Everything Forever Learning to See Timelessness Gevin Giorbran


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Everything Forever
Learning to See Timelessness
Gevin Giorbran

In this exhaustive masterpiece Gevin Giorbran gives us a unique and original "hypothesis of everything". From the big bang, or Alpha state, to the final Omega state, the universe is not winding down as the traditional explanation of the second law of thermodynamics is currently understood. Rather, the universe is going from one type of order, "grouping order" to another type, "symmetry order".

Time, energy, the forces of nature, and meaning are all a result of the universe moving toward its most probable future, a future of perfect balance.

According to Giorbran, energy is a product of imbalance, and time is simply the transformation of matter into the fullness of space symmetry.

Gravity can be understood as pockets of "time in reverse". Gravity represents our past pulling time backwards. The electromagnetic force represents the arrow of time moving toward the future. The opposite charges of the electron and proton are simply the tendency of these particles to seek balance. "Forces are simply the shapes of probability waves, and those shapes bond particles together, in groups, in lattices, in symmetries."

The past and the future are quantum potentials, and conscious beings are continually creating the most likely futures and the most likely, consistent pasts. Meaning arises as a result of the decoherence of these potential states.

"Everything Forever" is the most significant book concerning the nature of reality I've read in years. I highly recommend this book for those looking for a simple and elegant hypothesis of the infinite, meaningful universe.

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Everything Forever Learning to See Timelessness Gevin Giorbran

  1. 1. Gevin Giorbran - born May 1960, died March 2008 Prior to 1998, Gevin Giorbran authored three books in which he de-scribed in detail how our universe eventually ends, as space expandsperfectly flat and time reaches absolute zero. In 1998, when astrophysi-cists discovered the expansion of the universe is in fact acceleratingtowards perfectly flat space, Gevin started work on the book you seebefore you now. Prior to his death he asked that I, Rob Bryanton, takeover the sale and promotion of his work.The ideas in this E-book took Gevin through almost ten years of re-search, writing and polishing, and a lifetime dedicated to the pursuit ofthis knowledge, to arrive at what you see before you. This pdf file has nocopy protection on it because my main interest is in getting these impor-tant and groundbreaking ideas out into the world. If you would like toown this book in either hard cover or paperback, or buy other productsrelated to this project, please visit www.tenthdimension.com/store . Orif you’d like to download your own copy of this pdf, please go towww.tenthdimension.com/digital . Enjoy the journey! Profits from the sale of Gevin’s work will go to the Gevin GiorbranMemorial Fund.
  2. 2. Everything ForeverLearning to See Timelessness Gevin Giorbran Enchanted Puzzle Publishing
  3. 3. Science / Personal Growth / Spirituality First Edition Copyright ! 2007 by Gevin GiorbranAll rights reserved. No part larger than five paragraphs of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form, or by any means, without prior written permission from the publisher. Soft Cover ISBN 10: 0-9791861-0-2 ISBN 13: 978-0-9791861-0-3 Hard Cover ISBN 10: 0-9791861-1-0 ISBN 13: 978-0-9791861-1-0 Library of Congress Catalog Control Number: 2006910726 All major contributing Artists and Photographers materials used by permission, all rights reserved. Copyright ! Kerry Mitchell Copyright ! Mike Levin Copyright ! Paul DeCelle Copyright ! Charles Beck Copyright ! Carol Taylor Copyright ! Doug Harrington Copyright ! Ken Libbrecht Copyright ! Michel Meynsbrughen Published by Enchanted Puzzle Publishing http://www.enchantedpuzzle.com
  4. 4. This book contains fractal art from some of the best fractal artists in the world.Sincerest thanks to all the contributing Artists and Photographers, including:Kerry MitchellPaul DeCelle www.fractalus.comDamien JonesDoug Harrington www.fractalarts.comMike Levin www.mikelevin.comCharles Beck www.enchantedpuzzle.com/beck/Carol Taylor www.caroltaylorquilts.comKen Libbrecht www.snowcrystals.comMichel Meynsbrughen www.sxu.hu/gallery/clafouti/ Author’s Website: everythingforever.com General thanks to NASA scientists, photographers, and artists for your work and inspiration. Dedicated to my Grandparents Special Thanks to: Mary, Robert, Quentin, Emma, Dennett, John and Rob.
  5. 5. Foreword If someone picks up this book and reads only this one page I want them to be leftknowing what is to come in the future. In 1998 astrophysicists discovered that theexpansion of our universe is accelerating. We all know the universe is acceleratingaway from the dense and hot conditions of the big bang, but what are we now acceler-ating towards? Recently physicists are beginning to state openly that time ends in thefuture with our universe evolving into empty space. Of course empty space is theultimate zero, the bottom end to all physics. If our universe reaches zero all space willbe stretched perfectly flat and no matter will remain. A single unified space will thenextend infinitely in all directions. So is this final space the ultimate nothingness?Actually many physicists and mathematicians think of zero as the most ordered stateof all possibilities. Zero is balance. Zero is perfect symmetry. But what is this ulti-mate zero doing in our future? The answer is that zero is timelessness. Absolute zero isthe timeless quantum superposition of all the universes that exist. Zero is the greatsum of all. An ultimate zero has always existed, and will always exist. Zero is the nativestate of existence, or what the physicist David Bohm, Einstein’s favorite student, calledImplicate order. It sounds odd at first but we are inside zero. Today in science the second law of thermodynamics suggests our single universe isbecoming increasingly disordered with time. Many scientists claim our universe iswinding down and dying of disorder. It is certainly true that entropy, the measure ofspent energy, is always increasing. However, half of the second law is wrong. Ouruniverse is not becoming increasingly disordered with time. Quite the contrary, we areheaded for zero, and zero is a powerful kind of order. The timeless zero in our future is the internal complexity of everything and theouter simplicity of nothing at the same time. There cannot be the simplicity of thesingle whole without all the inner complexity of universes that enfold into and createzero. What zero is not, is nonexistence. As Parmenides said, nonexistence cannot be.There is no state more extreme, either less than or more than the perfect zero. Zero is thedefault setting of reality. The big mystery of “why is there something rather than nothing?” is answeredsimply by understanding that nothing still exists. All possible moments of time and allpossible universes physically exist simultaneously, because all are merely fragments of aphysically real zero. In the same way all colors exist in white light, or just as all positiveand negative numbers sum to zero, all the moments of time sum up to construct agreater balanced whole we call zero. Zero is like a whole pie that can be sliced upinfinitely many ways, but always remains a single whole. It is a difficult mental switchto adjust to, but everything we know is less than zero, not simply more than nothing.And so our beautiful universe is not dying. The very surprising purely scientific truth,as explained in this book, is that our universe is in the process of merging with thetimeless sum of all, with the infinite whole, with everything forever.
  6. 6. This separation between past, present and future is only an illusion…Albert Einstein ~~~Just as we envision all of space as really being out there, as really existing,we should also envision all of time as really being out there, as reallyexisting too.Brian Greene ~~~Nothing ever happened in the past; it happened in the Now.Nothing will ever happen in the future; it will happen in the Now.Eckhart Tolle ~~~Ultimately, all moments are really one, therefore now is an eternity.David Bohm ~~~Our actual universe evolves to empty space.Sean Carroll ~~~Eternity is a long time, especially towards the end.Woody Allen
  7. 7. ix Introduction There is a wide assortment of excellent books out there if one is interested inthe science of quantum mechanics or superstrings theory. What the shelves aremissing are books on the science of timelessness, true even though the threemost remarkable physicists of the last century, Albert Einstein, Richard Feyn-man, and Stephen Hawking, each concluded from their own individual accom-plishments in science that the actual Universe exists apart from our sense oftime. Each scientist developed their own unique way of understanding timeless-ness. The renowned Stephen Hawking, who holds Newton’s chair at Cambridgehas been the most adamant and regularly refers to another mode of time inwhich the Universe has no beginning or end. None of these scientists have saidthat time is purely an illusion. It appears more accurate to say that in the sameway the permanent pages of a book tell a changing story, the past, present, andfuture moments of our lives all exist simultaneously in another kind of time.Today, Hawking and others call this other realm imaginary time, even though thisother form of time should probably be considered more solidly existent andmore tangibly real than our own time. What all scientists agree on is that we have begun to enter the golden age ofastronomy and cosmology. Quite suddenly we have reached a period when themost important questions physicists have asked over the past one hundred yearsare finally being answered by hi-tech probes and the Hubble space telescope, asthey extract the needed information from distant galaxies and as they map theecho left over from the big bang. Already this golden age has produced startlingrevelations about our existence. For example, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisot-ropy Probe (WMAP) determined with unparalleled precision that the large-scalecosmos is spatially flat. The geometry of the overall cosmos shows no indicationof being curved into a figure eight or any kind of closed circular volume thatwould allow the cosmos to be spatially limited. And so, it appears the stars andthe galaxies, the physical cosmos we live in, extends outward in every directioninfinitely without end. Many scientific minded philosophers have in the past imagined the greaterUniverse might be timeless and infinite, as far back as Parmenides and as recentas Giordano Bruno, and many today in and out of science are convinced thatquantum theory indicates an infinity of parallel worlds within the inner space ofparticles and energy. But this probe has in fact transported us into a very differ-ent age of learning, both for science and all of humanity. In scientifically con-cluding the cosmos is infinite we are no longer discussing various scenarios ofhow the cosmos might be, we are finally discussing and exploring one scenarioof how the cosmos actually is. Consequently we are now being led toward amuch deeper and very profound understanding of the cosmic big picture. How-ever, there is one recognizable stumbling block… the second law.
  8. 8. x | Introduction The sixties was distinctly a time when people began to question and chal-lenge established ways of seeing the world. Many recognize that movement wasgreatly influenced by two scientific theories that had finally gained wide accep-tance, the big bang model and Darwin’s theory of evolution. Both theoriesprovided insight into how our world changes over time, and both greatly influ-enced the youth of that period, myself included. However, informative as boththeories were, unfortunately there was no lasting change, as there was no pot ofgold at the end of the rainbow. The theory of evolution and the big bang bothexpose details about the past, but neither revealed what the universe is evolvingtowards. Consequently the knowledge bestowed from these new comprehen-sions, although wonderfully educational, fell short of exposing any sense ofdeeper meaning or purpose to the evolution of the cosmos. The reason both theories failed to provide any type of enlightenment as towhat the universe and life are about, can be summed up in five words: the secondlaw of thermodynamics. The most psychologically disturbing law found in science iswithout question the second law which claims that everything in the universeevolves from an ordered state to a more disordered state as time evolves. Thesecond law has been written about extensively, it is one of the two most basiclaws of nature, but the underlying conclusion which everyone must draw isalways the same. In moving toward disorder the universe is winding down, it isdying. So the grand lesson of science has become that the long-term evolutionof the cosmos has no ultimate purpose or goal. Our beautiful universe is dying.This conclusion is forced upon every person who learns the second law, and infact the second law hangs over science and humanity like a black cloud. It is easy to imagine how much more interested people would be in sciencetoday had we instead discovered that our universe is evolving into somethingmeaningful, and not simply dying of disorder. Imagine instead that scientists haddiscovered some deep purpose to time. Imagine scientists had found the orderof the universe is ever increasing, moving us steadily toward some incomprehen-sible perfection. We all occasionally stop and contemplate the world, and howwe scientifically view the universe’s future effects us on many levels. Knowingthe universe has a future goal, knowing time has an innate purpose, would atleast subtly influence each one of us, and eventually it would undoubtedlychange humanity. Could the second law be wrong? Actually, today the second law stands asone of the most fiercely defended laws in science. It describes the most basicway that the cosmos changes with time. Most believe it will never be overturned.Only there is one thing to consider. Something totally unexpected happenedrecently in science, and it is something that promises to dramatically change howwe view the distant future. In the summer of 1999, NASA officials and a teamof scientists in a television broadcast announced one of the most startling dis-coveries ever made, a discovery comparable even to when Edwin Hubble first
  9. 9. Introduction | xidiscovered the galaxies are expanding away from one another. NASA scientistsusing the Hubble space telescope had carefully verified the discovery originallymade in 1998 and were ready to officially announce the findings. On NASAtelevision a large group of scientists announced, “the expansion of the universeis presently accelerating.” What does this discovery mean? Since the Big Bang was first discovered itwas thought that all expansion was slowing down, decelerating ever since timebegan 13.7 billion years ago. But careful measurements of galactic distancesmeasuring the brightness of a special type of supernova revealed distinctly thatexpansion is no longer in decline. After slowing for nearly eight billion years, thedeceleration of expansion turned to acceleration approximately six billion yearsago. Apparently there are two phases to the life of the cosmos, one whereexpansion slows as time moves away from the point of the big bang, and onewhere expansion accelerates. What are we accelerating towards? The universe ismoving directly toward the opposite extreme from which time began, the stateof absolute zero. What is absolute zero? Absolute zero is the timeless whole ofall universes. Science is now in an unprecedented adjustment period. Old questions mustbe reconsidered, such as, what is the future like? What is the final result of time?What is absolute zero? Could this acceleration change our bleak outlook of thedistant future? The discovery that the expansion of the cosmos is now accelerat-ing was not a complete surprise to me personally, as I had written three booksbetween 1994 and 1997, all prior to the 98 discovery, in each book explainingthat time is moving toward absolute zero. Although I agreed with the big bangmodel I departed from the conclusions of mainstream scientists who argued thattime will never reach the ground state of zero. The primordial vacuum of science, the inexplicable emptiness of eastern phi-losophy, the classic idea of nothingness, creation itself, cannot be found in thedirection of the past. The ground state of zero exists in the direction of thefuture, and very plainly and evidently so, once one considers without assump-tions what we know of the universe from basic physics and cosmology. Weknow in science that the universe is cooling and expanding toward absolutezero, not away from it. Furthermore, there is no evidence of a “creation fromnothing” in our past, only increasing density and energy. Most scientists knowthis to be true, and yet today we continue to project nothing into our past (andreject its obvious presence in the future) based on assumptions that our exis-tence necessarily begins in the past. In the now famous Big Rip scenario three physicists led by Robert Caldwellmention the possibility that time ends at the "ultimate singularity". More recentlythe bright and popular physicist Sean Carroll of Caltech in a presentation givento other physicists has stated "our actual universe evolves to empty space" as ifthis is plainly evident. What is the universe accelerating toward? The simple
  10. 10. xii | Introductionanswer is that, as if shot from Robin Hood, the arrow of time has turned on itsrocket boosters and is flying straight at the perfect zero center of the target. Wecan expect it to become increasingly commonplace for scientists to openly statethat time ends at a ground state of absolute zero or empty space. If we take asmall step backward and look at the big picture, a final end of time at the ulti-mate singularity of zero derives from accelerating expansion as equally obviousas the big bang past derives from expansion. And once the goal of our universeis seen and understood, the really big picture finally starts to make sense. The reason acknowledging the true location of zero is vitally important toscience is because the void of empty space in our future isnt really empty. Thezero of physics isnt a cancellation of everything. Absolute zero is the sum ofeverything, the sum of all universes, all possible states, and all life. Zero isEinstein’s timelessness. The big bang most certainly happened, and time doesbegin in a highly ordered state, but the tiny Alpha singularity in our past ismerely one of two special types of order in nature. Present in our future thereexists another type of order; the true state of highest order, i.e., perfect balance,neutrality, unity, perfect symmetry, the great infinite whole. As impossible assomething this profound seems, an ultimate state of oneness really does exist asa physically real stage in the life of our own expanding space-time, directly in thefuture. Our universe is literally in the process of merging together with all otheruniverses in the greater multiverse, and this book contains the map to prove it. In Terry Gilliam’s movie Time Bandits, a small band of God’s helpers steal amap of the Universe which allows them to travel through special portals thatbridge different periods of time. Seeking gold and jewels, the bandits invadeperiods of history which in the movie are portrayed as different regions of alarger timeless Universe displayed on the map. Turning that story line into non-fiction, in this book we are going to sneak a peak at God’s map. We are going tomap the timeless realm of all possibilities (sorry, portals not included). And oncewe cross into this timeless realm, the panoramic view of the big picture unlocksa real magical chest of gold and jewels, in the form of ultimate knowledge aboutwhy the universe is this way. In science today a completely new way of seeing the universe is emerging.Science tends to study the small, the constructing parts of a system, and so thedirection of learning is from the bottom-up. Scientists have managed genuinemiracles in discovering the tiny building blocks of the larger world. But rarely doscientists ever attempt to view the greater whole Universe from a top-downperspective. There has been one major exception to this rule in the recent past;the physicist David Bohm. In his younger years David Bohm was a student and close friend of AlbertEinstein. As a physicist Bohm made major contributions to the development ofnuclear physics and quantum theory, but in his later years Bohm encountered abook written by Jiddu Krishnamurti, an eastern philosopher, and Bohm was
  11. 11. Introduction | xiiisurprised to find there were many ideas about wholeness in this book thatrelated to his own ideas about quantum theory. Bohm later was led to writeWholeness and the Implicate Order, a book in which Bohm claims that there are twokinds of order in nature. Bohm laid a foundation but never realized the full extent of his own claim,but he was certainly correct. Still unbeknownst to the science of today, there arein fact two distinct and separate types of order in nature, rather than simplyorder and disorder. One order exists in extreme in our past, the other kind oforder exists in extreme in our future. And so the universe isn’t dying. Rather ouruniverse is evolving away from the powerful influences of one type of ordertoward a more powerful other type of order in the future. Having spent a lifetime exploring the idea of eternity and the infinite whole,and having mapped the timeless realm, I discovered profoundly that we existcaught in between two great powers. The emergence of orderliness and life, allthe intricate becoming of nature, the systemization we know as the forces ofnature, all result from the natural struggle between these two great powers. Thetheory of two orders is an entirely new science and of course anything newalways sounds incredibly complex, but in fact the fifth chapter which explainsthe two orders is extremely straightforward and simple, it can be explained to agrade school student. The two orders could instead have been discovered in theage of philosophers, by Plato or Aristotle. But somehow it was overlooked, andconsequently here we are today having trouble fitting all the pieces of the cosmicpuzzle together. It turns out that there is a very good reason the expansion of the universe isaccelerating. All time in every universe moves toward the balance of a universalzero. Although it is a bit startling to clearly recognize that time has both a begin-ning AND an end, in discovering timelessness we also find that our singlecosmos is like a story in a great book that tells an infinite number of stories. Allthe stories; my story, your story, exists forever. We are led finally to imagine adeeper level of reality, even from a purely scientific perspective, where all lifeacross infinite worlds exists eternally unified within an implicate ground state ofzero, forming an omniscience ever present in our own future. A bit too pro-found I know to be good hard science, but here comes a truly extraordinary wayof seeing the Universe.
  12. 12. xiv | Introduction
  13. 13. ix Contents Part l The Beginning of Timelessness 1 Ch1 Time is Imaginary 5 Ch2 Why the Universe Exists Timelessly 11 Ch3 The Great Cosmic Boundaries 19 Ch4 Describing the Realm of All Possibilities 29 Ch5 Caught Between Two Kinds of Order 47 Part II The Governing Dynamics 69 Ch6 Natural Order 73 Ch7 Enfolded Symmetry 85 Ch8 Beautiful Diversity 93 Ch9 Something from Nothing? 105 Part III The Comprehensibility Of All 112 Ch10 Infinity Means What? 115 10.1 A Branching Out of Many-Worlds 117 10.2 The Multiverse 126 10.3 Many Realms 129 10.4 Absolute Chaos 132 10.5 Perfection 135 Ch11 Time is a Direction in Space 139 Part IV The Great Cosmic Attractor 151 Ch12 The Shape of All Conceivables 155 Ch13 Everything Moves Towards Balance 169 Ch14 Equilibrium 175 Ch15 Convergence 187 Ch16 The Big Bloom 191 Part V The Second Law is Too Simple 199 Ch17 Away from Order toward Order 203 Ch18 Multiple Arrows of Time 217 Ch19 A Matter of Space 229 Ch20 Built in From the Beginning 239 Part VI Cosmic Psyche 247 Ch21 God’s Math 251 Ch22 Proto and Elea 259 Ch23 Our Basic Natures 267 Ch24 Cosmic Lovers 283 Part VII Spiritual Science 297 Ch25 Becoming Aware 301 Ch26 The White World 315 Ch27 God, Infinity, and Nature As One 319
  14. 14. x | EVERYTHING FOREVER Everything Forever Time is one enormous moment Where children play not knowing of a tomorrow where people walk along an ocean and gaze in wet air This sense of separation and loss is all illusion though old men tell of the past as if it is gone somewhere else to children who listen as if it used to be We all walk here in time not yet knowing as we ponder the mystery and animals listen that all in this same moment the world begins and the world ends while these waves crash upon the shore regardless And now as I touch your hand time will stand still and trap something there forever for us to view from some heaven as we are forever born into an endless moment © Gevin Giorbran Photo © Michel Meyns- brughen
  15. 15. 1It is unity that enchants me.Giordano Bruno Fractal Art: © Kerry MitchellPart OneThe Beginning of Timelessness I dream myself awake. I have come to accept the fact that I will wake upearly in the morning full of leftover thoughts after lucidly dreaming of themysteries remaining in my mind. Awake I think of the patterns which are be-coming ever more evident, patterns I now recognize in nature and in us, ineverything from art to politics. After about an hour I ease back into quiet sleep.The writer Gerhard Staguhn once wrote, "Whenever man tries to probe into theuniverses dimension of time, he will finally be confronted with eternity. Wherehe tries to understand the dimension of space, he will be finally confronted withinfinity." Such exposures have become true for my own journey, and are steadilybecoming true for science, but no one, myself included, ever believed the time-less infinite could be so fathomable. Most people comfortably assume that the past no longer exists and the fu-ture only becomes real as time evolves to it. When someone refers to the begin-ning of time we assume they are referring to the beginning of the existence ofthe universe. Usually we imagine the whole of physical reality moves along withus through time. Yet that assumption might be like someone reading a book andbelieving that once a page is turned it no longer exists, or someone believing thepages that haven’t been read yet do not exist until one turns the page. It mightbe the same as believing that nothing existed until the book was suddenlyopened to the first page. There is actually no valid reason to assume the past andfuture do not exist, just because we can’t turn the pages forward or backward atwill, or we can’t yet read all the pages at once, to verify all of them are alwaysthere. Having long ago learned to escape time in various ways, it’s easy to forgethow convinced most people are that the past and future don’t exist. Many stopat the question of whether the past still exists, but are quite convinced there isn’tanything out there yet in the future. What is it that makes us believe being herein this moment has any influence on the reality of other times we’ve known or
  16. 16. 2 | EVERYTHING FOREVERmight experience? Why does the here and now make the past seem as if itdoesn’t exist any longer? And why does the present make the future seemnonexistent? We know how real this moment is, and we know the other mo-ments we’ve experienced were just as real. Why can’t they all be real at the sametime? That strong sense that we possess of experiencing any given moment as if itis all of reality is only naturally true of all the moments that we experience. Itcouldn’t be any different. Our experience is always of moments which if theywere any different then we would just experience that different place. We wouldbe someplace else in time. There is nothing about our existence in this momentthat suggests that we can’t be in both places, thinking we only exist in eachplace. What we define as our self can be here and there simultaneously withoutcreating any existential crisis. It is only the definition of each moment that makeseach moment seem exclusively real. And if we think about it, that principlealone, the reality of each moment, actually indicates that all the moments arereal, far more than it indicates only one moment can be real. Imagine that you could somehow experience two places simultaneously. Youwould still sense change and time taking place, just in two places at once. Yourexistence in time wouldn’t be upset, just your sense of place would be unusual.Your sense of position in one single place would feel disturbed. At first youwould surely assume both versions of you existed at the same time, as if one wasacross town from the other. “Why is there two of me in the same time?” youwould wonder. But if you looked at a calendar or a clock and realized that oneof your experiences was in the future, then your ordinary sense of time wouldsuddenly shatter. Your time advanced future self would sense a ‘now’ in the past.Your time retarded past self would sense a ‘now’ in the future. You wouldbecome time dizzy at not being able to tell which of the two is the true andactual present? One experience seems to be in the past of the other, while theother experience seems to be in the future of the other. Your sense of a com-mon now for both would conflict with the whole notion of a past and future.Facing such a dilemma would actually leave you with an improved sense of time,because to resolve the paradox you would have to realize that only your experi-ence of one place makes it seem as if other places and times don’t exist. If all the moments we have ever experienced in our life simultaneously existwe wouldn’t experience the world any differently. We are limited to experiencingeach moment as if it is the only one that is real and furthermore, the only waythat we can sense that we exist at all is if we experience a series of individualmoments. The dynamic relationships within time make us conscious. So wearen’t just experiencing one moment. Our conscious experience overlaps manymoments. Of course most everyone is unfamiliar with these kinds of ideas, and freshlyencountering the rationality of such ideas rarely convinces anyone outright that
  17. 17. LEARNING TO SEE TIMELESSNESS | 3the existence of the universe doesn’t evolve. Timelessness is an interestingconcept, but what proof is there? Our ordinary notion of time is simple,straightforward, and practical. It is the least of what we know for certain. It isn’tas profound as the idea of timelessness. But what is truly real? Do we each existsomewhere else? Are we each being born at this same time? Do the dinosaursstill exist, just somewhere else in another place we can’t readily visit? Could welook through a window at the past or the future and see it existing as real as weexist? Could we walk through a door and visit other times? Is there any way toknow for certain?
  18. 18. 4 | EVERYTHING FOREVERThe objective world simply is; it does not happen.Herman Weyl ~~~If we accept multiple universes then we no longer need worry about what reallyhappened in the past, because every possible past is equally real. Therefore, toavoid... insanity, we can, with clear consciences, arbitrarily define reality as thatbranch of the past that agrees with our memories.Joseph Gerver ~~~What has been will be again, what has been done will be done again; there isnothing new under the sun. Is there anything of which one can say, "Look! Thisis something new?" It was here already, long ago; it was here before our time.King Solomon ~~~But according to conventional physics, we inhabit a universe where time andspace are frozen into a single unchanging space-time. All the events that havehappened or will ever happen are marked by points in this "block" of space-time,like bubbles suspended in ice. Past and future have the same footing, and theresno flow.Stephen Battersby ~~~I have realized that the past and future are real illusions, that they exist in thepresent, which is what there is and all there is.Alan Watts ~~~Why is [the now] the most precious thing? Firstly, because it is the only thing.It’s all there is. The eternal present is the space within which your whole lifeunfolds, the factor that remains constant. Life is now. There was never a timewhen your life was not now, nor will there ever be. Secondly, the Now is the onlypoint that can take you beyond the limited confines of your mind. It is your onlypoint of access to the timeless and formless realm of Being.Eckhart Tolle ~~~“You have the sight now Neo, you are looking at the world without time.”The Oracle in The Matrix ~~~The ultimate stuff of the universe is mind stuff.Sir Arthur Eddington
  19. 19. LEARNING TO SEE TIMELESSNESS | 5Time has no independent existence apart from theorder of events by which we measure it.Albert EinsteinChapter OneTime is ImaginaryThe People of Timelessness Surprising as it may be to most non-scientists and even to some scientists,Albert Einstein concluded in his later years that the past, present, and future allexist simultaneously. In 1952, in his book Relativity, in discussing MinkowskisSpace World interpretation of his theory of relativity, Einstein writes: Since there exists in this four dimensional structure [space-time] no longer any sections which represent "now" objectively, the concepts of happening and be- coming are indeed not completely suspended, but yet complicated. It appears therefore more natural to think of physical reality as a four dimensional existence, instead of, as hitherto, the evolution of a three dimensional existence. Einsteins belief in an undivided solid reality was clear to him, so much sothat he completely rejected the separation we experience as the moment of now.He believed there is no true division between past and future. His most descrip-tive testimony to this faith came when his lifelong friend Besso died. Einsteinwrote a letter to Bessos family, saying that although Besso had preceded him indeath it was of no consequence, "...for us physicists believe the separationbetween past, present, and future is only an illusion, although a convincingone." Most everyone knows that Einstein proved that time is relative, not absoluteas Newton claimed. With the proper technology, such as a very fast spaceship,one person is able to experience several days while another person simultane-ously experiences only a few hours or minutes. The same two people can meetup again, one having experienced days or even years while the other has onlyexperienced minutes. The person in the spaceship only needs to travel near tothe speed of light. The faster they travel, the slower their time will pass relativeto someone planted firmly on the Earth. If they were able to travel at the speedof light, their time would cease completely and they would only exist trapped intimelessness. Einstein could hardly believe there were physicists who didn’tbelieve in timelessness, and yet the wisdom of Einsteins convictions had verylittle impact on cosmology or science in general. The majority of physicists havebeen slow to give up the ordinary assumptions we make about time. The two most highly recognized physicists since Einstein made similar con-clusions and even made dramatic advances toward a timeless perspective of the
  20. 20. 6 | EVERYTHING FOREVERuniverse, yet they also were unable to change the temporal mentality ingrained inthe mainstream of physics and society. Einstein was followed in history by thecolorful and brilliant Richard Feynman. Feynman developed the most effectiveand explanatory interpretation of quantum mechanics that had yet been devel-oped, known today as Sum over Histories. Just as Einsteins own Relativity Theory led Einstein to reject time, Feyn-man’s Sum over Histories theory led him to describe time simply as a direction inspace. Feynman’s theory states that the probability of an event is determined bysumming together all the possible histories of that event. For example, for aparticle moving from point A to B we imagine the particle traveling every possi-ble path, curved paths, oscillating paths, squiggly paths, even backward in timeand forward in time paths. When summed the vast majority of all these direc-tions add up to zero, and all that remains is the comparably few paths that abideby the laws and forces of nature. Sum over histories indicates the direction ofour ordinary clock time is simply a path in space which is more probable thanthe more exotic directions time might have taken otherwise. Other worlds are just other directions in space, some less probable, someequally as probable as the one direction we experience. Feynmans summing ofall possible histories could be described as the first timeless description of amultitude of space-time worlds all existing simultaneously. In a recent paperentitled Cosmology From the Top Down, Professor Stephen Hawking of Cambridgewrites; “Some people make a great mystery of the multi universe, or the Many-Worlds interpretation of quantum theory, but to me, these are just differentexpressions of the Feynman path integral.” Hawking, the most popular physicist since Einstein, who has battled againstwhat is known as Lou Gehrigs disease for some thirty years, has expanded uponboth Einstein’s and Feynmans theories supporting timelessness. Hawking de-mystified the black hole, and wrote books so enjoyable that he has managed toeducate billions of people about modern physics and cosmology. From hiswheelchair, presently unable to communicate without his computer, Hawkingstill actively lectures while he professionally holds Newtons chair as Lucasianprofessor of mathematics at Cambridge University in England. As if such mira-cles were commonplace, Hawking has introduced what could be said to be thescientific theory of forever. Hawking and James Hartle developed the No Boundary Proposal, a theorywhich extends other theories such as Sum Over Histories. The no boundary pro-posal is a model of the early universe during the big bang which includes asecond reference of time, called Imaginary Time which has no beginning or end.In this mode of time we could in fact reach back and touch the original condi-tions of the early universe, because they still exist in a common time to allmoments. Hawking explains that what we think of as real time has a beginning
  21. 21. LEARNING TO SEE TIMELESSNESS | 7at the Big Bang, some ten to twenty billion years ago, but in imaginary time theuniverse simply exists. People often think from the tag imaginary that this other mode of time isn’treal. Quite the contrary, clock time could be said to be imaginary compared tothis ultimate mode of time, since in imaginary time our clock time is totallyindistinguishable from directions in space. In his most popular book A BriefHistory of Time Hawking writes: Quantum theory introduces a new idea, that of imaginary time. Imaginary time may sound like science fiction, and it has been brought into Doctor Who [an Eng- lish Star Trek]. But never the less, it is a genuine scientific concept. One can pic- ture it in the following way. One can think of ordinary, real, time as a horizontal line. On the left, one has the past, and on the right, the future. But theres another kind of time in the vertical direction. This is called imaginary time, because it is not the kind of time we normally experience. But in a sense, it is just as real, as what we call real time. Figure 1.1: All moments share an Imaginary Time reference which has no begin- ning or end. The simple lines in this image above effectively portray imaginary time oc-curring at right angles to our ordinary sense of time. Of course since the mo-ments of past, present, and future all exist simultaneously in this other mode oftime, the duration of each moment of time would seem to be ceaseless andeternal. The existence of the universe in imaginary time doesn’t have a past or afuture, instead all times exist in one enormous moment of now. Hawking writes: One could say: "The boundary condition of the universe is that it has no bound- ary." The universe would be completely self-contained and not affected by any- thing outside itself. It would neither be created nor destroyed. It would just BE. According to Hawking the universe doesn’t have a boundary point where itsuddenly begins existing. The first moment isn’t any different than the second inrespect to existence. Both moments exist forever in imaginary time. It takes verylittle reasoning to figure out that if the universe exists in an unseen way withoutbeginning or end, at right angles to regular time, then that reference to time issimply more elementary and even more real than ordinary clock time. The termimaginary applies more accurately to our time.
  22. 22. 8 | EVERYTHING FOREVER Hawking himself writes: This might suggest that the so-called imaginary time is really the real time, and that what we call real time is just a figment of our imaginations. In real time, the uni- verse has a beginning and an end at singularities that form a boundary to space- time and at which the laws of science break down. But in imaginary time, there are no singularities or boundaries. So maybe what we call imaginary time is really more basic, and what we call real is just an idea that we invent to help us describe what we think the universe is like. Using the no boundary proposal, we can imaginethe whole of time by imaginatively placing oneselfinside a giant hollow globe. If we look up we see theNorth Pole from the inside. Within this globe of time,looking up is looking into the past, but not as if it nolonger exists, instead one can actually touch the pastsince it is a place existing permanently. The NorthPole, the beginning of time, is just a single positionupon the rounded surface like the first page of abook. Looking down one even sees the future. And inthis globe, looking down we see the South Pole, theend of what we call time. If the universe exists in another time reference where conditions are perma-nent or static, suddenly it doesnt matter that we humans so convincingly ob-serve a beginning to time, since the imaginary time reference applies regardlessof our sense of where we are in time. The universe could be said to exist beforeour clock time began, and after our clock time ends. The past and future existnow. Obviously, imaginary time relates directly to existence. Imaginary timerelates to the whole, to all that can be imagined. It also easily relates to numbersand ideas and the concepts we think with, which we already sense exist forever. The only reason this can be so disorienting at first is because we are splittingtime into two separate dimensions. We are splitting in two the more commonmeaning of the word time. Here one time dimension is related purely to theexistence of each moment, so it is the omni-directional time we exist within. Theother time dimension, the time we measure with clocks, is here limited to beingchange which is necessarily a construction of many moments in the first dimen-sion bound together in some way that creates a second time dimension. Eachmoment is necessarily a time frame, which is a sort of fixed pattern of matterand space. Somehow those frames or spaces are fused together, creating a falsesense that existence is changing and transforming, when change is actuallyobserved only by whatever moves from one time frame to another. Another English theoretical physicist, Julian Barbour, believes that time sim-ply doesn’t exist. Barbour, an independent theoretician not affiliated with anyUniversity, is never the less highly respected in the upper physics community.
  23. 23. LEARNING TO SEE TIMELESSNESS | 9And Barbour has extensively explored the concept of timelessness and theillusion of motion, and is perhaps the first person since Ludwig Boltzmann toset his focus directly on modeling the timeless world of all possible states.Barbour’s version of timelessness, Platonia, named in respect of Plato’s allegoryof the cave which describes a world of illusion, theorizes that the set of allpossible nows can be reduced to the patterns created by all the possible triangu-lar positions of only three particles. In an interview with John Brockman, Bar-bour describes his version of the wedge model and shows his passion fordescribing timelessness: What really intrigues me is that the totality of all possible Nows of any definite kind has a very special structure. You can think of it as a landscape, or country. Each point in the country is a Now. I call it Platonia, because it is timeless and created by perfect mathematical rules. I so strongly agree with and respect how Barbour has introduced to sciencethe base assumption that what exists in timelessness is describable and it isshaping the world we experience. Barbour is convinced that there is a distinctshape to a timeless realm of all possibilities which is exclusively responsible forguiding the path of time and fashioning the physical universe we experience.Such a view is presently uncommon but it can be appreciated as the only possi-ble explanation. When a respected scientist clearly emphasizes a perspective asBarbour has done it opens the doors for others. Another popular physicist, the string theorist Brian Greene, author of thebook and PBS television series The Elegant Universe, has stated the following inhis most recent book The Fabric of the Cosmos. “Just as we envision all of space asreally being out there, as really existing, we should also envision all of time asreally being out there, as really existing too." It appears we have finally reached anew era of taking the idea of timelessness seriously. This means however that wehave to begin to look at the universe differently. We have to learn to thinkdifferently and ask different questions. The most important question is a bigone. How can a universe simply exist?
  24. 24. 10 | EVERYTHING FOREVERBecause imaginary time behaves like another direction in space, histories inimaginary time can be closed surfaces, like the surface of the Earth, with no[existential] beginning or end.Stephen Hawking ~~~When I consider the small span of my life absorbed in the eternity of all time, orthe small part of space which I can touch or see engulfed by the infinite immensityof spaces that I know not and that know me not, I am frightened and astonished tosee myself here instead of there...now instead of then.Blaise Pascal ~~~We all operate within a framework of concepts that make sense of the world to us,which we use to formulate our goals, hopes, and dreams, and to seek ways toovercome problems and obstacles as we build our lives. Certainly the universe outthere has much to say about all this, but it’s hard to figure out what it says whenour scientific description exists for us as a remote framework without clearlyarticulated connections to the concepts which we operate in daily life. So we livein a disconnected state: abstract and evolving knowledge of the grand universe onone hand, and the immediate need for a guide to our individual choices on theother hand. How do we bring these together, so that we can guide our immediatechoices from a perspective that is informed by and connected to the big picture?Todd Duncan ~~~Time past and time future,what might have been and what has been,point to one end, which is always present.T.S. Eliot ~~~Part of metaphysics moves, consciously or not, around the question of knowingwhy anything exists - why matter, or spirit, or God, rather than nothing at all?But the question presupposes that reality fills a void, that underneath Being liesnothingness, that de jure there should be nothing, that we must therefore explainwhy there is de facto something.Henry Bergson
  25. 25. LEARNING TO SEE TIMELESSNESS | 11Thou canst not recognize not-being (for thisis impossible), nor couldst thou speak of it,for thought and being are the same thing.Parmenides Fractal Art: © Kerry MitchellChapter TwoWhy the Universe Exists TimelesslyA Journey Beyond Nothing As we move backward through the semi-illusion of time we watch the uni-verse de-evolve, we pass the dinosaurs and the emergence of life on this planet,then view the Earth de-form into clouds of stellar materials produced fromexploded stars which themselves de-explode and then de-coalesce toward be-coming a dense uniform opaque plasma. As time accelerates backwards spaceitself collapses inward, as if it is being vacuumed away, moving all the material inthe universe ever nearer, with all finally crashing into a beginning point. As theuniverse crashes inward it seems obvious that we must be closing in on somesort of birth. We seem to be moving backward toward what must inevitably be adistinct creation event, where the somethingness of matter arises from a primor-dial nothing. Be this moment an act of omnificent magic, a fortunate accident, or some-thing completely inexplicable, considering the universe is expanding it appearsevident that somehow all that we know, has been, and everything that shallfollow in the wake of the present, came to be all at once at one moment of timein our past. It seems evident that somehow something impossibly erupted tocreate a beginning, even if all the laws of nature as they are known today inscience forbid such an event. The first law states that energy is neither creatednor destroyed. Furthermore, every ounce of logic, be it intuitive or mathemati-cal, demands that something cannot be created out of absolutely nothing. Azillion zeros still add up to zero. And logically, if something comes from noth-ing, then it wasn’t really nothing to begin with then was it. And yet the universeis here, and all is expanding away from one single place and one single time,before which there is no possibility of time as we perceive time. Every bone in a reasonable person’s body screams that this sudden creationevent could not have happened by itself. A universe cannot just pop into exis-
  26. 26. 12 | EVERYTHING FOREVERtence. The existence of a universe and our own existence requires a cause. Andso we ask, does this impossibility of ‘something coming from nothing’ mean thatthe universe absolutely had to have been created? Did a powerful being of somekind (usually assumed to be named God) create the first moment of our uni-verse? It is almost a relief to consider this possibility in the face of such a para-doxical dilemma, except we actually know that this solution only suspends andrelocates the mystery. All the same questions we ask about how the universecame to be, must then be diverted to this being called God. The inference ofsome seems to be that God is so powerful that God is beyond needing anexplanation, yet realistically the same old questions apply. How long has thisbeing existed? How did God begin from nothing? If it has existed forever, thenhow can it just exist? Why does God exist rather than nothing at all? We usually know better than to try to explain the existence of the humanworld as a product of a human act, at least not logically. We don’t imagine theUniverse created the Universe. We don’t even pretend that God created God.By definition the first thing cannot come from itself or anything else. So howthen did the very first thing begin if it really didn’t exist before it suddenlyexisted? In truth there isn’t a proper answer to these questions. The answer towhy we exist isn’t answered by explaining the impossible. Rather the greatmystery of why we are here is answered by recognizing our own inevitability. A lot of people who believe in God believe God has existed forever, whichleads to the question, could something just exist eternally, without beginning orend? But then if so, if that door is actually open, if it is possible for somethingcomplex and powerful like a god to have existed forever, could such reasons forbeing able to innately exist forever also apply to a seemingly more simple uni-verse? Is it possible that the seed of the big bang existed forever before undergo-ing the transformation we know as the big bang? Is it possible that everything,even we ourselves, exist forever in each moment apart from our sense of time,making time ultimately an illusion. This would mean that the past, present andeven the future, all exist simultaneously. Presently it doesn’t seem possible to us that things might simply exist. Why?Because a universe is complicated, God is complicated, while nothingness incomparison is simple. Nothingness wouldn’t need an explanation. Complicationrequires a reason for being so. In fact there is only one principle idea that holdsus back from believing that there are things, or beings, or realms of time andplace, which exist forever without cause, without beginning or end. That reasonis our expectation that a pure and total nothingness is more primary, more basic,and simpler, than every other possibility. The true root question, the one thatapplies to everything equally, both God and the universe, is why does anythingexist rather than nothing at all? Yet that question assumes that nothing is basicand primary.
  27. 27. LEARNING TO SEE TIMELESSNESS | 13 And so, if we could somehow make that question go away, if we could real-ize we are making some type of mistake, and realize that ‘nothing’ isn’t reallysimpler or more primordial to everything else, then we might actually be able to,in the same realization, understand clearly why something like a God or a cos-mos should exist timelessly. Then we would no longer need to battle the para-dox of how something came from nothing, because then we would know whythere was never an absolute nothingness to begin with.What Nothing Really is Why is there this existence we are taking part in instead of nothing at all? Solet’s focus now on that question. We should not merely ask the question, butstudy the question. How did something come from nothing? What are we askingwith that question? Most of us think we know what somethingness is, but whatexactly is nothing? Let’s walk right up to it and find out. Imagine we are transported all the way back to the beginning of time. We arestanding at the very precipice of the birth of the world, the birth of being itself.It would be a bit like kneeling down and crawling out to the tip of a cliff. Outbeyond the edge of the cliff there is nothing at all. So now you crawl out, andyou put your hand out to the surface of the beginning, to the origin of every-thing that will ever think or be. Imagine you can touch the very beginning, theoriginating moment. Now push through it. Reach beyond that outermost edge.Reach into the blankness beyond and touch the original void. Touch the simplic-ity. Imagine it, imagine the nothingness, the abyss that would have been prior toexistence, and try even to understand it. Understand its nature. What words bestdescribe it? Is it frightening or menacing, or is it vibrant with all the potential ofbeing? Is it thick or dark, warm or cold? It surely must at least be simple, assimple as simple can be. Can you bring words to what you sensed? What words describe the completeblankness? Actually if you are able to imagine something, or describe something,or feel anything, you need to realize that you haven’t yet gone far enough be-yond the edge of real existing things. Actually if we are able to imagine or de-scribe anything at all, or feel anything, we cannot be all the way beyond the edgeof somethingness. Nothing is nothing at all. We must move beyond what ordi-nary words can describe. So try one more time. Let your mind drift beyond theedge of time, beyond all descriptions, beyond all senses. And yes now we can’tsee it, there it isn’t, just beyond the edge of rational thought itself, hidden therein a blackness darker than black, a quiet beyond silence, a stillness beyond rest.Oh my, there “isn’t” the absolute void. Are you still here! You didnt disappear? And you didnt get sucked in? Butdid you feel it? Did you at least sense it? “NO!” What do you mean “NO”! Wewere right there! How could that be? I wonder what went wrong. You must not
  28. 28. 14 | EVERYTHING FOREVERhave a very good imagination! No wait, maybe you do, maybe that is the prob-lem. Maybe your imagination is getting in the way because what we are trying toimagine isnt cold or dark, or a void or an abyss, it isn’t quiet or simple, and it’shardly anything to be afraid of, because it doesnt exist. Maybe this nothing isunimaginable because there is nothing to imagine. Indeed if you came up withany sense of what is beyond the cliff, then you sort of missed the point. The thought exercise above reveals a sort of anomaly in how we see theworld, and it reveals something about the world that anyone can appreciateregardless of education or religious beliefs. We cannot actually imagine or de-scribe nothingness, that is, if we are referring to a nothing prior to existence. Wecan describe the type of nothing that is common in our lives, the nothing thatwe encounter everyday. There is nothing here or there. There is nothing to talkabout. There is nothing in the refrigerator. That type of nothing is somethingempty, something lacking substance, something uniform or plain or simple. Butthe other nothing that is prior to existence is a special case in terms of semanticsand meaning. By definition, words simply can’t describe it, so it is different thaneverything else that we define with words and everything else imaginable. A fact about reality we are discovering here is that there are two very differ-ent nothings, and presently the two are entangled together when they don’tbelong together. In other words, there is actually something wrong with theword nothing as we use it today. If we carefully study the definition of the wordnothing we can discover two very different definitions of nothing. One defini-tion of nothing is a physically real condition that has no discernable form orsubstance, such as a white canvas, or a uniform void in empty space. This typeof nothing is real and exists, and is actually quite ordinary. An empty refrigeratorhas nothing in it. A white artist canvas has nothing painted on it. The real noth-ing is always a place or a space that is uniformly undefined, where there are nodistinct things. There is just one thing, like one color, or just space alone, so wecall it nothing. But the other definition of ‘nothing’, the one we were just amoment ago trying to touch and describe is nonexistence, which is a very diffi-cult concept to understand when defined separately from the real nothing, whichis the very reason we confuse the two. We confuse the two out of need, becauseone we can describe, the other we cannot. When the dictionary defines nothing as ‘something that does not exist’, it isreasonably obvious that the syntax of the phrase makes no real sense. How can‘nothing’ be a something which does not exist? In fact simply using any word in anattempt to mean non-existence creates a sort of riddle. How do we make a wordrefer to something that doesn’t exist? What word can represent a form that isnta form; a thing that isnt a thing? What language can define a concept that has noreality or meaning? Of course we cannot solve the great old riddle of how something came fromnonexistence. It’s the ultimate oxymoron, and the ultimate contradiction in
  29. 29. LEARNING TO SEE TIMELESSNESS | 15terms. We cannot even refer to a state of nonexistence when there is no suchstate, and no such form, to refer to. Any attempt to describe it isn’t describing it.Any word representing it, isn’t representing it. Non-existence can only really bedefined as something that cannot be defined with a word. It can only refer tosomething that cannot be referred to. Obviously there is a vexing fundamentalproblem here. Any attempt to define a nonexistence using any meaningful ideaor thought, by using the meaning that otherwise defines all language, that definesour reality, is predestined to fail. Nonexistence cannot be. It cannot exist. It cannot even be meant. And thatpredicament, that total paradox, is very different from the real nothing thatexists and can be talked about. And the fact that we confuse these two conceptsis the very reason we dont yet clearly understand why we exist. We exist becausethere is no alternative. There never was a non-existence in the past and therenever will be a non-existence. Existence is the default setting of reality. Exis-tence belongs here. It has always been.The Real Nothing Imagine you are standing in a white world, like the commercials or moviesportraying heaven. In this world there is nothing but white everywhere. Theoneness of white extends away from you in every direction. You try to look outinto the distance, but because there is just the one color you can’t tell if thespace of this world extends out forever or if its edge remains just out of reach.As you reach out your hand, you realize that your physical body provides theonly sense of distance here. Your body is all that exists in a giant field of noth-ingness. There is no length or width beyond your body. There is no distance toanywhere else, because there isn’t anything else to measure a distance to. So ifyour body happens also to turn white, then suddenly all sense of dimension iserased. The very meaning of place and distance is lost. Soon even the one colorof white will disappear from your experience. You will soon become blind towhite, because you don’t have any other color to judge the meaning of this onecolor against. Soon, for you, this endless white world becomes nothing at all. If you were born into this one color dimension you wouldn’t ever be able tosee it, you would not even know it was right there in front of you, since youwould not have any other color or shade of gray to reference it by. Someonewho is blind, for example, doesn’t see black or darkness, because even if theydid temporarily upon initially going blind, the black quickly loses meaning forthem because it is just one color, and without differentiation the mind interpretssuch a world as a perceptual nothing. And in fact the mind is correct, becausethis is the real nothing that exists in physical reality. The real nothing is justsingular form. A real nothing is a singularity, and a singularity is all a real nothingcan ever be.
  30. 30. 16 | EVERYTHING FOREVER Within a singularity, all distances and locations lose meaning because oncethere is a perfect unity, a oneness, then every object, every distance, every place,is the same as any other. Singularities are commonplace. Any single color is asingularity. A perfect blue sky is a singularity. The most common everydayexample of a singularity is the ordinary empty space we travel through, which iswhy we typically refer to it as nothing. Never the less, singularities can havecontent. Most everyone has heard the idea of a polar bear in a snow storm.Singularities can even be full instead of empty. Suppose we take everything froma household refrigerator, put it all in a big stove pot, add some water, and beginstirring. After we cook all this awhile all the distinct parts begin to break downand blend together evenly into a soup. If we keep heating and stirring this stewfor five or six hours, or two or three days, eventually all the many ingredientswill unify into a single paste-like substance. Many have become one. All theingredients of the refrigerator are still in there, within the one, they have justtransformed into a singularity. As we shall see, there are extreme cosmological singularities in our distantpast and our distant future. Singularities are an interesting novelty of realitybecause, in the same way all the fruits and vegetables, the condiments, the juicesand milk in the refrigerator all vanish in creating the paste, all the physicalproperties of our universe suddenly vanish into thin air at the stage of becominga singularity. If we imagine the infinity of all possible universes unified into anultimate singularity, it would still have no size or properties. In fact, if all possi-ble universes in the entire multiverse of worlds are at some ultimate level unifiedinto a whole, the totality becomes something we perceive as nothing at all. Thegreat unified whole is the white world. It can be imagined the size of a pin headsmall enough to fit in the palm of your hand, or an endless space stretching outforever. It can be said to exist in any point of space, as well as every place inspace, here, there, and everywhere.
  32. 32. 18 | EVERYTHING FOREVER Photo: Point Reyes Beach © Mike LevinThe paradox of limits lies in the fact that limits combine two opposite functions:setting apart and joining.Piet Hut ~~~In the theory of relativity, the concept of time begins with the Big Bang the sameway as parallels of latitude begin at the North Pole. You cannot go further norththan the North Pole.Kari Enqvist ~~~If your position is everywhere, your momentum is zero.William Lipscomb ~~~A region of space might be expanding or contracting. If it is expanding stuffdilutes away until we get empty space. If it’s contracting it will ultimatelycollapse to a black hole. But that black hole will eventually evaporate, leavingempty space.Sean Carroll ~~~Consider the most obvious question of all about the initial state of the universe:Why is there an initial state at all?Lawrence Sklar ~~~When you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improb-able, must be the truth.Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
  33. 33. LEARNING TO SEE TIMELESSNESS | 19If we extrapolate this prediction [of contraction] to its extreme, we reach a pointwhen all distances in the universe have shrunk to zero. An initial cosmologicalsingularity therefore forms a past temporal extremity to the universe. We cannotcontinue physical reasoning, or even the concept of spacetime, through such anextremity. For this reason most cosmologists think of the initial singularity as thebeginning of the universe.Paul DaviesPhysicist and AuthorChapter ThreeCosmic BoundariesThe Timeless Extremes that Shape Reality An idea can stretch the minds awareness beyond dreams and yet the sameidea can limit the imagination of every genius who has ever lived. Why? Becausethere are distinct boundaries to what is ultimately possible, and those sameboundaries work to limit our imaginations. Even living here inside an infiniteUniverse there are still ideas which we simply cannot think beyond. Such placesare found in our very own time and space. In fact ultimate boundaries shape theflow of time and virtually all that we observe. They literally shape reality, andmake the universe a sensible place. One of these boundaries is already fullyrecognized by science. The other as yet is hardly noticed and remains completelyunappreciated. We all are at least slightly aware of the first cosmic boundary. Scientists have long known that the space of our cosmos is stretching out-ward like the outer surface of a balloon being filled with air. The visible cosmosis expanding as if it is being inflated, and this sends all the distant galaxies whirl-ing away from us. The large-scale bodies of stars known as galaxies are movingaway from one another, but they are not moving away from a center. Rather allthe space between the galaxies is expanding everywhere in the cosmos equally.Consequently, galaxies twice as far away are speeding away twice as fast. It is a really simple conclusion scientists are forced to make. If we turn timebackward the inevitable result of letting all the air out of the balloon is that allthe matter in the universe collapses back into the same space. If time werereversed all the stars and galaxies, rather than expand outward, would collapseinward on themselves. In our past the whole cosmos becomes ever more denseand hot, as every star and galaxy in the heavens is drawn nearer together. Whatthis invariably means is that time only turns back so far. After thirteen pointseven billion years of tracing time backwards the collapse is complete, thevolume of the cosmos disappears and all material objects are collapsed andcondensed into a single solitary place, an extreme called the Alpha State.
  34. 34. 20 | EVERYTHING FOREVER Figure 3.1: Arrows represent space expanding between the galaxies. Expan- sion in reverse becomes contraction and the collapsing of space can be fol- lowed back to the beginning of time at the Alpha extreme. It matters not if time originated precisely from the Alpha extreme. Scientiststoday continue to debate over whether time traces backward all the way toAlpha. What is far more important is the role Alpha plays in our thinking andour ability to imagine. Alpha is not just a place where time may have begun.That issue is secondary to the significance of there being an extreme possibilitysuch as Alpha. Alpha is a limit to what is ultimately possible. Alpha even repre-sents an ultimate boundary to what is possible in the realm of all conceivableuniverses. Alpha is a limit even to what can be imagined. Collapsing inward, the physical cosmos can shrink to a point, but once thevolume of space reaches zero, once all space is vacuumed away, the collapse iscomplete, and physics finds itself at the outer edge of what is possible to beexistent. Time may or may not have begun precisely from the absolute extremityof Alpha. But the marker of Alpha as a boundary defines a physical limitation towhat is possible and in doing so Alpha plays a key role in envisioning timeless-ness. We are actually very fortunate the cosmos is expanding as it highlights thefact that the extremity of the Alpha state is there. Seeing Alpha as an extreme isespecially key in understanding the shape of the big picture. Even if the numberof other worlds is infinite, Alpha creates a boundary within the infinite. Weoften hear the claim that “possibilities are endless”, or “anything is possible”,but the Alpha state exposes the fact that there is at least one ultimate limitationout there. There is a boundary in the world of all possibilities. We can even thinkof Alpha as a cornerstone in the foundation of reality itself, a footing that shapeswhat is imaginatively and physically possible. This is why Alpha deserves the titleof Cosmic Absolute, a possibility beyond which no other possibilities exist.
  35. 35. LEARNING TO SEE TIMELESSNESS | 21Don’t forget Omega Once recognized as an edge to what is possible, Alpha can help to exposeanother equally important boundary, because Alpha is not alone. In fact, we willeventually discover boundaries in every direction of possibility. If we now lookin the opposite direction, toward the future, the cosmos is ballooning outwarddue to cosmological expansion, so the volume of the known cosmos is becom-ing ever larger. Which means the density of the visible cosmos is steadily de-creasing and the temperature of the cosmos is steadily dropping as light and heatwaves are stretched and elongated by the ballooning of space. Such processesare very gradual and have considerable impact only after many billions of years,but if we run the clock forward in the same way that we turn the clock backwardto find Alpha, the expanding cosmos eventually creates the opposite extreme ofabsolute zero. What is absolute zero? Absolute zero is commonly known as the hypotheti-cal temperature at which all motion ceases, a temperature equal to -459.67°degrees on the Fahrenheit scale, or -273.15° degrees on the Celsius scale. Thereis no temperature colder than a zero absolute temperature (sometimes calledZAT). If you are wondering why there can’t be a continually colder temperature,the issue of motion is the easiest to understand. Temperature or heat is deter-mined by the motions of atoms. If we could freeze matter to zero, all molecularmotion would stop and be frozen in place, so the passage of time as measuredby clocks would stand still. However, absolute zero is commonly misunder-stood. Absolute zero is not merely a temperature. What very few people realize even in science is that there is a single commonzero for all measures in physics. The real absolute zero is far more extreme thanjust a coldest temperature. Absolute zero is a condition of the cosmos in ourfuture, where mass, energy, density, gravity, and temperature all reach zerosimultaneously. We sometimes casually refer to the extremities of absolute zero’sproperties, using words such as nothing, empty,cold, straight, or frozen. How can there be lessthan nothing? How can space be emptier of thingsthan perfectly empty? How can anything be moreflat than perfectly flat? How can a direction inspace be more straight than perfectly straight?How can anything be colder than frozen still?These extremities of absolute zero are literally anextreme edge to reality, which is why absolute zero,like the Alpha state, is also a great cosmic absolutebeyond which no other possibilities exist. Initially, we can envision zero as we would imagine an empty space stretchingout in all directions. The image of an invisible square, as shown here exemplifiesa perfectly flat space, a space in which no objects exist. Any two parallel lines of
  36. 36. 22 | EVERYTHING FOREVERthe square shown would extend infinitely without ever converging together ordiverging away from one another. In a perfectly flat space any two parallel linesremain parallel forever. Figure 3.3: Mass, Energy, Temperature, and Density are all infinite at Alpha and are zero at Omega. The volume of space-time collapses at both ends, at Alpha and zero, while time is stopped at both ends. Gravity is turned around, considered a repulsive force during the big bang, so it is also zero on both ends of time. The claim that ZAT is the point at which all molecular motion stops is help-ful in one respect, as it highlights the fact that there is no passage of time atzero, but it also contributes to a thorough misunderstanding of absolute zero, aconfusion that has made zero in the past seem to be physically impossible.Strictly speaking, matter should not be described as possibly being frozen at zerosimply because it is impossible to make matter absolutely cold, which is a widelyknown fact in physics. Matter simply refuses to give up its energy and cease allresidual motion. This actually makes a lot of sense if we think about it. The factthat matter cannot be cooled all the way to zero in some university laboratory isnature’s way of saying that time for a group of atoms cannot be stopped whiletime is still occurring for those observing in the laboratory. However, although itis true that we cannot make atoms of matter stand completely still at this stage inthe history of the cosmos, this does not mean the cosmos cannot cool to ZATin the distant future. One of the more interesting facts about a universal zero is that the only waythat any of the physical parameters of the cosmos such as temperature or gravitycan reach absolute zero is if all the parameters of space-time reach zero simulta-neously. This fact is precisely what makes absolute zero both a cosmic absoluteand the ultimate Omega State, Omega being the last letter in the Greek alphabetwhich means “the end”. In a sense, there is only one way for the cosmos toreach zero in the future. The only way for the cosmos to become absolutely coldis if cosmological expansion stretches all the matter in the cosmos perfectly flat,at which point matter becomes indistinguishable from space. The future scenario of the cosmos stretching and becoming perfectly flat hasalways been sort of ignored in science. In an obvious double standard, physicistshave widely considered the possibility that in the past a fluctuation in a primor-dial vacuum somehow created a universe of matter, however in regards to the
  37. 37. LEARNING TO SEE TIMELESSNESS | 23future reaching ZAT, the consensus has been that a matter universe cannot coolfully to zero. As scientists developed models of the future most have imaginedonly two general scenarios. It was believed the expanding universe would eitherstop cooling toward zero and collapse inward in a big crunch, and thus heat upagain, or more likely, the universe would expand at an ever decreasing rate,moving ever nearer to, without ever reaching ZAT. We just didn’t know whatthe future would be more like, fire or ice. But we did know for certain that theuniverse has always expanded and cooled toward zero and is moving ever nearerto zero as if magnetically attracted. Only recently did we discover how powerfulthe attraction of zero is.The Big Rip Scenario In 1998 NASA realized the expansion of the cosmos is accelerating. Then inMarch of 2003 the Dartmouth physicist Robert Caldwell, already known for hisrelated theory of Quintessence, and two colleagues, presented to the scientificcommunity what they called the Big Rip model of the future, which considersthe scenario where the dark energy density, called phantom energy by Caldwell,increases with time. According to Caldwell this invisible phantom energy causesthe expansion of the cosmos to literally rip apart all the galaxies, stars, and finallyall atoms. In the Big Rip model all space is finally stretched perfectly flat, and theevolution of our cosmos ends distinctly in finite time at what Caldwell refers toas the ultimate singularity. When the expansion of the cosmos was believed to be ever decreasing, it didnot seem like time could ever reach the opposite extreme from which timebegan. So it’s particularly interesting that we have now discovered that theexpansion of the cosmos is accelerating, since the only physical process that canproduce zero in the future is if an accelerating expansion stretches the finalstages of the cosmos perfectly flat. Accelerated expansion is how the cosmosbridges the seemingly infinite gap between increasingly larger circles and theultimate extreme of flat space where two lines can always be perfectly parallel. Figure 3.4: The curvature of an expanding circle moves ever nearer to the extreme of zero curvature. Similar to Zeno’s paradox, it seems impossible for an expanding universe to be- come perfectly flat. Yet we so easily pull a curved string straight or straighten a curved rod. We can make a widening circle with our arms and imagine the circle growing ever larger but we can also stretch our arms out straight, to represent a perfectly straight line.
  38. 38. 24 | EVERYTHING FOREVER The Expanding and Accelerating Universe Ultimate Boundary of Omega Zero Cosmos Reaches Zero and ends in Finite Period of Time. The Present Figure 3.5: Eventually in anBackward Time traces to Alpha. accelerating universe, everyForward Time traces to Omega. galaxy is moving away from every other galaxy at the speed of light, then every star, then every elementary particle, until the universe finally expands itself per- fectly flat. Alpha Outdated Expansion Scenarios The Present
  39. 39. LEARNING TO SEE TIMELESSNESS | 25 But what do we know about zero? Portraying zero in a logically consistentmanner is rather tricky, in part because we make so many inaccurate assump-tions about zero. The problem with referring to zero as an empty space, or usingan invisible square to portray a real physical state of zero, is that a perfectly flatspace is anything but empty. If it were empty we could put something into it. Ifit were empty it would be like a vessel that we could fill up with things, but themost basic rule about a perfectly flat space is that there is absolutely no way tointroduce an object into it. Why? Because it is already full. Flat space is notempty. If flat space were empty we could travel through it, but it is completelyimpossible to travel through a flat space, in part because time stands still at azero temperature, but more so the reason is that any matter such as the matterof our bodies requires spatial curvature. Any object introduced into a flat spacewould inevitably take away from what is actually a property of fullness and indoing so would take away from the perfect flatness of space. Objects requirespatial curvature and curvature is always a reduction of perfect flatness. Perhaps you noticed the unusual use of the word fullness. In physics, massand spatial curvatures are inseparable. A major part of what Einstein discoveredis that objects do not exist independently from space, nor does space existindependently from objects. We can imagine a flat space, but then imagining anobject existing in and traveling through that flat space fails to consider the factthat objects or matter cannot exist without spatial curvature. The two are insepa-rable because they are one and the same thing. Spatial curvature is part of whatan object is. Einstein described this by saying that space is the extension of mass,but one small step further is to say that mass is spatial curvature. Matter isnothing but curvatures in space. And all curvatures take away from the fullnessof what we can only pretend is empty space. In reality empty space is the infinitewhole, the fullness of everything combined together. It is the completed multi-plicity of quantum mechanics, the superposition of all possible states and allpossible universes combined into the ultimate singularity. We think space needs to be empty because things move through it. Lightpasses through it. But light does not move through space from point A to B aswe imagine of a thrown baseball. Light travels through space only as a probabil-ity, meaning it leaps from source to destination without ever having physicallypassed through space. This is true even of the thrown baseball. The particlesthat we see of a moving baseball are just a few which have assumed a singleposition in space long enough to collide with a photon. After the light bouncesoff the baseball both particle and photon vanish into a wave of probability, thenthe photon assumes a new position in your eye. The seemingly hard physicalworld literally bubbles up out of the fullness of flat space. If you think about thismuch, you realize the experienced physical world that has bubbled up out of theperfect void is really less than what we imagine to be empty space, and not morethan empty space or nothingness.
  40. 40. 26 | EVERYTHING FOREVERBose-Einstein Condensate As space expands the cosmos is invariably becoming increasingly cold. Mosteveryone knows this, but there is also a hidden and very important underlyingphysical transformation occurring. At extreme cold temperatures far belowwaters freezing point, laboratory materials such as cesium gas become superconductive. At such temperatures, groups of oppositely charged particles magi-cally arrange themselves into orderly columns and rows. Then at even coldertemperatures, less than a millionth degree away from absolute zero, the individ-ual particles actually unify into a single material. The many become one. Thisunified state of matter is called a condensate, which is a special form of matterfirst predicted by Albert Einstein and Satyendra Bose in 1924. This unique stageof matter that exists only at super cold temperatures near absolute zero was firstcreated in a University of Colorado laboratory in 1995. Scientists weren’t able tomake time stop, but they were getting pretty close. As the cosmos cools and expands, therein moving ever nearer to zero, liter-ally all of the particles in the cosmos are moving toward becoming this singlecondensate. Condensates reflect a super orderliness near absolute zero whereparticles organize and smear together into a single unified medium. In otherwords, at the end of time all the many tiny particles become a single mediumthat is in perfect balance and is spread evenly throughout an area. Like ice cubesmelting to become a liquid, like a liquid evaporating into a gas, near the end oftime all that is left of the particles that now form stars and galaxies is an orderlycold and thinning gas that melts and evaporates into nothing but a low densityspace. This final form of matter need only be stretched a little further by cosmo-logical expansion in order to push what remains of all the matter and energy ofthe cosmos to the extreme of perfect flatness. All the known matter in thecosmos will then be converted into pure space and time will have reached theend, the absolute zero of all physics, the great ZAT.Two Boundaries in the Total Measure of All Possibilities It might be surprising to discover how near we are to absolute zero presently.Nearly fourteen billion years of expansion has produced so much empty spacebetween the galaxies, that the average temperature of the universe has beenlowered to a minus -454.74° degrees, so on the Fahrenheit scale we are less thanfive degrees away from absolute zero. In Celsius the average temperature of theuniverse is -270.415°, which is less than three degrees away from zero. Andfinally, using the Kelvin scale which astronomers use since it is based on zero,the universe is only +2.735°K degrees above zero. The universe seems verywarm living so near to a star, but out beyond the stars in deep space tempera-tures are very cold, that is, compared to where we started at Alpha.
  41. 41. LEARNING TO SEE TIMELESSNESS | 27 Now suppose we take a step backward and consider how the cosmos hasevolved from its beginning to present, which is one form of stepping outside oftime. We know that time began from, or time began very near to, an infinitelyhot Alpha, and then the cosmos expanded and cooled for billions of years,nearing zero even today. In being aware of the fact that Alpha and ZAT are theedges of what is physically possible in reality, we can now appreciate the reveal-ing fact that time originates from one extreme of nature and travels all the wayto the other extreme. The arrow below represents the direction time has takensince the big bang. The purposely simple image points out how the evolution oftime of our cosmos spans across the whole spectrum of possibilities like aclothes line in between two poles. Imagine all the alternative directions that timecould travel in. How relevant is it that time travels away from one cosmic ex-treme of an infinite heat and density all the way to the other extreme of absolutecold and zero density? Is there any discernable reason that this is the naturalcourse of time for our cosmos? Figure 3.6: Many cosmologists of the last century spoke of the universe being "finite yet with- out boundary." Actually the universe is infinite but bounded by very definitive extremes, the Alpha in our past and the Omega in our future. Without the finite, the infinite would not be infinite, it would just be indefinite and therefore nonexistent or truly chaotic. Years ago, discovering the expansion of the universe, taught us a great dealabout the past, but only recently, due to the discovery of accelerating expansion,are we discovering the larger role that absolute zero plays in physics and cos-mology. Science today is not merely coming to terms with the real and likelypossibility that in many billions of years there is an abrupt edge to time at anOmega state. We are also beginning to focus on the physically real properties ofzero. We are beginning to discover what zero actually is. The stage we are innow is quite similar to the period between 1910 and 1932 when Vesto Slipherbegan measuring the red-shifting of galaxies and later Edwin Hubble revealedhow the universe contained many different galaxies all expanding away from oneanother. It was of course many years before the majority of scientists fullyappreciated what the expansion of galaxies meant about the past, but that onepiece of knowledge has led to virtually everything we presently understand abouthow the cosmos evolves in its early stages. What secrets and mysteries about theuniverse can be uncovered as we begin to better understand the zero in ourfuture?
  42. 42. 28 | EVERYTHING FOREVER Fractal Art: Study © Kerry MitchellThe probable is what usually happens.Aristotle ~~~Ultimately, the generation of probabilistic events seems to be an entirely mysteri-ous aspect of reality. Asking about it is like asking about where the initial condi-tions come from in a deterministic theory, or like asking why there is somethingrather than nothing.Matthew J. Donald ~~~Time is a child playing dice; the kingly power is a childs.Heraclitus ~~~I believe that the vacuum, being the state in which all possible physical phenom-ena are present, in a virtual way, but still present, will win the record for thehighest complexity.Carlo Rubbia ~~~Probability is the very guide of life.Marcus Cicero
  43. 43. LEARNING TO SEE TIMELESSNESS | 29The real world, according to what we understand about physics, is describedquantum-mechanically, which means, deep down, that everything has to bedescribed in terms of probabilities. The "classical" world that we perceive, inwhich every object has a definite position and moves in a deterministic way, isreally just the average of the different possibilities that the full quantum theorywould predict.Alan GuthChapter FourDescribing the Realm of All PossibilitiesA Look at How Science Presently Sees the Big Picture By the time we reach adulthood we are all at least vaguely aware of the rangeof possible events in our lives, beginning with the more probable and endingwith the highly improbable to absolutely impossible. In addition to all the ordi-nary and predictable events, like the sun rising in the morning, there is each dayalso a chance of something extraordinary happening. We might meet the perfectfriend or lover, or we might find ourselves in a car accident. We might win thelottery, or we might walk into a bank or store and find ourselves in the middle ofa robbery. Our days are usually somewhat predictable, but in everyday life thereis always a small chance that something exciting might happen. Occasionally we hear the odds of winning the lottery, the chance of an earth-quake, or a meteorite striking the earth. We hear of our chance of being in a carwreck compared to that of airplane crashes. The probabilities behind risks andopportunities flow and change depending upon where we are located, the timeof day, the time of year, and the phase of the moon, and once we make note ofit, it is surprising to realize how many of our actions and decisions are madebased solely upon probabilities. We buy insurance due to the chance somethingbad might happen. We save for a rainy day. We wait to buy a CD until we haveheard all the songs. Generally when we spend we try to invest wisely because ofthe risk of losing the value of our investment. Many pray and make self sacrificessecretly hoping to guide the future and avoid misfortune. Others eat healthy andexercise to ward off the threat of possible sickness and disease. We constantly work to stabilize and control the possible events in our lives.Yet we can be wise enough to also intentionally open ourselves up to the chanceof opportunities by adventuring into the unknown. We play with probabilities.We seek out risk. We challenge our fears. We rock climb, river raft, drive fast,strap boards to our feet and whisk down snowy mountains not only tostrengthen our sense of power and control over the chance of danger, but forthe thrill of directly challenging the possibility of injury and death.