bartenieff FundamentalsSM 210 Body-Mind Centering® 212 Feldenkrais Method® 215 Hanna Somatic EducationTM 218 Hellerwork 222 Ideokinesis 224 Kinetic Awareness 226 Meir Schneider Self-Healing Method 228 Sensory Awareness 231 xxvii
  27. 27. Soma Neuromuscular Integration 235 Somato Respiratory Integration 238 Trager Psychophysical Integration 239 X. Somatic Practices 244 Brain Gym ® 247 Contact Improvisation 249 Continuum 252 Eurythmy 254 Gurdjieff Movements 256 Pilates Method of Body ConditioningTM 260 ROM Dance 263 Skinner Releasing Technique 265 Spatial DynamicsSM 268 Tai Chi Chüan 270 XI. Martial Arts 274 Aikido 278 Capoeira 280 Ju-Jutsu 283 Judo 286 Karate 289 Kendo 293 Kung Fu Wu Su 297 Taekwondo 301 XII. Yoga 305 Integral Yoga 313 Iyengar Yoga 314 Kripalu Yoga 315 XIII. Meditation 317 Relaxation Response 322 Transcendental Meditation 324 XIV. Psycho-Physical Evaluation Frameworks 327 Enneagram 329 Kestenberg Movement Profile 332 Laban Movement Analysis 335 Movement Pattern Analysis 338 XV. Expressive and Creative Arts Therapies 341 Art Therapy 347xxviii
  28. 28. Authentic Movement 350 Dance Therapy 352 Drama Therapy 356 Halprin Life/Art Process 359 Journal Therapy 361 Multi-Modal Expressive Arts Therapy 363 Music Therapy 366 Poetry Therapy 370 Sandplay Therapy 374XVI. Body-Oriented Psychotherapies 378 Bioenergetics 382 Bodynamic Analysis 385 Core Energetics 387 coreSomatics® 391 Emotional-Kinesthetic Psychotherapy 392 Focusing 394 Gestalt Therapy 397 Hakomi Integrative Somatics 399 Holotropic BreathworkTM 402 Medical Orgone Therapy 405 Organismic Body Psychotherapy 409 Pesso Boyden System Psychomotor 411 Process Oriented Psychology 415 Psychodrama 416 Psychosynthesis 419 Radix 421 Rebirthing 422 Rubenfeld Synergy Method 425 Unergi 428 xxix
  29. 29. Introduction Body-mind is a term often seen in print and heard in conversation today. It is used frequently both in private discussions about disease and healing and in public forums on health care, where the value of alternative or complementary medicine is gaining recognition. Today, many educators are developing new methods that use the body-mind connection to help children learn how to live productive and creative lives in today’s complex technological society. The phrase body-mind resonates through the halls of gymnasiums, physical conditioning studios, and in self-defense classes. It echoes in theaters, dance studios, and music practice rooms. What exactly is this concept that is exciting so many people and changing the way we heal, learn, work, and play? Body-mind is a way of seeing and understanding the human organism. To see a human being in terms of body-mind is to see him or her as a totality wherein his or her physical, psychological, and spiritual aspects are all interrelated and reflective of one another. In other words, the body is not simply the material receptacle of the mind or spirit, it is the medium through which we experience, each in a unique and individual way, the unfolding, transforming nature of spirit itself. From this perspective, the functioning of the body influences the functioning of the mind and the emotions. In a like manner, thoughts and feelings have a profound and direct effect on the body. On a deeper level, many body-mind models believe that the physical, emotional, and mental aspects of human experience are a reflection of and inextricably linked to an all-pervasive spiritual essence. In different cultures and in different times, this spiritual essence has had many names: Atman, the Tao, God, energy, the force. A body-mind discipline is an organized program of activity that seeks to awaken and activate the links between body, mind, and spirit. The practice of a body-mind discipline may involve a variety of activities, all of which aim to incorporate the physical body with the sensing, feeling, thinking, and/or intuiting faculties of the mind. Through the practice of a body-mind discipline, one develops awareness of physical sensations and mental and emotional processes. This awareness can be the basis of healing and improved health, greater efficiency and expressiveness in one’s activities, more rewarding relationships and interactions, and a deeper, clearer sense of purpose in one’s life. The practice of body-mind disciplines is ancient. We have evidence that some, such as yoga and various forms of touch therapy, were widespread even well before written treatises were available. The ancient disciplines were based on one of the earliest and most perseverant of human desires—to live a long, meaningful, and healthy life. For most of human history this meant living in a state of balance and harmony, both within oneself and within one’s environment. The body-mind disciplines that evolved in all cultures addressed, each in their own particular way, the many ele- ments that create and maintain this balance and harmony. Western culture, with its roots in the civilizations of the Fertile Crescent and Ancient Greece, once shared this same value for balance and harmony. For example, the Greek physician Hippocrates understood the importance of balance and believed his patients’ health could be affected by many factors. He believed it was morexxx
  30. 30. important to know the kind of person he was treating than to know what kind of dis-ease the person had. He was known to prescribe herbs, dietary changes, forms ofhydrotherapy, skeletal manipulation, movement therapy, and creative arts therapiesto help his patients regain a state of balance and harmony. Over many centuries, however, there has been a gradual erosion of this holisticviewpoint as Western culture developed a highly technical and specialized perspec-tive. By comparison, today most of us no longer have a single physician who knowsus as a total human being and draws on any number of healing methods. Instead wego to one specialist for a problem in our ears, nose, and throat, another for our gas-trointestinal tract, and still another for troubling emotional situations. Although eachspecialist may have a wealth of information regarding his or her area of expertise, noone seems to be looking at the whole picture. Often, the pharmaceutical or surgicalsolutions each specialist recommends address only one aspect of our problem andsometimes create new problems. This segmented, specialized perspective is evident not only in our approach tohealth care, but our approach to education and the arts as well. Instead of encourag-ing each person to feel alive, whole, and connected to the rest of the world, this per-spective seems to foster a lack of confidence in ones experience and judgment, aweakened sense of personal agency, and a feeling of spiritual isolation. For this rea-son, more and more people today are seeking the holistic, centering experience ofbody-mind disciplines. In this volume we have tried to include all of the major disciplines with which areader may come into contact. With a subject of such scope it was necessary to createcertain limits in order to complete the task at all. We deliberately excluded any art orskill that is used primarily for performance or competition, although we recognize thatany such art or skill may be practiced from a body-mind perspective. We also exclud-ed any practice that is exclusively associated with a specific religious practice,although here again we do not diminish the value of any religious practice and itsability to incorporate body and mind. What we have included is a cross-cultural sam-pling of techniques and methods developing the body-mind connection that haveevolved in the worlds of health care, education, physical conditioning, self-defense,spirituality, psychology, and the arts. We have arranged the entries in sixteen sections that generally reflect the worldin which the disciplines developed, highlight the multicultural approaches to a par-ticular practice, or sometimes draw attention to historical connections. Each sectionis introduced by an essay that provides an overview of the histories, theoretical foun-dations, and methodologies of the disciplines that are included in the section. Theintroductory essays also help relate each individual section to other sections of theencyclopedia. It is possible to get a broad perspective of the entire world of body-mind by simply reading the sixteen introductory essays. Most of the entries are written by certified practitioners of these disciplines. Theentries describe in detail the history, philosophy, and techniques of the specific disci-plines. The entries also describe what it feels like to practice or experience the disci-pline. It is our hope that the reader will not only gain intellectual knowledge fromreading an entry, but will be stimulated on a sensory level as well. Within each of the sections the reader will find disciplines that work along sever- xxxi
  31. 31. al different continuums. The broad spectrum of approaches reflects the belief of body- mind disciplines that each individual is unique and has specific strengths, weakness- es, and predilections. The first of these continuums may best be described as the percentage of physical work as compared to the percentage of mental or emotional work required of the practitioner. For example, somato respiratory integration requires the practitioner to remain relatively still, focusing the mind on physical sen- sations and emotional memories, whereas the Feldenkrais Method® develops aware- ness of mental and emotional patterns by moving the body through prescribed spatial forms. This continuum, found within individual sections of the encyclopedia, is also apparent from section to section. For example, all of the practices in the Meditation section approach the process of building the body-mind connection somewhat more from the use of the mind, whereas all of the disciplines in the somatic practices sec- tion come at the process somewhat more from the use of the body. A person may enter the world of body-mind at any point along this continuum that suits his or her needs or temperament. Another continuum along which the various practices can be viewed concerns the degree of spontaneous action as compared to structured action used by the dis- cipline. For example, contact improvisation and Skinner release technique work largely through improvisational forms created by the practitioner. The quality of one’s conscious control of the movement patterns is loose and free flowing. By con- trast, the Pilates Method and tai chi ch üan use intricately structured movement sequences that rarely vary. They require a different kind of control in order to achieve a free-flowing connection of body and mind. Another of the continuums along which one might view these disciplines con- cerns the degree of involvement of the practitioner, or receiver, as a whole. In any of the forms of massage therapy the receiver is relatively passive, in contrast to the very active participation required by any of the forms of martial arts. All body-mind dis- ciplines, however, ultimately encourage the active participation of the practitioner on some level. As the practice awakens awareness of physical sensations and mental or emotional processes, the participant naturally becomes more capable of taking an active role in the practice, whether that means learning how to relax and experience physical sensations more deeply or follow complex thought, breath, and movement patterns more effortlessly and subtly. This active awareness and participation is a basic value of all body-mind disciplines. Some of the disciplines included in this volume have as their primary goal the relief of physical pain. It may not seem immediately clear how such practices devel- op the body-mind connection. In body-mind terms, the response to pain can be the first step toward awakening a deeper awareness of the body. The theoretical under- pinnings of every discipline included here view pain as a message from the body to the mind that some vital link between the two is not functioning. Pain is the cry of the body when it has been ignored, when the body-mind connection has not been honored. When viewed this way, pain is transformed from a symptom to be eradi- cated into a call to undertake a journey of self-discovery. We hope this volume will offer the reader useful information for his or her unique journey. We wish each of you a voyage filled with the excitement of discovery, the creativity of transformation, and the joys of fulfillment.xxxii
  32. 32. PART I: ALTERNATIVE HEALTH MODELS Ayurvedic Medicine • Holistic Health • Homeopathy • Naturopathic Medi- cine • Shamanism • Traditional Chinese Medicine • Wellness Alternative health mod-els consist of a variety ofways of viewing health andsickness and depicting therelationship between bodyand mind. Each model hasdeveloped a system ofhealth care with associatedpractices and disciplines.These health models arecategorized as alternativebecause they are differentfrom the allopathic para-digm, the scientific frame-work of contemporaryWestern health care. Photo by: Kevin Anderson / © Tony Stone Images In the allopathic modelthe body is viewed as aself-contained machine orcollection of systems thatmalfunction with age,injury, or when invaded byinfectious microbes orgerms. Allopathic healthcare practices developed abattery of defensive tech- Herbal remedies play a role in many health models, including tradi-niques for dealing with tional Chinese medicine.these causes of malfunc-tion. In contrast, alterna-tive health models see the body as one aspect of a whole person, along with mind andspirit. They view illness as an imbalance between these three interdependent aspects ofa human being, or between a human being and his or her environment. Since the 1960s,because of the high cost and sometimes ineffectiveness or damaging side effects of allo-pathic health care practices, more and more people are exploring the possibilities ofother health models. 1