A R T I C L E                                                                                               .39Integrated ...
Journal of Futures Studies            gence. Dossey writes as an outsider with-        What is Integrated Intelligence?   ...
Integrated Intelligenceexperience; what is popularly known as the "psy-             This clearly implies a single, localis...
Journal of Futures Studies           Zohar then identifies a third kind of intelli-   courses. The "dominating IQ paradigm...
Integrated Intelligenceof "the Abrahamic religions, Taoists, Hindus,               Zohar has utilized a classical eastern ...
Journal of Futures Studies     most likely nonsensical to the vast majority of        avoids personal references to Zohar ...
Integrated Intelligenceand thinkers such as Wilber (2000A, 2000B,             The Litany2000C, 2000D); Bucke (2001); Hawki...
Journal of Futures Studies     theme in Dosseys work, not surprising as his          much of his experience and understand...
Integrated Intelligence      John Broomfields Other Ways of Knowing          Sheldrakes morphogenetic fields, and dots the...
Journal of Futures Studies     1997: 187). According to Broomfield politics           Worldview     must be based on a "re...
Integrated IntelligenceSome concluding remarks on Broomfield                 perception, and the actual state of integrate...
Journal of Futures Studies     pares himself instead to the ancient Buddhist          social commentary. Society and cultu...
Integrated Intelligenceof the journey from ignorance to enlightenment          Slaughter has pointed out, it is unclear ho...
Journal of Futures Studies     transrational consciousness, when the mode of         discipline or an emerging field, as a...
Integrated Intelligence2 Wilber is particularly severe in criticising              Poststructuralism as method." Futures, ...
Journal of Futures Studies54
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Integrated intelligence the future of intelligence by marcus anthony university of the sunshine coast austrialia

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Integrated Intelligence The Future of Intelligence by Marcus Anthony University of The Sunshine Coast Austrialia

Many classical depictions of intelligence suggest that individual human intelligence is part of a greater
transpersonal consciousness. The concept of this integrated intelligence has resurfaced in contemporary times in
a number of fields. This paper presents the ideas of four thinkers whose works incorporate integrated intelligence
- Broomfield, Dossey, Wilber and Zohar. Inayatullah's Causal Layered Analysis is used to deconstruct
them. The four authors and their texts are compared and contrasted on some of their major themes. Finally,
some of the most significant issues associated with integrated intelligence are introduced.

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Transcript of "Integrated intelligence the future of intelligence by marcus anthony university of the sunshine coast austrialia"

  1. 1. A R T I C L E .39Integrated Intelligence: The Future ofIntelligence? Marcus Anthony University of the Sunshine Coast AustraliaAbstract Many classical depictions of intelligence suggest that individual human intelligence is part of a greatertranspersonal consciousness. The concept of this integrated intelligence has resurfaced in contemporary times ina number of fields. This paper presents the ideas of four thinkers whose works incorporate integrated intelli-gence - Broomfield, Dossey, Wilber and Zohar. Inayatullahs Causal Layered Analysis is used to deconstructthem. The four authors and their texts are compared and contrasted on some of their major themes. Finally,some of the most significant issues associated with integrated intelligence are introduced.Introduction 1. Each has a background within a different disci- pline. Dossey is a medical doctor. Wilber is a While most contemporary academic and scientific transpersonal psychologist. Zohar is a writerresearch tends to depict consciousness and intelligence whose primary interest has been the linksin localised and mechanistic terms, an increasing number between quantum physics and social and individ-of researchers, scientists, writers and philosophers from ual development. Finally Bloomfield is anmany fields are beginning to describe intelligence in non- Historian who has turned his attention to otherlocalised and universal terms. Once generally considered ways of knowing. As a collective these people rep- resent a diversity of experience and knowledgepurely the domain of New Agers and mystics, integrated within different fields, and thus suggest the extentintelligence is a strongly emerging issue at the dawn of to which integrated intelligence is being discussedthe twenty-first century. in contemporary thought. This paper introduces four different thinkers, who 2. Each approaches the issue of integrated intelli-incorporate integrated intelligence into their discourse: gence in different ways. For Wilber integratedLarry Dossey, Ken Wilber, Danah Zohar, and John intelligence is posited as the culminating processBloomfield. They are, to some degree, all iconoclasts and of the evolution of consciousness. His claimsoutsiders - sometimes even within their respective fields. come backed by vast and diverse research thatYet because of recent developments across a multitude bridges a plethora of disciplines. Bloomfieldof disciplines, and the emerging issue of spirituality and approaches the topic in highly anecdotal style,consciousness, they represent important voices. They providing numerous specific examples of the way integrated intelligence works in everyday life.represent but a minute fraction of those writing about Zohar prefers the abstract approach, workingintegrated intelligence. However, they have been chosen scrupulously to establish a scientific and neurolog-from amongst the many for the following reasons. ical foundation for her theory of spiritual intelli- Journal of Futures Studies, November 2003, 8(2): 39 - 54
  2. 2. Journal of Futures Studies gence. Dossey writes as an outsider with- What is Integrated Intelligence? in the medical profession, and mixes the personal with the scientific. Throughout this essay the term "integrated This paper examines these authors works intelligence" is used. Integrated intelligence is a whilst posing the following questions. What transpersonal intelligence that transcends the exactly are these people saying, and where are boundaries of the individual. It is in effect a col- they situated with respect to a civilisational view lective human and universal intelligence. of knowledge? How do they differ in their ideas, Historically it has most commonly been depicted their worldviews, and their methods? What are in spiritual and mystical texts and forms a part of the strengths and weaknesses of their argu- all mystical traditions. In ancient cultures such as ments and what are the general problematics the Roman, Greek, Egyptian, Chinese, Indian and pervading this burgeoning field of enquiry? Tibetan, integrated intelligence was an implicit aspect of their worldviews. (Grof 1995) Many indigenous cultures, both contemporary and The Methodology past, also incorporate integrated intelligence Developed by Sohail Inayatullah, Causal into their ontologisms. (Groff 1995, Pearsall Layered Analysis (CLA) is a post-structuralist 1998, Wildman 1997) As Dossey writes: methodology which probes the deeper mean- ings imbedded within texts through an explo- The idea that the human mind is infinite ration of four specific components. It allows for or nonlocal - that at some level it cannot the acknowledgement of other ways of know- be confined to specific points in space, such as the brain and body, or in time, ing. (Inayatullah 1998: 815) The first component such as the present, is ancient (Dossey of CLA examines the litany or the rational/scien- 1999B). tific, factual and quantitative aspects of a text. The second component of CLA is the social and Though its elusive nature renders it highly systems level. This uncovers the economic, cul- problematic within the dominant rational/empiri- tural, political and historical issues. The third cal scientific discourse, integrated intelligence is aspect of CLA examines the discourse/worldview becoming more frequently used in various guis- of the author. This level identifies the assump- es in contemporary discussions within science, tions of the author, and attempts to discern the the humanities and spiritual discourses. It differs deeper social, linguistic and cultural structures from most contemporary depictions of intelli- which emerge from the individuals view of reali- gence and consciousness in that it is non- ty. This makes visible the writers map of reality localised, and acknowledges sources of inspira- which underpins his/her work. The final compo- tion and knowledge that are physically and/or nent is the mythical/metaphorical level. This metaphysically external to the individual. It attempts to uncover hidden and explicit implies that the brain is a permeable organ mythologies, narratives, symbols and metaphors imbedded within a sea of consciousness. within the text. There may be emotional, uncon- In this paper integrated intelligence is divid- scious and archetypal components at this level. ed into two distinct but related components. (Inayatullah 1998: 820-821) The first is higher order perceptions of whole- Causal Layered Analysis is particularly useful ness and integration, what Ken Wilber calls the as a research method as a means to conduct subtle, causal, and nondual aspects of conscious- inquiry into the nature of past, present and ness (Wilber 2000C). This is the direct experi- future. It opens up the present and the past to ence of the integrated nature of the universe and create the possibility of alternative futures. consciousness. Hereafter this shall be referred to (Inayatullah, 1998: 815) It is for this reason that as "primary level integrated intelligence." The it has been chosen as an ideal tool to decon- second is various "paranormal" perceptual phe- struct the ideas of the following four thinkers.40 nomena such as ESP, clairvoyance, and visionary
  3. 3. Integrated Intelligenceexperience; what is popularly known as the "psy- This clearly implies a single, localised andchic" realm. Such phenomena suggest the plausi- individualised point of perception, consistentbility of non-localised consciousness. These shall with a non-transpersonal model of conscious-be referred to as "secondary level integrated ness. This is distinctly different from integratedintelligence." The phenomena associated with intelligence.secondary level integrated intelligence can be A further aspect of Zohars model that sug-deemed "secondary" as it may be argued that gests her model of consciousness is non-inte-their existence is dependent upon the existence grated is that it is highly organic, and often high-of an holistic, non-dual consciousness. ly reductionist. She writes that consciousness originates in "the synchronous 40Hz oscilla- tions... that unify data in the brain". These oscilla-Six Depictions of Integrated Intelligence tions are the source of SQ (Zohar, 2000: 7).1. Danah Zohar Despite the aforementioned transcendentWhat does she say about integrated intelli- aspects of consciousness in Zohars model, hersgence, and where does it fit into her map? is a brain-based depiction of consciousness: Zohar attempts to create an empirical basisfor spiritual experience and perception in her (the brain) produces the mystery of the conscious mind, our awareness of our-book Spiritual Intelligence. Spiritual intelligence, selves and our world and our ability toor SQ is: "the intelligence with which we address make free choices about engaging in theand solve problems of meaning and value...with world. It generates and structures ourwhich we can place our lives in a wider, richer thoughts, enables us to have emotionsmeaning-giving context...with which we can and mediates our spiritual lives" (Zohar,access that one course of action or one life-path 2000: 39-40).that is more meaningful than another" (Zohar,2000: 3-4). SQ is, according to Zohar, our ulti- Zohars largely organic model would bemate intelligence. "Mere IQ or rational intelli- more legitimate if her text did not expand SQsgence isnt enough", she writes (Zohar, 2000: 21). domain beyond the original rather mundane def- Zohars attitude to integrated intelligence is inition (as written above). The original definitionsomewhat confusing, unclear and contradictory. was about "addressing" such things as "meaning",On the one hand Zohar seems to acknowledge "value" and "context". There is nothing transcen-integrated intelligence and transpersonal con- dent or mystical in that definition, which extolssciousness, as when she writes that SQ "is an the virtues of SQ as a hermeneutic tool, a meansinternal, innate ability of the human brain and of "recontextualising" experience. Hermeneuticspsyche, drawing its deepest resources from the is implicitly interpretative, a mental/intellectualheart of the universe itself" (Zohar, 2000: 9). activity, not a transcendent one.Zohar also backs "the proto-consciousness view"- that consciousness is a fundamental property of The Litanyall matter and the universe (Zohar, 2000: 82). There are, according to Zohar, three kinds Yet there are contradictions within the text of intelligence. The first is the rational/logicalin regard to integrated intelligence, both stated intelligence which she associates with the way inand implied. For example she writes: which individual neurons in the brain fire and connect sequentially (Zohar, 2000: 12). The sec- There is a Gods eye view, but it is avail- ond intelligence is: "the emotion-driven, pattern able only to God. The best that we can do recognizing, habit-building intelligence" (Zohar, is to gain knowledge of as many perspec- 2000: 12). Entire segments of the brain fire tives as we can, and acknowledge a whole together simultaneously and electrical activity that is greater than we can perceive occurs across the brain in patterns in response (Zohar, 2000: 204). to various kinds of experiences (Zohar, 2000: 11- 13). 41
  4. 4. Journal of Futures Studies Zohar then identifies a third kind of intelli- courses. The "dominating IQ paradigm has over- gence, namely spiritual intelligence (SQ). Zohar shadowed further enquiry into their (intelligence employs reference to brain research to support researchers) own data", she states (Zohar, 2000: her argument. She refers to Austrian neurologist 11) . Further she claims that the social sciences Wolf Singers work on "the binding problem," since the seventeenth century have "reinforced which suggests that there "is a neural process in the certainties of Newtonian absolutism" (Zohar, the brain devoted to unifying and giving mean- 2000: 201). These trends were further reinforced ing to our experience" (Zohar, 2000: 12). She by custom, tradition, family and community also refers to the research of Rodolfo Linas on (Zohar, 2000: 202). sleeping and waking consciousness and the Zohar also points to "the poverty of west- binding of cognitive events in the brain; and to ern humanism," criticizing it for its anthropocen- biological anthropologist Terrance Deacons trism. Enlightenment thinkers followed work on the origins of language (Zohar, 2000: Aristotles model and defined humans as rational 12). animals (Zohar, 2000: 32). Social and political The potential connection between the philosophers followed this lead, as did society at localised self-equals-brain (Zohars equation) and large. We became alienated from nature, magic transcendent consciousness is briefly explored and mystery by reductionist scientific thought, via quantum theory. Zohar examines some of and from the center of the self, as psychology the evidence for the possible existence of quan- also defined humanity in terms of the isolated tum level electrical fluctuations and Bose- ego (Zohar, 2000: 32). Einstein condensates in the brain. She largely Zohar touches upon another social issue dismisses the research thus far done into quan- when she explains that SQ can help young peo- tum theories of consciousness since the 1930s, ple from making the same mistakes as their par- because they have focused their gaze upon ents did. It can aid in the search for meaning, micro-phenomena such as the neuronal struc- and this is fundamental in our lives (Zohar, 2000: tures within the brain. Instead Zohar believes 20-21). that larger-scale neural phenomena, such as cross-brain electrical activity, are more likely to Worldview produce useful evidence for the quantum con- Like Bloomfield (below), Zohar spends time sciousness school (Zohar, 2000: 84-90). Finally in Nepal. She relates that the rich and colorful Zohar speculates that the Higgs-Field, the fast Hindu and Buddhist cultures there have "certain- oscillating energy field that emerges from the ly influenced many of the thoughts I express quantum vacuum, may be the key to validating throughout the book" (Zohar, 2000: 23). She the proto-consciousness argument. integrates mystical concepts such as the Hindu chakra system (in her model of personality If proto-consciousness in the universe is a types), subtle energies of the body, and quotes fundamental property of the universe, from Eastern sages such as Tagore, Lao Zi and then there is proto-consciousness in the Mahatma Gandhi. She also makes references to Higgs Field, and the quantum vacuum Jewish, Islamic and Christian teachings and in becomes very like what mystics have called the immanent God, the God within particular their mystical aspects. These refer- all (Zohar, 2000: 90). ences are scattered sparsely in the first four parts of the book. It is in the last part, where she out- This in turn would link the 40Hz oscillations lines the more practical aspects and applications in the brain to "God" (Zohar, 2000: 90). of SQ, that these mystical influences become more explicit in the text. Social Level Zohar points out that science is "bottom up Zohar outlines some of the reasons why SQ truth," based on observation (Zohar, 2000: 203). However she valorises the "bottom-up truth" reli-42 has not yet featured heavily in contemporary dis- gions and spiritual traditions such as the mystics
  5. 5. Integrated Intelligenceof "the Abrahamic religions, Taoists, Hindus, Zohar has utilized a classical eastern motif,Buddhists" and Quakers (Zohar, 2000: 203). She the lotus, as metaphor for "self" but inserted avalues the spiritual approaches that emphasise scientific metaphor ("the quantum vacuum") intoinner truth and inner experience as a means to the middle of it, to replace the idea of God.the sacred. They insist that we must work on Later, Zohar critiques a parable from theourselves "to find some inner light" (Zohar, 2000: Surangama Sutra, where the Buddha talks to203). Thus Zohar ultimately has a place in her Ananda, his chief disciple. In the story Anandaworldview for both reductionist empirical sci- asks why the unity and oneness of the universeence, and for mysticism. "appears as so very many emanations." To However Spiritual Intelligence cannot be explain this, the Buddha takes out a handker-easily labeled "New Age", despite the fact that chief and ties it into six knots and explains "Thenthe Bloomsbury edition categorises it as "Self we have her six knots, but it is still one handker-Help/New Age/Business". While the subject mat- chief" (Zohar, 2000: 159). To this Zoharter is spiritual, the method is predominantly oth- responds:erwise. "Today such accounts dont speak to theMythical/Metaphorical Level modern mind. Today such questions Zohars text is dotted with mechanistic demand scientific answers, brain phe-metaphors of consciousness and the brain, nomena that we can weigh and measure, experiments that we can read about"despite Zohars comments on the limitations of (Zohar, 2000: 159).""the brain as computer" metaphor (Zohar, 2000:54-55). Zohar uses the terms "wiring," "rewiring" Here we have an explanation of why Zohar(pp.41, 52, 197) and "hardwiring" (pp.40,41, 94, employs scientific metaphors such as the follow-106) to explicate neuro-physiology. Such mecha- ing.nistic terminology places Zohars work implicitlycloser to mechanistic science than the explicit These (40 Hz oscillations) are theclaims of her thesis would suggest. center of the self, the neurological source Zohar employs a steady stream of from which I emerge (Zohar, 2000: 159).metaphors as she attempts to explicate SQ. She You and I, the chairs on which wetakes traditional spiritual metaphors, and then sit, and the food we eat are all patternssubstitutes them with scientific metaphors in an of this energy...(oscillating on) a stillattempt to clarify the spiritual principles. Thus ocean or background state of unexcitedZohar is in effect writing about spirituality within energy called the quantum vacuumthe scientific discourse. An example of this (Zohar, 2000: 160). We are waves on the ocean of themetaphor swapping is the following, where she vacuum; the vacuum is the ultimate cen-writes about "God:" ter and source of the self (Zohar, 2000: 160). "...the source of self that is beyond aware- ness (that) is both the ground of being It is debatable whether Zohars metaphors itself, the source of all manifestation, and are as effective as the originals. The idea that we the ultimate source of the energy which becomes conscious and unconscious must connect with "the center" (Zohar, 2000: mind. In twentieth-century science, this 162) is not a terribly attractive option when that source of both existence and self is associ- center is called "the quantum vacuum." The origi- ated with the quantum vacuum, the still, nal metaphors such as "God", "the sun", "the ground energy state of the universe. In lotus" etc. are all archetypal motifs within human the Lotus of Self, I depict it as the primal consciousness, and are comprehended at a deep mud out of which the lotus roots and level by the non-conscious mind, (if one is to fol- stem grow (Zohar, 2000: 127)." low Jungian psychology). Zohars metaphors are superficial intellectual abstractions which are 43
  6. 6. Journal of Futures Studies most likely nonsensical to the vast majority of avoids personal references to Zohar herself. the worlds population who do not dabble in quantum physics. Some concluding remarks on Zohar Further, Zohars text, as with Wilbers, does Zohar exhorts: "I shall propose a model of not mention her direct spiritual experiences or self that is intended to be both broader and perceptions. According to the references in her deeper than any postulated before" (Zohar, text, she gleans her knowledge of spirituality 2000: 115). Yet it is difficult to see where her the- from ancient and modern mystics - Lao Tzu, Sufi sis is so unique. As far as depth goes, it lacks the mystic poet Rumi, St John of the Cross, as well as hierarchical depth of Wilbers model, whose ver- Western figures like Plato, Socrates, the story of tical dimension is far more sophisticated and Faust, and the mystical traditions mentioned concise. above. The limited representation of the mystical The lack of personal reference is one of the and numinous in Spiritual Intelligence suggests a most notable features of Zohars texts. She lack of courage on her behalf of Zohar to explore shares only one deeply personal anecdote in "strange things," to borrow Broomfields termi- Spiritual Intelligence, where she relates her own nology. Her goal is to establish a working model struggle with some highly personal issues to do for consciousness that incorporates the spiritual, with her past, in particular her father (Zohar, but she is ultimately handicapped by the 2000: 186-191). Yet there are very few personal methodology she employs. Most mystical tradi- anecdotes that follow. The effect of this is to tions have upheld the view that spiritual experi- depersonalise the text. Perhaps this is Zohars ence is by its nature non-organic, transcendent, intention, to keep it with the scientific tradition and transpersonal. Zohars insistence on using of "objectivity." Yet it raises the question of how predominantly scientifically credited research much personal experience Zohar actually has and concepts to build her case restricts her the- with spiritual intelligence. sis. Whereas classical and New Age texts with Yet perhaps the most self-limiting problem- spiritual or mystical import tend to refer to and atic apparent in Zohars work is her insistence incorporate supernatural phenomena and deistic that spiritual insight is simply "recontextualising" references, Zohars text is almost completely (Zohar, 2000: 65). For Zohar the transcendent is devoid of such references. The former allow (or equated with "putting things in wider context" insist upon) the possibility that thoughts can be (Zohar, 2000: 68). It is difficult to believe that this generated or at least influenced by sources is what "gives us a taste of the extraordinary, the beyond the brain - from other individuals, spiri- infinite, within ourselves or within the world tual entities, deific sources and even animals, around us," as she claims (Zohar, 2000: 69). places, nature and the Earth as Gaia. Zohars shal- Wilber has pointed out that many of the newer low treatment of secondary level integrated maps of reality and the universe, particularly in intelligence is surprising in a book about spiritual systems theory, introduce greater breadth, but intelligence, considering the importance of the not depth (Wilber, 2000D: 147-149). numinous experience historically detailed in reli- It seems Zohar largely falls into this catego- gious and spiritual texts, including Dosseys and ry. Re-contextualisation, at least if we follow Broomfields (below). Wilbers view, is inadequate as an explanation for In section five of her book (the final sec- transcendent consciousness, as it lacks anything tion), Zohar takes a dramatic about-face and her more than a simplistic hierarchical aspect and method changes radically. Suddenly Zohar does not adequately account for expanded and begins a steady employment of myths and anec- non-ordinary states of consciousness. Indeed dotes, quoting mystics and poets numerous transpersonal and integrated intelligence would times. It is an almost disconcerting change, given appear to require an entire expansion of con- the heavy scientific and intellectual flavor of the sciousness beyond the boundaries of the self.44 previous four sections. However, this section still According to many transpersonalists, mystics
  7. 7. Integrated Intelligenceand thinkers such as Wilber (2000A, 2000B, The Litany2000C, 2000D); Bucke (2001); Hawkins (1995); As a trained medical practitioner, Dosseyand Grof (1995), this is not a cognitive/intellectu- has a sound understanding of science and scien-al process. It is a process requiring transcen- tific methodology. He has conducted empiricaldence, a shift to a higher level of consciousness. experiments into the effects of non-localised consciousness in healing, specifically the effects2. Larry Dossey of prayer on healing. His texts often delve into the empirical level of non-localised conscious-What does he say about integrated intelligence, ness. He makes references to papers that indi-and where does it fit into his map? cate that people can consciously inhibit the Larry Dosseys research specialty is non- growth of fungus through mental intention, canlocalised consciousness, especially within con- influence the growth of yeast in test tubes, andtemporary medicine. A medical doctor, Dossey cure mice of cancer via "laying on of hands"once held a standard mechanistic worldview in (Dossey, 1999B). Many of his published papershis practice of medicine. However, as he include extensive notes and references to specif-describes in the introduction to Reinventing ic scientific studies of non-local intelligence andMedicine, a series of dreams that he had early in its associated phenomena. His bibliographicalhis career shifted his perspective, and indeed his publication with Stephen A. Schwartz featuresworldview. These dreams "revealed" information some 21 pages of bibliographical notes and ref-about his patients that he states he could not erences (Dossey, 1999B). He states that the sci-have known consciously (Dossey, 1999). After entific evidence for distant intentionalitythis point in time he began to research "distant deserves far more attention than it is currentlyintentionality" and non-localised intelligence. being given in the scientific community. Though voices such as his are marginalised Dossey also makes reference to the possi-in modern medicine and science, he is not alone. ble links between distant intentionality andOther writers such as Deepak Chopra (1992), developments in quantum physics. He oftenCaroline Myss (2001), and Elizabeth Kubler-Ross quotes physicists such as Sir John Eccles, John(1997) have also enjoyed success writing in relat- Wheeler and Henry P. Stapp. The latter is quoteded fields. as stating that human thoughts are "efficacious" The world that Dossey writes about is (Dossey, 2002).replete with integrated consciousness. Hebelieves that prayer can directly lead to healing Social Levelof the sick, that consciousness can influence the One of Dosseys seminal points in hisgrowth of plants, that spiritual beings exist and papers and books is "the science blues" - how hiscommunicate with human beings, and that clair- initial love for contemporary science has beenvoyance, telepathy and ESP are extant. He also replaced by "wariness and suspicion" because ofcomes down in favor of the idea that healing is sciences narrow parameters, its failure tospiritual, which he defines as: acknowledge psi phenomena, its hidden dan- gers, and scientists tendencies to ignore and "...the sense of connectedness with a fac- hide data that contradicts their worldview or tor in the universe that is wiser and more endangers their research grants. Further, Dossey powerful than the individual sense of self laments that science has become alienated from and that is infinite in space and time. I choose to refer to this factor as the public consciousness and has lost touch with Absolute. In the great religions it is often "awe" and the "genuine mysteries" (Dossey, referred to as God, Goddess, Allah, the 2000). Like other writers writing at the interface Tao, Universe, and so on" (Dossey, 2002). of science, consciousness and spirituality, he recounts various cases of prejudice and scorn that he has experienced because of his particular research field. Criticism of science is a central 45
  8. 8. Journal of Futures Studies theme in Dosseys work, not surprising as his much of his experience and understanding, such worldview and that of science are often diamet- as the case (mentioned above) where he "saw" a rically opposed. He labels scientists narrow child patient experiencing problems in a medical minded and bigoted. He relates an incident, consultation with another doctor the day before involving a radio interview where he stated that it actually happened (Dossey, 1999). When dreams could be an integral part of healing for pointing out the problems with finding appropri- "which there is much historical precedent and a ate terms to describe psi phenomena, he tells growing body of experimental and clinical evi- the story of a friend who had problems selling dence." However the journalist interviewing him beef stroganoff in his restaurant because nobody later consulted a noted academic who dismissed in that area knew what that particular dish was. Dosseys argument as a "dream" in itself (Dossey, When the items name was changed to "beef and 2000). Dossey repeatedly refers to examples of noodles," it sold well. The point being made was: how scientists and scientific institutions and pub- "If you want to sell something, be careful what lications unfairly reject and ridicule religious and you call it" (Dossey, 2002). spiritual beliefs, and research related to psi, and Dossey also compares his loss of faith in in particular consciousness and its non-localised contemporary science to being like a "jilted effects (Dossey, 2000). The sheer contempt in lover," an extended metaphor he uses in his which Dossey sometimes regards contemporary essay "The Science Blues" (2000). science is perhaps best represented by his state- Science teased and seduced me, adorning ment that: "scientists typically understand sci- herself with layers of paint and glitter that con- ence about as well as fish understand hydrody- cealed flaws I never suspected. Her emissaries, namics" (Dossey, 2000). sent ahead to make introductions, lied out of Dossey argues that "opening to the psyches their teeth. They exaggerated her dowry, inflat- nonrational dimensions would lead to the fulfill- ing what she had to contribute to our arrange- ment of science, not its ruin, as some critics ment. I could have endured a few lies; it was charge" (Dossey, 2000). He sees the need in when the actual abuse set in that I began to medicine and science for an integration of the wake up (Dossey, 2000). rational and intuitive ways of knowing. Such metaphors as these bring a personal- ized dimension to Dosseys work which make it Worldview more accessible to the general public. They also Dossey holds what perhaps can best be serve to emphasis Dosseys message. In the case termed a scientific/New Age worldview. (1) He of the jilted lover metaphor, that message is the upholds much of the rigor of scientific method- degree of his anger and sense of betrayal at sci- ology and research and refers to numerous case ence. studies, but admonishes science for its myopic perspectives on the more esoteric aspects of life, Some concluding remarks on Dossey especially consciousness and spirituality. His Dosseys problems in gaining acceptance work draws upon various non-empirical episte- with the general medical and scientific commu- mologies, such as indigenous cultures, shaman- nity, and the adversarial nature of his relation- ism, spiritual traditions and New Age thinking. ship with them, indicates the difficulty of intro- He believes in the power of prayer and spiritual ducing the discourse on integrated intelligence healing, valorizes spiritual experiences and is an to these traditional bastions of the mechanistic advocate of the idea of the primacy of conscious- paradigm. Yet his work is highly accessible, as ness in the universe. his methods can be considered highly readable for a wide public audience. Mythical/Metaphorical Level It is through anecdotes that Dossey com- 3. John Broomfield municates some of his most powerful insights. What does he say about integrated intelligence,46 He uses autobiographical references to elaborate and where does it fit into his map?
  9. 9. Integrated Intelligence John Broomfields Other Ways of Knowing Sheldrakes morphogenetic fields, and dots theis a text which aims to expand the parameters of text with quotes such as holographic brain theo-what currently constitutes valid means of per- rist and neurologist Karl Pribrams maxim that:ception amidst the dominant scientific dis- "Mental properties are the pervasive organizingcourse. First published in 1997, this book is principles of the universe" (Broomfield, 1997:aimed at the popular market. 72). Integrated intelligence features heavily in To support his case for extrasensory per-Broomfields world. Broomfield is quick to insist ception, Broomfield briefly refers to the researchthat indigenous peoples beliefs in an intelligent of the Mobius society and SRI International inand vitalistic universe are legitimate. Humans California, Mundelein College in Chicago, andand nature are not separated, but are in "unity" the Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research(Broomfield, 1997: 96). Nature communicates programme, which have each achieved modestwith us in subtle ways as well as through "audi- results in attempting to empirically validate psible messages and visible appearances" phenomena such as scientific remote viewing(Broomfield, 1997: 113). This is a world in which and ESP (Broomfield, 1997: 116, 157).animals are endowed with vibrant intelligence, Yet this is not a text that valorizes theand non-verbal communication with them is empirical, and its means is true to its ends. Thepossible. It is also a universe of angels, devas and empirical level constitutes only a small part of"nature entities" (Broomfield, 1997: 110); a uni- the book.verse where Polynesians communicate with spir-it guides to navigate their way around the pacific Social Level(Broomfield, 1997: 2-4, 106); and where Broomfields text examines various culturalAustralian Aborigines follow the songlines of the depictions of intelligence, and different "ways ofland and of their ancestors (Broomfield, 1997: knowing." He examines indigenous and ancient105-106). It is the Western and modern world belief structures, and uses their myths and sto-that has forgotten these ways of knowing, ries as a means to demonstrate his points.according to Broomfield. Broomfield then contrasts these ways of Thus nature can teach us spiritual enlight- knowing with modern scientific depictions ofenment (Broomfield, 1997: 5). It is in dances intelligence. It is in the wake of the enlighten-(p.106), dreams (pp. 101, 156), songs (pp.105- ment philosophers such as Descartes, Bacon and106), meditations and in the connection with Newton that modern science began to reject"the sacred unconscious" (p.79) that the vitalistic integrated conceptions of the universe, and con-sprit of the universe opens up to us, argues sciousness itself. Modern science has becomeBroomfield. increasingly fragmented in its approach, and lin- ear in its constructions of time and placeEmpirical Level (Broomfield 1997: 32-37; 13-17). Broomfield is Like many "New Age" texts in the wake of heavily critical of many aspects of modern lifeCapras The Tao of Physics, Broomfield likes to and "our scientific perception of segmentedmake analogies with quantum physics to bring a materialism" (Broomfield, 1997: 30). We havescientific bent to his ideas. For example in order "boxed ourselves in" with linear schemata, linearto validate the idea that consciousness and mat- causation and temporal linearity (Broomfield,ter are not dualistic, he refers to John Wheelers 1997: 30). Scientists must become holistic andtheory of the "participator," where mind and develop "inner awareness," Broomfield arguesmatter are intricately intertwined, the former (Broomfield, 1997: 75)."co-creating" the universe at a personal as well as Broomfield believes that a society and poli-universal level (Broomfield, 1997: 38). tics based on divine guidance is possible. HeBroomfield also skims over the works and theo- uses Gandhis ideology of satyagraha as hisries of David Bohm and his holographic universe, example of a political "vehicle for transformingIlya Prigogines dissipative structures, Rupert the consciousness of a nation" (Broomfield, 47
  10. 10. Journal of Futures Studies 1997: 187). According to Broomfield politics Worldview must be based on a "recognition that conscious- Broomfield was Professor of Modern Indian ness makes reality, that our politics is a manifes- History at the university of Michigan for twenty tation of the state of our individual and collective years. However he has delved deeply into alter- awareness." In turn politics shapes conscious- native and spiritual methodologies and prac- ness. Social and economic policies must follow tices. He studied shamanism with Michael from these principles. It is a "spiritual politics." Harner and Sandra Ingerman, and was also Self-empowerment of individuals and groups President of of the California Institute of Integral must take precedence over power over others Studies (one of Americas most prominent alter- (Broomfield 1997: 180-181). Economics must native philosophy academic institutions) from also be based upon an "attunement to seasonal 1983 until 1990. Further, as he elaborates in his rhythms," not just human reason. He praises E.F. book, he now spends significant time in the Schumacher (Broomfield, 1997: 196,197, 202, foothills of the Himalayas on spiritual retreats. 203) and the "loving economy" of Wendell Berry Considering his biography it is not surpris- (Broomfield, 1997: 206-207). ing that Broomfields worldview and universe is a In his discussion on education Broomfield deeply spiritual one, and bristles with life and states that this is a universe where "the whole spirit at every level. His is a deeply vitalistic phi- sends messages to the parts." In such a world the losophy. It is a world of life after death, inter- teachers role is to encourage exploration, learn- species and spirit communication, psi and super- ing and growth. Broomfield thus criticises the natural phenomena. He writes that evolution "banking concept" of education. This concept "can be seen as the never-ceasing dance of life- assumes that knowledge is a gift passed from energy shaping vital, interconnected patterns - a those who know, down to those who know vivid kaleidoscope of opportunities for creative nothing. This, argues Broomfield, stultifies the spirit in matter" (Broomfield, 1997: 172). development of the desire to learn or "to create independent, self-confident, whole people" Mythical/Metaphorical Level (Broomfield, 1997: 213). He maintains that such "Classical science and history will not suffice disempowerment of the young is not what is as the mythologies of the twenty-first century", needed in a rapidly changing world. writes Broomfield. For these are the stories of Knowledge is not simply intellectualisation, colonization, domination and segmentation, and but must have "inner knowing." Broomfield "Judeo-Christian millenarianism" (Broomfield, states that: "deep wisdom is available to us if we 1997: 53). Broomfield states explicitly that will but listen intently to our bodies" mythology and story are legitimate ways of (Broomfield, 1997: 219). Teachers must encour- knowing. They create a "connected knowing" age students to "trust their gut understandings, that stands in contrast to the "separate knowing" their intuitions" (Broomfield, 1997: 219). The of fragmented reason (Broomfield, 1997: 218). symbolic realms such as found in the universal Many of his points are elaborated with stories, archetypes in the form of dreams, daydreams, and many with actual mythologies of indigenous meditations and altered states, fables, and fairy peoples. In order to validate his remark that all tales, poetry, music, dance sculpture and paint- things in the universe are connected, Broomfield ing must be explored by students (Broomfield, does not refer to empirical data, but re-tells the 1997: 219). Further these must be reinforced by Maori myth of the beginning of the universe experience (Broomfield, 1997:220). Students and involving Mother, Papa, and the Father Rangi, teachers should spend time in wild and sacred and their three children. A resulting family places to restore "direct awareness of the intri- squabble saw the children take the forms of the cate interconnections that sustain life" ocean (Tangaroa), sky (Tawhirimatea), and the (Broomfield, 1997: 220). Our education must forest (Tane). Other relatives took on the forms work to restore the relationships between things48 (Broomfield, 1997: 221). of the birds, fish and land animals (Broomfield, 1997: 97-98).
  11. 11. Integrated IntelligenceSome concluding remarks on Broomfield perception, and the actual state of integrated Broomfields text is the most "radical" and awareness that characterizes the final stages ofNew Age of the four writers deconstructed here. spiritual development in his model. This is aHe does not baulk at introducing seemingly more sophisticated model than general New Ageparanormal phenomena into his arguments and literature, which often fails to distinguish clearlyanecdotes. No doubt Wilber would criticize his between the two, and often valorises psychicready employment of mythology and dreams as development as a vital goal in spiritual develop-method, in that Broomfield makes no distinction ment (if not the most vital goal).between higher and lower, pre-personal and Thus Wilber acknowledges both the psy-transpersonal realms of consciousness. (2) Yet chic and transpersonal realms of consciousness,the text is heavily personal, bringing to life many yet goes little into detail about the former.of his arguments. It valorizes the native and the Indeed his "psychic" level of consciousness doesshaman, the indigenous worldview, and seem- not refer specifically to clairvoyant perception,ingly asks us to return to a simpler lifestyle, but to an expanded concept of self that tran-which in turn features a more integrated con- scends ego, although psychic experiences maysciousness. comprise an aspect of it (Wilber, 2000A: 183). The psychic is not valorised in Wilbers model.4. Ken Wilber Wilbers attitude towards the psychic is typical ofWhat does he say about integrated intelligence, the Buddhist attitude towards psychic phenome-and where does it fit into his map? na, which acknowledges it, but sees it as relative- Transpersonal psychologist Ken Wilbers ly insignificant or a distraction in the journey tomodel of consciousness is an incredibly detailed, enlightenment. Instead his texts valorise experi-complex, and intellectual one. In Integral ences of primary level integrated intelligence.Psychology he attempts to posit a comprehen- Indeed his entire argument is predicated uponsive map of consciousness and psychology which the evolution of consciousness and transcendent"honor(s) and embraces(s) every legitimate consciousness in general.aspect of human consciousness..." (Wilber, Wilber correlates rationality and the "men-2000C: 2). His is a layered or hierarchical system, tal" domains of consciousness with ego-cen-where human consciousness develops from the tered, alienated self-consciousness. In Wilberspre-personal undifferentiated modes, through to model, rationality, like all but the final nonduelrational, and then into the transpersonal realms. stage in the Great Chain of Being, is merely aIn this model phylogenetic and ontogenetic evo- stepping-stone to enlightenment, soon to belution mirror each other (Wilber, 2000D: 153- included, and transcended within higher states154). Put rather simply, this development of con- of consciousness.sciousness also corresponds to his three ways of Empirical Levelknowing: the "eye of flesh" (sensorimotor), the"eye of reason" (mental/rational), and the "eye of Wilbers texts are almost bursting with ref-contemplation" (spiritual/mystical) (Wilber, erences and notations to scientific and academic2000B: 2-6). It is in the contemplative and research. Indeed Sex, Ecology and Spiritualitytranspersonal realms where Wilber locates the features some 235 pages of end notes! Theseaspects of consciousness which relate to inte- include references to a plethora of disciplinesgrated intelligence. These, in sequence, are the and research fields, including psychology, ecolo-psychic, subtle, causal and non-dual (Wilber, gy, anthropology, cosmology, mysticism, theolo-2000C: 197). Each of these later stages in gy, postmodernism, physics etc. The depth of hisWilbers model represents part of the souls jour- scholarship is immense. Thus Wilber is foremostney from ego to spirit. a scholar. He makes this point himself in the Wilber makes the important distinction semi-autobiographical Grace and Grit, claiming in a conversation with his late wife Treya Wilberbetween the psychic, or paranormal aspects of that: "We both know I am no Buddha." He com- 49
  12. 12. Journal of Futures Studies pares himself instead to the ancient Buddhist social commentary. Society and culture are sub- scholars (Wilber, 2000E). sumed within metaphysics in his model of evolu- Wilbers hierarchical and developmental tion. The development of society and culture are model of sociocultural evolution situates the var- embraced within the evolution of consciousness. ious schools of psychology and consciousness Indeed according to Wilber, cultures and soci- and their respective thinkers upon the "Great eties merely reflect the evolution of spirit. Just as Chain of Being." For example the work of Jurgen individuals evolve, moving higher along the Habermas is inserted at the next-to-lower levels Great Chain of Being, societies evolve collective- of the Chain (the phantasmic-emotional) and ly, mirroring the evolution of the individual moves through to the final stages of the rational (Wilber, 2000D: 153-157). (vision-logic) level. Jean Piagets work spans a slightly greater range, from the very beginning Worldview (sensorimotor) and also terminating at the vison- In Grace and Grit, Wilber compares his life logic stage. The work of Duane Elgin begins at before meeting his late wife Treya Wilber to that the phantasmic emotional level and moves right of a Zen monk. His worldview, like the postra- through to the final nonduel level on Wilbers tional stages of his model of sociocultural evolu- model (Wilber, 2000C: 215-216). But not only tion, is heavily influenced by Buddhist and mysti- individuals fit into the model. Schools of thought cal philosophies in general. He regularly refers to are also situated on the map. For example he Buddhist, Suffi, Tantric, Gnostic and Hindu mys- maps the various stages of Yoga Tantra in pre- tics in his texts. cisely the same way, spanning the entirety of the Unlike Broomfield and to a certain degree stages of the Great Chain of Being (Wilber, Dossey, Wilber does not valorize indigenous 2000C: 210). ways of knowing. He relegates them to essential- ly pre-personal levels of consciousness, which in Social Level effect means pre-rational (Wilber, 2000D: 244- Wilbers is an integral model and the social 247). Thus Wilber claims that indigenous peo- dimensions are incorporated theoretically into ples (with perhaps the exception of a few his model. The cultural aspects of evolution con- shamans) represent a lower level of conscious- stitute the lower left-hand quadrant of his four- ness that predates the current typical level of quadrant system, while the social aspects are modern human consciousness. (3) He criticises covered in the bottom left column. His breadth several contemporary theorists - including is impressive, but not the depth. There are no Jungians (such as Jung himself and James detailed explorations of specific social issues like Hillman), the "romantics" and New Agers in gen- crime, education, politics, or social welfare. Since eral for failing to comprehend the distinction his major focus is upon the evolution of con- between pre-personal and transpersonal realms sciousness, social issues are delved into only in of consciousness (Wilber, 2000C: 104). respect to their influence on the history of ideas, Conversely he sees genuine mystics as operating religion, mysticism, science etc. Some of the within the transpersonal realms, beyond the issues he does touch upon include power struc- level of the purely rational-logical. tures in feminism (Wilber, 2000D: 393), science Wilbers worldview may best be described and global culture (Wilber, 2000D: 710-716), the as mystical/intellectual. The sheer depth of its development of postmodernism in the wake of research and critical inquiry distinguishes it clear- modernist science (Wilber, 2000A: 54-64) and ly from typical New Age (and indeed mystical) the mens movement (Wilber, 2000D: 258). The thinking, and unlike New Ageism it is heavily narrow treatment of such issues leaves Wilber intellectual. open to the criticism that his books are more intellectual and theoretical than grounded in Mythical/Metaphorical Level mundane or practical human concerns. The "story" that persists throughout50 In a broader sense Wilbers books are all Wilbers writings is not a new one. It is the story
  13. 13. Integrated Intelligenceof the journey from ignorance to enlightenment Slaughter has pointed out, it is unclear how- the story of the spiritual journey. What Wilber Wilber came to the insights he represents in hisdoes is take the spiritual and mythical element of work, and thus how valid his understanding ofthe spiritual journey, and place them in a con- higher levels of consciousness is (Slaughter,temporary, rational and sometimes scientific 2000: 349). It is arguably inconsistent of Wilberguise. to criticise systems theories as being unable to In Grace and Grit (2000E), Wilber recounts offer a unified theory of everything because theythe tragic tale of his wife Treyas fatal battle with have ignored the personal and the inner (Wilber,cancer in spiritual terms. Finally, his wife finds 2000C: 147), when his own work reduces spiritu-her enlightenment, or so he believes. This belief al experiences to approximations and linguistiche garners from an interpretation of a dream he abstractions (e.g. "the nonduel", "subtle," "causal"has shortly after her death. etc.) without anecdote or personal insight. By Yet the rest of Wilbers texts lack an anec- doing so, in part he reduces his books to thedotal/mythical dimension. This absence of the very "flatland" dimension that he criticises sys-mythical and allegorical clearly distinguishes tems theorists for.Wilbers works from those of the New Age, and Wilbers books most often comprise pageclassical spiritual texts. The reason for the after page of interpretation of other scientists,absence is made implicit in Sex, Spirituality, thinkers and sages, positing them within his spir-Ecology (2000A). Here Wilber takes to task the itual framework, but lacking in any explicit expe-work of such thinkers as Joseph Campbell and riential dimension. The means of Wilbers per-Carl Jung. Wilber deconstructs Campbells claim ception are mental/rational (the eye of reason),that myth grants access to transrational appre- as analysis, interpretation and synthesis of datahension, suggesting that "mythology can rightly are the dominant cognitive tools employed inlay claim only to the childhood of men and the construction of his thesis. Since Wilber haswomen" (Wilber, 2000D: 250). Mythology cannot explicitly stated that the eye of reason is an inad-be employed as a means to greater understand- equate means to comprehend the mystical/tran-ing without the aid of the rational mind, Wilber srational, he creates an inherent contradiction inargues, thus identifying an inherent weakness in his thesis. His failure to explicate his own tran-Campbells argument that myth is the equal of srational experiences of consciousness seemsscience (Wilber, 2000D: 247-50) Writes Wilber: rather incredible, in view of his stated valorisa- tion of mystical experience in comprehending ...a myth is being a "real myth" when it is the higher stages of consciousness. Thus it is not "not" being taken as true, when it is being at all clear that he has had any direct experience held in an "as if" fashion. And Campbell of transrational consciousness, as there is not a knows perfectly well that an "as if" stance single reference to any such experience in his is possible only with formal operational five books listed in the bibliography of this awareness" (Wilber, 2000D: 247). paper. These books largely comprise his most Thus, argues Wilber, a myth can only be recent works.understood properly when it has been tran- Some concluding remarks on Wilberscended by rationality. In Wilbers model themythic is transcended by the rational, and then Books, theories and empirical/rationalthe rational is transcended by the transpersonal. research are the tools of the dominant scientificThe Jungians elevation of myth in cognitive sta- discourse. The task of writers like Wilber intus is thus a function of "the pre-trans fallacy" attempting to posit trans-rational ideas in ration-(Wilber, 2000D: 247). al/linguistic format thus becomes highly prob- Ironically it is the lack of a personal/anec- lematical. The fact that his texts are highly intel-dotal dimension which is one of the most prob- lectual and abstract does not help his cause. The question thus needs to be asked; what is thelematical aspects of Wilbers work. As Richard value of a text whose thesis is predicated upon 51
  14. 14. Journal of Futures Studies transrational consciousness, when the mode of discipline or an emerging field, as artificial intelli- delivery is overtly rational, thus stultifying the gence theory or genetic theory have been, for possibility that the subject matter can be fully example. These fields reside firmly within the comprehended by its intended academic audi- mechanistic reductionist paradigm which legiti- ence? mates them and elevates them to valorised posi- tions within modernist space. Conversely inte- Conclusion grated intelligence is paradigm shaking. It threat- The issue of effectively communicating ens to destabilise the foundations of our maps of insights gleaned from mystical experience in the the universe. It promises to expand our minds overtly mental/rational medium of books and beyond the boundaries of self. And as Einstein academic papers, is but one of the problematics once stated, a mind once expanded by a new pervading texts on integrated intelligence. There idea, can never return to its former size. are various others. Briefly some of those issues include the lack of an established terminology, Correspondence confusion of what comprises the litany, the problematic nature of establishing empirical University of the Sunshine Coast validity, a tendency to over rely on analogies Faculty of Arts and Sciences with quantum physics, and the scorn of many Maroochydore, 4557, Queensland, Australia skeptics, academics and those working within m_a004@student.usc.edu.au mainstream science and academia. Still, many are embracing the challenge, Notes researching and writing about integrated intelli- gence. This paper has presented just four 1 Possibly Dossey and others categorised here thinkers in four different disciplines who are tak- under the "New Age" label would be unhappy ing the notion of integrated intelligence serious- with the term. However I use the term ly. Just a handful of the many others across vari- because the New Age shares some similarities ous fields include: John Wheeler, Erwin with the thinkers referred to here, namely: Schrodinger, Brian Josephson (physics); Kurt * A spiritual, metaphysical focus, which often includes acknowledgment of other Godel, S.J.S. Clarke, David J. Chalmers (logic and levels of existence beyond the physical, as mathematics); John Searle, Gillian Ross (philoso- well as paranormal phenomena; and pos- phy); Rupert Sheldrake, Elisabet Sahtouris, sibly non-physical life-forms such as spir- Theodore Rozak, James Lovelock (biology and its, angels and demons. ecology); Ervin Laszlo (systems theory) Jean * The incorporation of transpersonal Housten, David R. Hawkins, Stanislav Grof (psy- themes. chology and psychiatry); Karl Pribram, Chilton * The acknowledgement of inner worlds Pierce, Roger Penrose (neuro-science and con- and consciousness as crucial or highly sig- sciousness); and J. Solfvin, GK Watkins, R. Wells nificant, within any given discourse. (parapsychology). Further, this list does not men- * Eclecticism - drawing from wide ranges of tion the countless writers and thinkers writing in sources for information and inspiration. However there are several ways in which the the popular New Age, theological and spiritual thinkers mentioned here typically differ from discourses. popular New Age thinkers: Thus the trend towards depicting intelli- * They also valorise critical and analytical gence in integrated terms is gaining momentum thinking. in numerous fields. Integrated intelligence can * They have a tendency to rely just as much no longer be dismissed as irrelevant, purely mys- (or more) on scientific and empirically vali- tical or anachronistic to the current age. This dated knowledge and research as person- movement is pervasive and profound in its impli- al (spiritual) experience. cations. Integrated intelligence cannot simply be * Their worldviews and arguments are52 incorporated into our map of reality like a new reflective, self-critical and discursive and (at least in theory) malleable.
  15. 15. Integrated Intelligence2 Wilber is particularly severe in criticising Poststructuralism as method." Futures, Romantic, New Age and Jungian writers for Vol.30, No.8, pp. 815-829. failing to make clear the distinction between Jiyu, R. (ed.) 1998. The Book of Lao Zi. Beijing: lower and higher psychic impulses. He calls Foreign Languages Press. this error "the pre-trans fallacy" (Wilber, Kubler-Ross, E. 1997. The Wheel of Life. New 2000A: 244-50). York: Simon and Schuster.3 Wilber believes that average human conscious- Myss, C. 2001. Sacred Contracts. Sydney, Bantom. ness is now moving into the vision-logic phase Pearsall, P. 1998. The Hearts Code. New York: of consciousness evolution. This represents Broadway. the beginnings of the transcendence of ration- Slaughter, R. 2000. Futures For the Third ality (Wilber, 2000A: 266-269). Millenium. St. Leonards: Prospect. Targ, and Katra. 2001. "The scientific and spiritu- al implications of psychic abilities."References Alternative Therapies in Health andBloomfield, J. 1997. Other Ways of Knowing. Medicine. May/June 2001. Rochester, Vermont. Turnbull, J. 2003. "Moral Space Futures andBohm, D. 1973. Wholeness and the Implicate Deep Dialogue: integrating hermeneutics Order. London: Routledge. and poststructural critical research."Bucke, E. 2001. Cosmic Consciousness. London, (unpublished paper) Applewood Books Wilber, K. 2000A. A Brief History of Everything.Capra, F. 2001. The Tao of Physics. (25th anniver- Boston: Shambhala. sary edition) New York, Bantam Books. _____. 2000B. Eye To Eye. Boston, Shambhala._____. 1993. Uncommon Wisdom. New York: _____. 2000C. Integral Psychology. Boston: Bantam Books. Shambhala.Chopra, D. 1992. Unconditional Life. New York: _____. 2000D. Sex, Ecology, Spirituality. Boston: Bantam. Shambhala.Dossey, L. 1999A. Reinventing Medicine. San _____. 2000E. Grace and Grit. Boston: Francisco: Harper. Shambhala.______. 1999B. "Non-local Mind, Distant Healing Wilde, S. 2000. The Sixth Sense. Carlsbad: Hay and Prayer." Alternative Therapies in Health House. and Medicine. Nov.1999.Vol. 5, Iss. 6 Wildman, P. 1997. "Dreamtime Myth: History as______. 2000. "The Science Blues." Alternative Future." New Renaissance. Vol.7, No.1 Therapies in Health and Medicine, Aliso Zohar, D. 2000. Spiritual Intelligence. London: Viejo, Jul. 2000. Cygnus Books.______. 2002. "How healing happens." Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, Aliso Viejo, Mar/Apr 2002Goleman, D. 1995. Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.Grof, S. 1995. "Consciousness Evolution and Planetary Survival: Psychological Roots of Human Violence and Greed." Paper pre- sented at the Thirteenth International Transpersonal Conference entitled Spirituality, Ecology, and Native Wisdom in Killarney, Ireland, June 1995.Hawkins, D. 1995. Power Vs Force: An Anatomy of Consciousness. Sedona, Veritas.Inayatullah, S. 2002. Questioning the Future: Futures Studies, Action Learning and Organizational Transformation. Taipei: Tamkang University Press.______. 1998, "Causal Layered Analysis: 53
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