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Children and Adolescents in Namibia 2010 Children at a GlanceThis table provides a statistical snapshot of the status ofch...
Children and Adolescentsin Namibia 2010a situation analysis        National Planning Commission        Luther Street      ...
This Situation Analysis was commissioned by the National Planning Commission with support from UNICEF. The National Planni...
Contents MAP OF NAMIBIA                                                                             iv LIST OF TABLES     ...
3. CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE: SOCIO-ECONOMIC BACKGROUND                             25  	      3.1	   INTRODUCTION        ...
6.2	         PRIMARY EDUCATION                                                      68		             6.2.1	 Availability o...
Map of Namibiaiv	                    CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN NAMIBIA 2010
List of TablesTable 1: Age breakdown of children in Namibia, 2011 population projection                     26Table 2: Con...
List of Abbreviations  ARI		     Acute Respiratory Infection  AIDS		    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome  ART		     Ant...
MRLGHRD	   Ministry of Regional and Local Government, Housing and Rural DevelopmentMSS		      Ministry of Safety and Secur...
viii	   CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN NAMIBIA 2010
ForewordT      oday, more than ever, our national development relies on ensuring that our children,      adolescents and y...
Preface C       hildren and adolescents are at the heart of Namibian society, the forefront of national       development,...
IntroductionC         hildren and Adolescents in Namibia 2010 is the first comprehensive situation analysis in         Nam...
xii	   CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN NAMIBIA 2010
OverviewN        amibia acknowledged its commitment to children during its own infancy. The Namibian        Parliament rat...
This 2010 situation analysis      Against Transnational Crime and the Protocol                                      has th...
The Ministry of Education (MoE) is responsible for a school system that enables over 90% ofchildren to attend at least fiv...
children through their research and policy           status. The lower the level of education of                    progra...
Child labour is prominent in rural areas where children are often required to assist with householdchores. Approximately 3...
work disrupts their lives, including interfering   Sexual violence, particularly in sexual debut, is high           with t...
1. Introduction                       Two decades of Independence have seen the creation of                       a compre...
was taken in 1990 and then       gleaned was used to describe the status of                                               ...
(or the schools or organisations helping to identify the children) were asked to give their consent tothe children’s parti...
an upper middle income country. Despite this           values. These are years in which a child builds a growth, challenge...
2.	 The National Framework                       Investing in children is central to the development                      ...
Vision 2030:                                                    ...ensure that Namibia is a fair, gender                  ...
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
Children and Adolescents in Namibia, a situation analysis (2010). UNICEF Namibia
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  1. 1. Children and Adolescents in Namibia 2010 Children at a GlanceThis table provides a statistical snapshot of the status ofchildren in Namibia to use as reference. General Indicator Recent estimates Estimated total population (2011) a 2,184,091 Urban 35% Rural 65% Estimated population under 18 years 921,184 (42%) (2011)a Estimated population under age 5 291,757 (13%) years (2011)a Estimated school going population 7 328,504 (15%) – 13 (2011)a Estimated school going population 14 244,654 (11%) – 18 (2011)a Estimated population of youth 15 to 469,174 (21%) 24 (2011)a Life expectancy at birth (2001)b Male 48 years Female 50 years Infant Mortality (per 100 live births) 46 (2006)c Under 5 Mortality (per 100 live births) 69 (2006)c Maternal Mortality (per 100 live 449 births) (2006)c GNI Per Capita(2010)d US$4,210 Gini Coefficient of Inequality (2003/4)e 0.743 Poverty (2003/4) f Poor households 28% Severely poor households 14% Average Number of Children Per Household (2003/4)f Non-poor 1.8 Poor 3.6 Severely poor 3.9 Education Indicator Recent estimates 1,677 (1,040 Number of schools(2009)g primary schools) Number of learnersf (2009) 585,471 Primary 406,920 Secondary 169,390 Net School Enrolment Ratio (2009)1 93.1% (M 91.4%, F 94.8%) Children and Adolescents 2010 Primary 98.3% (M 96.6%, Secondary F 100.1%) 54.8% (M 48.8%, F 60.7%) in Namibia
  2. 2. Children and Adolescentsin Namibia 2010a situation analysis National Planning Commission Luther Street Government Office Park Private Bag 13356 Windhoek Namibia
  3. 3. This Situation Analysis was commissioned by the National Planning Commission with support from UNICEF. The National PlanningCommission recognises the work of SIAPAC who prepared the report and the members of the Techinical Working Group for theSituation Analysis of Children and Adolescents 2010. The opinions expressed within this report are those of the authors and do notnecessarily reflect the policies or views of the National Planning Commission nor UNICEF.Published by John Meinert Printing, for:National Planning CommissionLuther StreetGovernment Office ParkPrivate Bag 13356WindhoekNamibiaISBN -13: 978-99916-835-4-6EAN: 9789991683546© NPCPHOTOGRAPH CREDITS:Front cover photos:©UNICEF/Namibia2006-2010/Tony Figueira©UNICEF/Namibia2010/Manuel MorenoTop strip photos:©UNICEF/Namibia2006-2008/Tony Figueira (Pic. 1, 2, 5 and 6)©UNICEF/Namibia2006-2010/Manuel Moreno (Pic. 3 and 4)Top right photos for sections:©UNICEF/Namibia2006-2010/Tony Figueira©UNICEF/Namibia2010/Manuel Moreno (Sec. 6, Pag. 67-73)Margins photos:©UNICEF/Namibia2006-2010/Tony Figueira (Pages i, ii, iii-5, 7-9, 25-33, 35-51, 53-65, 67-73, 91-97 and 99-133)©UNICEF/Namibia2006-2010/Manuel Moreno (Pages i,iii, 11-23 and 75-89)General photos:©UNICEF/NYHQ2008/ John Isaac (Pages 22, 36, 46 and 80)©UNICEF/Namibia2006-2010/Tony Figueira: (Pages 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 14, 24, 27, 30, 33, 34, 37, 41, 42, 47, 49, 51, 52, 54, 55, 57,60, 65, 66, 69, 83, 84, 86, 88, 90, 94, 95 and 96)©UNICEF/Namibia2006-2010/Manuel Moreno (Pages 12, 17, 18, 20, 38, 40, 44, 50, 56, 59, 63, 70, 72, 74, 76, 78 and 98)©UNICEF Namibia Photolibrary (Page 48)
  4. 4. Contents MAP OF NAMIBIA iv LIST OF TABLES v LIST OF FIGURES v LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS vi FOREWORD ix PREFACE x INTRODUCTION xi OVERVIEW 1 1. INTRODUCTION 7 1.1 WHY THIS REPORT 7 1.2 METHODOLOGY 8 1.3 STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT 9 2. THE NATIONAL FRAMEWORK 11 2.1 INTRODUCTION 11 2.2 NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL FRAMEWORKS 12 2.2.1 Namibian Constitution 12 2.2.2 Vision 2030 12 2.2.3 Third National Development Plan 13 2.2.4 Millennium Development Goals 13 2.2.5 Convention on the Rights of the Child 13 2.2.6 African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child 14 2.2.7 Other Conventions and Covenants that Directly Impact on Children 14 2.3 NATIONAL POLICIES, LAWS AND PROGRAMMES 14 2.3.1 Policies 14 2.3.2 Laws 15 2.4 GOVERNMENT MINISTRY SUPPORT FOR CHILDREN 16 2.4.1 Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare 16 2.4.2 Ministry of Education 17 2.4.3 Ministry of Health and Social Services 19 2.4.4 Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare 20 2.4.5 Ministry of Safety and Security 20 2.4.6 Ministry of Justice 21 2.4.7 Ministry of Youth National Service Sport and Culture 21 2.4.8 Ministry of Information and Communication Technology 21 2.4.9 Ministry of Home Affairs and Immigration 21 2.4.10 Ministry of Regional and Local Government, Housing and Rural 22 Development 2.5 OTHER AGENCIES 22 2.5.1 Civil Society Organisations 22 2.5.2 Development Partners 23 2.5.3 Other Agencies 24SITUATION ANALYSIS i
  5. 5. 3. CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE: SOCIO-ECONOMIC BACKGROUND 25 3.1 INTRODUCTION 26 3.2 ECONOMIC TRENDS 26 3.3 CHILDREN AT RISK OF POVERTY 29 3.4 SOCIAL WELFARE GRANTS – NOT REACHING THEIR POTENTIAL 31 3.5 INVESTMENT IN CHILDREN – UNFINISHED BUSINESS 32 3.6 SUMMARY 34 4. CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE: ISSUES AND CONCERNS 35 4.1 INTRODUCTION 36 4.2 URBANISATION 36 4.3 FACILITIES AND NETWORKS 37 4.4 THE FAMILY 40 4.4.1 Children’s Views of the Family 40 4.4.2 Changing Family Structures 40 4.4.3 Child Headed Households 42 4.4.4 Violence in the Family 42 4.4.5 Alternative Care to Children 43 4.5 CHILDREN IN SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES 44 4.5.1 Child Labour 44 4.5.2 Children with Disabilities 45 4.5.3 Refugee Children 46 4.5.4 Children and HIV and AIDS 47 4.6 CHILDREN AND COMMUNICATION 48 4.7 CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPACT AND RESPONSE 48 4.8 SUMMARY 51 5. INFANTS AND YOUNG CHILDREN (0 – 5 YEAR OLDS) 53 5.1 INTRODUCTION 54 5.2 CARE OF MOTHERS 55 5.3 CARE OF BABIES AND INFANTS 56 5.3.1 Infant Deaths 56 5.3.2 Infanticide and Baby Dumping 57 5.3.3 Postnatal Health Care 58 5.3.4 Common Childhood Illnesses that Can Lead to Death 59 5.3.5 Immunisation 60 5.4 LEGAL IDENTITY 61 5.5 THE ROLE OF SERVICE PROVIDERS 62 5.6 GETTING A GOOD START IN LIFE 63 5.6.1 Nutrition of Children 63 5.6.2 Early Childhood Development 64 5.7 SUMMARY 66 6. CHILDREN (6 – 11 YEAR OLDS) 67 6.1 INTRODUCTION 68ii CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN NAMIBIA 2010
  6. 6. 6.2 PRIMARY EDUCATION 68 6.2.1 Availability of Primary Education 68 6.2.2 Standards of Primary Education 69 6.2.3 Education Support for Vulnerable Children 71 6.2.4 Food Support 71 6.3 CHILDREN UNDER STRESS 71 6.3.1 Child Labour 71 6.3.2 Violence and Stress at Home and in School 72 6.3.3 Children with Disabilities 73 6.3.4 HIV and AIDS 74 6.4 SUMMARY 74 7. ADOLESCENTS (12 – 17 YEAR OLDS) 75 7.1 INTRODUCTION 76 7.2 EDUCATION 76 7.2.1 Reasons for Leaving School 78 7.3 LIFE SKILLS, HEALTH AND SEXUALITY 79 7.3.1 Health Care and Life skills 79 7.3.2 Emotional Growth and Sexuality 81 7.3.3 Adolescents Living with HIV 82 7.3.4 Attitudes to HIV and AIDS 83 7.4 SAFETY AND PROTECTION 83 7.4.1 Adolescent Sexual Vulnerability 83 7.4.2 Safety in School 85 7.4.3 Safety in the Community 85 7.4.4 Exploitation 86 7.5 CHILDREN IN CONTACT WITH THE LAW 88 7.6 SUMMARY 89 8. SUMMARY 91 8.1 OVERVIEW 91 8.2 THE LIFE CYCLE APPROACH FROM BIRTH TO ADULTHOOD 92 8.2.1 Infants and Young Children (0 to 5 Year Olds) 92 8.2.2 Children (6 to 11 Year Olds) 94 8.2.3 Adolescents (12 to 17 Year Olds) 96 8.3 INFORMATION AND POLICY NEEDS 97 8.4 CHILDREN AS A NATIONAL RESOURCE 98 BIBLIOGRAPHY 99 ANNEXES 111 ANNEX A: LIST OF KEY INFORMANT INTERVIEWS AND EXTENDED TECHNICAL 111 WORKING GROUP MEMBERS ANNEX B: LIST OF CHILDREN’S FOCUS GROUPS 115 ANNEX C: FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION INSTRUMENT 117 ANNEX D: KEY INFORMANT INTERVIEW INSTRUMENT 129SITUATION ANALYSIS iii
  7. 7. Map of Namibiaiv CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN NAMIBIA 2010
  8. 8. List of TablesTable 1: Age breakdown of children in Namibia, 2011 population projection 26Table 2: Contribution of industries to GDP 28Table 3: Water and sanitation for severely poor, poor and non-poor households 38Table 4: Source of energy for severely poor, poor and non-poor households 39Table 5: Percent of men and women in a formal relationship, 2000 and 2006/2007 NDHS 41Table 6: National plan of action: strategic areas and targets 47Table 7: Primary health care service provision by locality in Katutura and Khomasdal 56Table 8: Use of mosquito nets and malaria related deaths in high incidence regions 59Table 9: Vaccination coverage for Kavango and Kunene regions 61Table 10: Percentage of stunted, wasted and underweight children under 5 years 64Table 11: Percent of boys and girls who stay in school to grade 5 69Table 12: Percent of learners reaching level of competence, 2000 70Table 13: Child discipline 73Table 14: Survival rates for grade 8 and grade 11, 2001 – 2008 77Table 15: Reasons why learners leave school 78 92Table 16: Poverty share and average number of children per household in four regions with the largest poverty shareTable 17: Regional allocation of recurrent expenditures for MOHSS and MoE. 92 List of FiguresFigure 1: CSOS by sector 23Figure 2: Namibia per capita GDP, based on Purchasing-Power-Parity (PPP) 27Figure 3: Income inequality across the world 27Figure 4: Trends in unemployment 28Figure 5: Child and total poverty rates by region 30Figure 6: Children receiving child welfare grants in Namibia 31Figure 7: Average distance to selected services by poor and non-poor households (kilometres) 39Figure 8: Percent of children living with both parents or no parents by region 41Figure 9: Percentage of children living with both parents or no parents by income quintile 42Figure 10: Percent of mothers not receiving a postnatal check up by region 58Figure 11: Percent of women not receiving post natal care by level of education 58Figure 12: Percentage of infants receiving full vaccinations by education of mother 61Figure 13: Percent of registered children under 5 yrs in 2000 and 2006 62Figure 14: Education background of teachers, 2002 – 2009 70Figure 15: Percentage of orphans in school by region 71Figure 16: Number of boys and girls in grades 11 and 12 by region 77Figure 17: Percent of prevalence: pregnant girls aged 19 and below, compared to national average, 1992 – 2008 82SITUATION ANALYSIS v
  9. 9. List of Abbreviations ARI Acute Respiratory Infection AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ART Anti Retroviral Therapy BEN Bicycle Empowerment Network BIG Basic Income Grant CBN Cost of Basic Needs CBS Central Bureau of Statistics CCPB Child Care and Protection Bill CHI Child Helpline International CRC Convention on the Rights of the Child CSO Civil Society Organisation CUBAC Children Used By Adults to Commit Crime DCW Directorate of Child Welfare ECD Early Childhood Development EMIS Education Management Information System ETSIP Education and Training Sector Improvement Programme EU European Union FGD Focus Group Discussion GDP Gross Domestic Product GNI Gross National Income GRN Government of the Republic of Namibia GTZ Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (Germany) HAMU HIV and AIDS Management Unit (Ministry of Education) HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus ICT Information and Communication Technology ILO International Labour Organisation IMF International Monetary Fund ISCBF Institutional Strengthening and Capacity Building Facility KI Key Informant KII Key Informant Interview KRA Key Result Area LAC Legal Assistance Centre MBESC Ministry of Basic Education, Sport and Culture MDG Millennium Development Goal MGECW Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare MHAI Ministry of Home Affairs and Immigration MICT Ministry of Information & Communication Technology MLRR Ministry of Lands, Resettlement and Rehabilitation MoE Ministry of Education MoF Ministry of Finance MoHSS Ministry of Health and Social Services MoJ Ministry of Justice MoLSW Ministry of Labour and Social Welfarevi CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN NAMIBIA 2010
  10. 10. MRLGHRD Ministry of Regional and Local Government, Housing and Rural DevelopmentMSS Ministry of Safety and SecurityMYNSSC Ministry of Youth, National Service, Sport and CultureMTC Mobile Telecommunications CorporationMTEF Medium Term Expenditure FrameworkMWACW Ministry of Women Affairs and Child WelfareNAMCOL Namibia College of Open LearningNANASO Namibia Network of AIDS Service OrganisationsNANGOF Namibia Non-Governmental Organisations’ Forum TrustNDHS National Demographic and Health SurveyNDP3 Third National Development PlanNER Net Enrolment RatioNETSS National Educational Technology Service and SupportNGO Non-Governmental OrganisationNHIES Namibia Household Income and Expenditure SurveyNIED National Institute for Educational DevelopmentNPA National Plan of Action for OVCNPC National Planning CommissionNSF National Strategic Framework for HIV and AIDSOPM Office of the Prime MinisterORT Oral Rehydration TherapyOVC Orphans and Vulnerable ChildrenPDNA Post Disaster Needs AssessmentPEPFAR The President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (USA)PETS Public Expenditure Tracking SurveyPLHIV People Living With HIV and AIDSPMTCT Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIVSACMEQ Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational QualitySACU Southern African Customs UnionSADC Southern African Development CommunityTB TuberculosisTWG Technical Working GroupUN United NationsUNAM University of NamibiaUNAIDS The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDSUNDP United Nations Development ProgrammeUNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural OrganisationUNFPA United Nations Population FundUNHCR United Nations High Commission for RefugeesUSAID United States Agency for International DevelopmentUNICEF United Nations Children’s FundWACPU Woman and Child Protection UnitsWHO World Health OrganizationWFP World Food ProgrammeSITUATION ANALYSIS vii
  11. 11. viii CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN NAMIBIA 2010
  12. 12. ForewordT oday, more than ever, our national development relies on ensuring that our children, adolescents and young people are properly cared for and protected. Thus Namibia’s future relies on the well-being of our children. Protecting and promoting their rights are pivotal tonational efforts, which encourage sustainable development towards reaching the goals set outin Vision 2030.It has been 15 years since the last comprehensive Situation Analysis for Children in Namibiawas undertaken. Spearheaded by the National Planning Commission and assisted by a SteeringCommittee drawn from different stakeholders, the study has enabled our Government to assesswhere Namibia is with its commitments to its children and how much progress has been madein ensuring that their rights are met. The human rights to which children are entitled underinternational conventions form the basis for the analysis of children’s needs and rights duringdifferent stages of their life. Throughout the study, the voices of the children, the adolescents, thegovernment and civil society partners are recorded to communicate what it is like to be a child inNamibia today and made recommendations on what needs to be done to promote the rights ofNamibian children and adolescents.Namibia, through its steady economic growth and stability in the last twenty years is blessedwith unique opportunities. Our country is at a crucial juncture in efforts to pave the way for abetter, more secure and peaceful nation for our young population. As policy and decision makers,community leaders and mobilisers, it is our obligation to spare them from poverty and deprivationand to maximise opportunities to further their optimal development and participation in theeconomic mainstream.Steady economic growth will benefit Namibia’s children and adolescents. However more emphasisshould be placed on ensuring equal access to quality services for those who have remainedexcluded from adequate social services and basic social protection for one reason or another.Let me reiterate that the Government of Namibia is fully committed to ensuring that the rightsof children are met. In this context, we are proud of our collaboration with the United NationsChildren’s Fund (UNICEF) in Namibia which has played a vital role in facilitating the completionof this report.Our ultimate goal is to build for every child in Namibia a world filled with opportunities and safety,where he or she could realise his or her full potential. Only by ensuring those rights can we createa secure, stable and prosperous Namibia.His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Namibia, Hifikepunye PohambaSITUATION ANALYSIS ix
  13. 13. Preface C hildren and adolescents are at the heart of Namibian society, the forefront of national development, and the leaders of the future. When we focus on economic growth, poverty reduction, service provision or social inclusion, we need to ensure that the benefits reach the nation’s children and young people, as they are integral to reaching our shared objectives, and their empowerment is essential for success in achieving our long term goals. Government and its partners are challenged daily by the task of trying to improve food security, increase access to basic services, improve livelihoods and create a safe and equitable environment within homes and communities. This task is fundamental to our shared pledge to rural development and poverty reduction, which remains our central commitment and priority for development. In spite of the progress made in ensuring policies, systems and resources are in place, it is evident that many children continue to face challenges in meeting their basic needs and fulfilling all their rights. The devastating effect of HIV/ AIDS and the pervasive poverty are challenges that need to be overcome so that children can lead healthy lives acquiring adequate knowledge and life skills in the process and enjoying a decent standard of living. Turning these challenges into opportunities are critical for reaching the targets we have set in reaching the Millenium Development Goals while at the same time ensuring that no single child is left behind from this holistic development process. Children are in some settings do not have their universal rights fulfilled and they cannot rightfully access and enjoy the benefits of services established for them. In many respects, the interests of children are left to come after those of adults. This Situation Analysis emphasises the need to re-focus our efforts and address the gaps by making use of child sensitive approaches to data collection, analysis, planning and monitoring. The Situation Analysis provides a comprehensive overview, allowing us to understand the overarching situation of children and adolescents in Namibia today, pointing to areas where closer collaboration can increase efficiency and effectiveness, and highlighting some of the challenges that exist in prioritising our actions for children. Hence, I urge that this report be used as a tool for policy dialogue and advocacy at all levels of government and civil society. Hon. Doreen Sioka, Minister of Gender Equality and Child Welfarex CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN NAMIBIA 2010
  14. 14. IntroductionC hildren and Adolescents in Namibia 2010 is the first comprehensive situation analysis in Namibia since 1995. The study highlights that with over 40% of its population under the age of 18, Namibia is rich in terms of children and therefore opportunity, but this potential has yet to be fully harnessed.Ten years ago, world leaders adopted the Millennium Declaration, pledging to create a more peaceful,tolerant and equitable world in which the special needs of children, women and the vulnerable are met.The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were developed as a set of ambitious goals to the practicalmanifestation of the Declaration’s aspiration to reduce inequity in human development among nationsand peoples by 2015, and Namibia wholeheartedly committed to act to achieve the MDGs.The situation analysis shows that Namibia has made significant progress towards achieving the MDGs,and the national development targets to ensure the rights of Namibia’s children are all met. However,it also highlights that with the MDG deadline only five years away, accelerated action is essential ifNamibia is to achieve its targets.The situation analysis clearly indicates that reaching the poorest and most marginalized children andcommunities is pivotal to the achievement of the MDGs and the realisation of Vision 2030. It highlightsthat the strong economic growth since Independence in 1990 has not narrowed the significantdisparities across Namibia in child poverty, survival, development, and access to essential services.It points to the unique challenges faced by Namibia due to its historical legacy and the devastatingimpact of HIV and AIDS on children’s lives, and the commitments and action taken by the Governmentto accelerating results for the survival, protection and development of Namibia’s children.In doing so, the report points to the opportunity for an even-greater emphasis on a child-centredequitable development approach, which refocuses on the poorest and most marginalised childrenand families. Such an equity-based approach focusing on those most in need is rarely argued against:being right in principle and even sound in logic. However, it has sometimes been questioned whether,in practice, such strategies are worthwhile, given their cost and difficulty, particularly in such a vastcountry as Namibia, where it can be hard to reach the very poor. But over the last decade, therehas been mounting evidence from programmes in Namibia and across the world, to show the cost-effectiveness and efficiency in achieving impact of new ways of delivering interventions and ensuringthat social services reach out to all children and communities.The process for the development of this situation analysis was innovative and unique, with theextensive literature and research review and key informant interviews supplemented by focus groupdiscussion with children and adolescents across the country. By using a life cycle approach, the reportclearly identifies issues that are pertinent for children in the different stages of their lives: from birthto five years, during the primary school age years 6-11, and then as adolescents from 12-17 years.The focus on adolescents is key as it is during these years that they face many and varied challenges.As the situation analysis points out, there is a need for greater depth of qualitative and quantitativeinformation about this time in their lives.UNICEF, along with our sister UN agencies, congratulates the Government of the Republic of Namibia,under the leadership of the National Planning Commission and the Ministry of Gender Equality andChild Welfare for the important initiative to commission this situation analysis, and its commitment toensure its findings are a central resource for planning, guiding the definition of goals and approachesthat will further accelerate action towards the MDGs, the national development goals, and thefulfilment of all rights of each and every Namibian child.Ian Macleod, Representative, UNICEF NamibiaSITUATION ANALYSIS xi
  15. 15. xii CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN NAMIBIA 2010
  16. 16. OverviewN amibia acknowledged its commitment to children during its own infancy. The Namibian Parliament ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) in 1990, just months after its Independence. In doing so, Namibia agreed to extend protection to childrenacross all aspects of their lives. Two kinds of reports support this commitment. One, submitted tothe United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child documents the country’s achievementsand challenges in implementing the rights described in the various articles and protocols of theCRC and the other is a Situation Analysis, the main audience for which is within the country.Such a report looks backward and forward, aiming to analyse social and economic trendsthat affect children, consider actions taken on behalf of children, illuminate areas that needfurther discussion and stimulate discussion among policy makers, service providers, parents,caregivers and children about the areas of need.The Government of Namibia completed the first situation analysis in 1990 and submittedits first CRC report in 1992 which described the status of children in a country that hadjust emerged from a century of colonial rule. The second situation analysis for childrenwas completed in 1995 (UNICEF, 1995) and focussed on the rights that are guaranteedto children in a country facing a post apartheid reconstruction. In 2009, the governmentsubmitted a second CRC report on the country’s activities over the previous 15 years.This document is the third comprehensive situation analysis. It represents the work ofnumerous stakeholders, including children. A Technical Working Group (TWG) oversaw theprocess. The core TWG included members of government, National Planning CommissionSecretariat (NPCS), Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare (MGECW), the Ministryof Education (MoE) and the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare (MLSW), developmentpartners (United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and United Nations DevelopmentProgramme (UNDP), academia (University of Namibia (UNAM) and civil society (the Non-Governmental Organisation Forum (NANGOF Trust). The core TWG provided direct guidanceto the project through regular meetings with the team. An expanded TWG met twice toconsider overall direction of the report and make in-depthcomments from a wide array of perspectives. Strengthened and coordinatedTwo critical groups of stakeholders contributed to the report. planning is needed to ensure thatOver 200 children participated in 26 focus group discussions(FGDs) spread over four regions – Karas, Kavango, Kunene social services reach all Namibians.and Omaheke. Groups were selected according to gender,age, in school and out of school children. Trained facilitatorswith experience in leading children through group discussionsled and reported on each session. Fifty-three Key Informants (KIs), including practitionersand other officials in regional settings and policy makers at national level, also contributedfrom across government, development partners and civil societyThis report covers the period from 2000 until 2010. The analysis examines a more mature,but still youthful, response to the needs and rights of children. A solid infrastructure is inplace, but what exists is incomplete.The need to refine and strengthen a good foundationfor the well-being of children and adolescents is a major theme of this report. Namibia hasdone much for its children. When new crises or issues have emerged, such as HIV and AIDS,the response has often been successful. Yet, despite the successes, pockets of disparity andlack of access remain. There is a minority of Namibians who for one reason or another donot benefit. A central part of the analysis is to identify and understand the reasons for thisdisparity and the resultant inequities. Namibians tasked with service delivery for childrenmust plan better and smarter to reach and serve those in need.SITUATION ANALYSIS 1
  17. 17. This 2010 situation analysis Against Transnational Crime and the Protocol has three broad sections. The to Prevent the Trafficking of Persons. The Child first examines the frameworks Care and Protection Bill which is currently under and structures in place to protect review will include further measures relating to a child’s rights. A rich array of the prevention of trafficking. policy and legislation is in place. Many international human rights initiatives have Vision 2030 aims to transform Namibia been adopted and government structures that into a developed country by guiding policy provide support for and services to children are development and long-term initiatives. Eight identified. A second section presents a number specific objectives are defined to create a society of cross cutting issues that affect all children. that cares for the health, education and rights Among the issues described are children in of its citizens; a society that has fully developed special circumstances and in the family. Each human resources capable of maximising their of these issues has its own dimensions and potential and makes sustainable use of its facets. The last section of the report uses a life natural resources. Namibia, in support of this, cycle approach to children and their needs. This has developed a wealth of policies, many of places the child at the centre of the analysis as them targeted toward children. The National a person with a clear set of rights. The way in Plan of Action (NPA) on Orphans and Other which these rights are supported becomes the Vulnerable Children (OVC) provides a mechanism guiding question. The approach is different from to coordinate a multiagency and multisectoral an issue based analysis that approaches children response to the needs of OVC. The Education The analysis as if they are made up of separate parts; instead it stresses the interrelated nature of fulfilling Sector policy on OVC provides protection to such children within the education sector. The points to the the rights of a child. Each of these sections is Education and Training Sector Improvement discussed in greater detail below. Programme (ETSIP) is a broad effort to improve existence of teaching and learning across all segments of the Namibia’s framework for children rests on three education sector. pockets of national documents: the Constitution, Visiondisadvantaged 2030 and the Third National Development Plan (NDP3). The Constitution commits the country NDP3 guides progress to Vision 2030 until 2012. It is divided into individual Key Result within all to a rights based framework for its citizens. Areas (KRAs) that correspond to specific Vision Vision 2030 guides Namibian development by 2030 goals. In this way the plans and outcomesregions of the establishing long-term goals. NDP3 implements of government activities are linked through Vision 2030 with short and medium term a KRA to Vision 2030 goals. The Millennium country. actions. Development Goals (MDGs) add country- defined indicators of Namibia’s performance The Constitution establishes a broad framework in eliminating poverty and achieving the goals of rights in Chapter 3, Article 15 defines rights outlined in the National Development Plans. of children and Article 14 defines the rights of MDGs focus on national targets in areas of the family as the fundamental unit of society. health, education, women’s rights, sustainable Namibia has adopted a number of international resource use and international partnerships. The human rights instruments that strengthen and goals are a benchmark against which progress extend the rights base for children. Primary in long-term development can be measured in among these is the CRC, which in its 54 Articles an incremental manner towards the end date and two Optional Protocols, commits the of 2015. country to internationally defined standards of rights for children. The African Charter of the NDP3 as an action plan brings together the efforts Rights and Welfare of the Child echoes the of government, civil society and development CRC but takes account of the specific social, partners. In 2005 the Ministry of Gender Equality economic and developmental conditions and Child Welfare (MGECW) was created as a prevailing in Africa as they relate to the rights of lead agency for activities devoted to children. a child. Other major human rights instruments The situation analysis identifies nine other relating to children that Namibia has adopted ministries that provide services to children. Aside include the International Labour Organisation’s from the MGECW, the Ministries of Education, Conventions 138 on Minimum Age for Health and Social Services, Safety and Security, Employment and 182 for Elimination of the Justice and Home Affairs and Immigration are Worst Forms of Child Labour, the Convention each particularly involved with children. 2 CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN NAMIBIA 2010
  18. 18. The Ministry of Education (MoE) is responsible for a school system that enables over 90% ofchildren to attend at least five years of school. High levels of attendance in early years of schoolingare not matched in secondary school where only 40% of students have a chance to completeGrade 12. Issues of quality have dogged the system. A decade long programme to increase thequalifications of teachers has increased the number of fully qualified teachers dramatically. Theimpact of this improvement on learner outcomes is not known however.The Ministry of Health and Social Services (MoHSS) provides a life-long series of services to a childthat starts in the womb: antenatal care; postnatal care; immunisation; Prevention of Mother toChild Transmission (PMTCT); and, together with the Ministry of Home Affairs and Immigration(MHAI), the births of children delivered in health facilities are recorded. Reproductive health andservices related to HIV and AIDS are provided later to adolescents.The Ministry of Safety and Security (MSS) provides children in need of protection with a front lineservice of referrals through its Woman and Child Protection Units (WACPU). The Namibian Policeare involved with children when they initially come into contact with the law. The Prison Servicelooks after children in prison, though a long-term preference of diversion programmes for childoffenders has led to a sharp decline in the number of children detained. The Ministry of Justice(MoJ) protects children’s rights when they are brought before a court or where a child givesevidence in court. Magistrates are required to consider the status of a child before pronouncingjudgements.The Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare (MGECW) works closely with civil society. In2008 over 59,000 OVC received some form of support from civil society organisations. Civil society comprises over 600 organisations that mainly work in health, training or education. Civil society is represented on all major policy platforms that deal with children. The Legal Assistance Centre (LAC) provides significant input into d e b a t e s about
  19. 19. children through their research and policy status. The lower the level of education of programmes. Development partners often the head of a household, the greater is the maintain their own institutional focus when it likelihood that the household is poor and, in a comes to providing services, though they are similar way, the older the age of the household guided by national development priorities. head, the greater the chance of being poor. UNICEF is engaged in activities ranging from Poverty plays a critical role in preventing accessPoverty has a project implementation to policy development. The European Union (EU) supports education to services that are needed by children.disproportionate at all levels from Early Childhood Development (ECD) to tertiary education. The HIV and AIDS Namibia has a safety net for children in the form of Child Welfare Grants (CWG) which goimpact on pandemic attracts support from almost every development partner, with the Global Fund, directly to the caregivers of children. They are intended to support a child deemed vulnerable.children. USAID and the Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) providing significant The programme of support grants has scaled up from almost zero during the middle of inputs into the response to the pandemic. The the decade to 117,934 in 2010. A more long World Bank (WB) and Millennium Challenge standing system of support goes to the elderly Account (MCA) support different aspects of over the age of 60. This system, which predates the ETSIP programme to improve education. Independence, provides significant support for rural families. A recent evaluation of support Namibia however lacks mechanisms for grants finds that grants to the elderly are regular analysis of programmes designed more effective in poverty reduction (Levine, to support children. A children’s budget van den Berg, & Yu, 2009). The importance is needed to identify key areas of of selection criteria for beneficiaries of grants government expenditure and track to the elderly, which is different from selection allocations over time. Data from a criteria for child welfare payments, is noted as children’s budget could provide a reason for this discrepancy. the baseline for measuring the effectiveness of service delivery The Namibian family is defined by the programmes and the extent Constitution as the fundamental unit of the to which resources reach society. Families have a right to protection and intended beneficiaries. support by the government but the nature of the family structure is undergoing change. The The second broad section number of adults reporting that they have been of this situation analysis married or are in a permanent relationship is addresses cross cutting declining. The number of children who live issues. A number of with both of their parents is below 30%. concerns affect children Long term processes such as urbanisation and regardless of their age or the weakening of traditional family support level of development. The structures, place families under stress. The issues covered are economic HIV and AIDS epidemic has seen child headed growth and child poverty, support households emerge as parents and other adult for children, the family, children caregivers have died. The impact of all these in special circumstances and climate changes to family structure and family life is change. unknown. Poverty has a disproportionate impact on Namibia has developed a system of alternative children. Just over one quarter of Namibian care to assist families and children in need. households are poor, but due to the fact that Where a child needs alternative care, poor households have more children than non- preference is given to placing children either poor households, close to 40% of children with relatives, or within the community. are in poverty. Poverty is a predominantly Namibian courts must take the interests of the rural phenomenon concentrated in the child into consideration. The MGECW assists northern regions of the country. The Kavango, the courts in determining the best course of Ohangwena, Omusati and Oshikoto regions action to protect and support a child. However, contain 60% of the nation’s poor households an insufficient number of social workers at the (Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), 2008). MGECW blocks effective implementation of Education status and age are linked to poverty Namibia’s alternative care system. 4 CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN NAMIBIA 2010
  20. 20. Child labour is prominent in rural areas where children are often required to assist with householdchores. Approximately 30% of children complain that their household chores interfere with otheraspects of their development – school work or time to play. The extent of child labour is not clear.A key factor in this deficiency of information is a lack of trained labour inspectors.Children with disabilities have the right to attend school. Almost allchildren with a disability attend school within their community.Poverty and access to services for disabled children is amajor concern. Specialist services are located in only a Childrensmall number of hospitals around the country makingaccess difficult for low income and poor families. interviewed for thisDespite the fact that many children with disabilities study regularly spoke ofare in school, the capacity of teachers and schoolstaff to support a disabled child is weak. verbal, emotional and physicalClimate change may produce changes in agricultural abuse in the home.productivity and patterns that could have a disruptive impacton children. Northern parts of the country have experiencedfloods in recent years that may be linked to climate change. Thefloods of 2009 in central northern Namibia were particularly disruptive with thousands of peopledisplaced and major services such as transport, education and health affected. Southern and centralregions of the country could be affected through increasing dryness. In the long term, low incomeand poor households will be more vulnerable to climate change because they lack the additionalresources needed to respond. The Namibian government has put a disaster management policyin place that requires each region to actively prepare for disaster. This will include local analysis ofpotential events (for example, flood, drought, or disease), and contingency planning by sector. Akey component of this process is the regionally based capacity to champion the needs of childrenin such plans. The lack of social workers for the MGECW, however, is a concern because theirvoice is needed at regional level to ensure that disaster management plans cater for the child.The third broad section uses the life cycle approach. Three phases of a child’s life are defined; 0to 5 years, 6 to 11 years and 12 to 17 years. The first 12 months of a child’s life requires a set ofinterrelated services that are critical to the well-being of a child for the rest of his or her life. Themajority of Namibian children receive these services but a minority do not. MDG goals for infant,under five and maternal mortality may not be met due to increases in these rates over the pastdecade. Analysis of those who miss out reveals that education, income and location are factorsthat can deny a child services to which he or she has a right. A child whose mother has loweducation, low income or who lives in certain regions in Namibia is more likely not to receive postnatal care, PMTCT treatment, a full set of immunisations or a birth certificate. The key for serviceproviders is to use this knowledge to develop procedures and programmes to reduce barriers toparticipation. Good nutrition is also important at this age but close to 30% of Namibian childrenare stunted. The education level of the mother, low income and region are again factors that areindicative of a child being stunted. Diseases such as malaria and respiratory infections may belinked to living and housing conditions, though this needs to be confirmed. Recent policies andinitiatives to raise the profile of ECD as a positive input to a child’s development have begun. ECDplays an important role in developing the full potential of the child, and thus helps to meet Vision2030 goals.Not all children in the age group 6 to 11 go to school. Just over 90% of all Namibian childrenare likely to complete five years of primary school, when life-long literacy should be assured.But Vision 2030 calls for a highly skilled workforce which means that basic literacy alone is notadequate. The quality of Namibian education was low at the beginning of the decade, whenNamibian students measured last or close to last in basic skill tests when compared to children inother African countries. Major efforts to improve the skills of teachers have been made since thenand the results of this will show in another future study which again compares Namibian studentswith students in other African countries. Children come under stress due to labour issues andproblems in the home. Child labour is problematic in rural areas. A majority of children feel thatSITUATION ANALYSIS 5
  21. 21. work disrupts their lives, including interfering Sexual violence, particularly in sexual debut, is high with their ability to do home work. Children – 20% to 40% of adult Namibians report that their interviewed for this study regularly spoke of first sexual experience was forced. Safety in other verbal, emotional and physical abuse in the areas of life emerges as an issue. One quarter of home. learners report that they sometimes skip school out of fear for their own safety (MoHSS, 2008a). Just A child between the ages of 12 to 17 faces fewer than one in five are the target of bullying many challenges. Success in the final years (MoHSS, 2008a). Adolescents are increasingly of secondary school is important for finding targets of exploitation. Modern communication work later in life. Yet, only 4 in 10 children technologies expose children to new ideas and pass into grade 11. Reasons for this include knowledge. Both opportunities and challenges inadequate space in senior secondary schools, are brought to children by modern technology. Increased access to knowledge can enrich their lives and enhance their education but easy andThe well-being and successful quick communication can open avenues of abuse through bullying. Exposure to predatory adults development of children is a and their enticements can increase the chances of sexual exploitation and trafficking. community concern. The life cycle approach highlights the importance of community for a child. A child is not a set low qualification levels because of poor quality of issues to be analysed; children are integral of education in lower grades, poverty, child members of the communities in which they live. labour issues and pregnancy. Those who miss Their well-being and successful development out can use adult education to rewrite their becomes a community concern. Communities exams. Others face a life of unemployment at need the means by which they can best support worst or low paying jobs at best. their children. This goes beyond providing services to arming communities with the knowledge HIV and AIDS is a concern to children of this required to become active partners in national age in two ways. The first is the potential for development efforts. infection through unprotected sex, although sentinel surveys show that the rate of HIV Namibia’s response to the varied needs of its among girls under 19 is declining. Despite this children is not yet fully formed. Twenty years of trend, the need to continue life skills training independence have seen many positive efforts and other interventions remains. The second to improve the lives of all Namibians, including concern is the emergence of HIV positive Namibian children. Gaps however remain. Many adolescents who are taking Anti Retroviral of these gaps are in the implementation of existing Treatment (ART). These children have special programmes and policies. Specific segments of needs regarding stigmatisation, entry into the population do not receive the basic services sexual relations and maintaining treatment that are their right. Those who miss out can be regimes. The two concerns raise the need to identified and programmes adjusted or created to expand quality life skills training to children. extend services to them. 6 CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN NAMIBIA 2010
  22. 22. 1. Introduction Two decades of Independence have seen the creation of a comprehensive set of policies, structures and services for the development and protection of children and young people. This Situation Analysis of Children and Adolescents describes what has been achieved for children and adolescents and what more is needed if Namibia is to achieve Vision 2030 (Office of the President, 2004). The situation analysis sets out to examine support for children and adolescents coming from the objectives set by Vision 2030 along with the supporting plans, policies, laws and institutional frameworks. It reviews the results through an extensive literature review, interviews with key stakeholders at national and regional levels and through hearing what children themselves have to say. The approach has been to look at children’s experiences through their growth to adulthood and thereby identify what gaps exist and where they exist.1.1 Why this ReportJ ust under half of all Namibians are below the age of 18. The conditions in which children live, the legal and social protections provided for them and the extent to which a child’s growth is nurtured are crucial measures of our society. Over the past twenty years, Namibia has madegreat strides in social, economic and institutional development. Included in this process have beenextensive policy and legal frameworks for the care, support and protection of children. Nationally,the developmental strategy is set by Vision 2030, (Office of the President, 2004)1 supported by theThird National Development Plan (NDP3): 2007/2008 – 2011/2012 (NPC, 2008a)2 , which providesdetailed, intermediate plans through which Vision 2030 can be achieved. Namibia is a signatoryto international frameworks, such as the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) (UnitedNations [UN], 1989), and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) (UN, 2000c). Namibia isthus bound to a rights based approach for its long term social and economic development.The situation analysis for children and adolescents provides a comprehensive picture of acountry’s development efforts. It identifies priority issues and can be used to assist governmentto identify the most critical problems to address when designing programmes and interventionsthat strategically deal with barriers to making progress toward the achievement of the rights andwell-being of children.Caring for children is a complex venture that includes many facets of social life and development.Education, health care, social support, protection of families, protection against exploitation, 1 From now on referred to as Visionprotection when in contact with the law and poverty reduction are all relevant to supporting 2030.children. Thus, an assessment of how Namibia cares for its children gives policy makers and service 2 From now on referred to asproviders an opportunity to consider their efforts and consider a way forward. One such opportunity NDP3.SITUATION ANALYSIS 7
  23. 23. was taken in 1990 and then gleaned was used to describe the status of 1995 with the country’s first children. The voices of children, along with two situation analyses. Written those who support them, provide a constant five years after Independence, reminder that policies and programmes have an during a time when strategies and immediate impact on the lives of children and policies were being developed for a families. To obtain this crucial data component country just emerging from its colonial both Key Informant Interviews (KII) and FGDs past, the 1995 situation analysis had a strong were used. The manner in which this data was focus on rights embedded within the CRC collected is described below. (United Nations Children’s Fund [UNICEF], 1995). Namibia was commended for its Fifty-three Key Informants (KI) representing 35 vigorous work to redress the inequalities of organisations were asked for their opinions apartheid during its first five years of existence. on the status of children. Thirty-three KI were The country was also reminded that children’s based in Windhoek and provided a nationalSome questions asked well-being is a right, and that the nation perspective on children’s issues. The remainingduring the situation had committed itself to ensure those rights 20 were from the Karas, Kavango, Kuneneanalysis included: when it ratified the CRC just six months after and Omaheke regions. Their contributions Independence. provided on-the-ground insights from those• Are the strategies, who experience national level policies and laws, policies and plans This situation analysis has been written at the programmes. Twenty-one were from Ministries, in place and adequate? halfway point between Independence and 2030 six from Development Partners and 23 from• Are the resources – the year in which long-term development NGOs, along with a regional councillor, an available to achieve goals should be realised. This document educationalist and a representative of a the strategies? comes at a crucial time when a wide ranging municipal council.• Is the implementation stock-taking provides the opportunity for mid framework in place journey course corrections. As will be seen in Two hundred and eighteen (218) children and working well? the pages that follow, sustained investment in contributed to the analysis through 26 group• Do parents and social development over the past 20 years has discussions held in February and March 2010 other carers have the considerably improved the education, health in four regions that highlighted the range of knowledge, skills and and welfare services for children. Namibia challenges facing children and their families, resources to play their is now an upper middle-income country particularly relating to poverty.3 Children came roles as duty bearers? (World Bank, 2010a). This status is the result from many different backgrounds: in-school• How does child of economic policies that have resulted in (84%) and out-of-school (16%), rural (42%) development and steady economic growth (Toé, 2010). However and urban (58%), street children (4%), San or protection work in Namibia’s leaders (its policy makers, children’s ovaHimba (16%), disabled (13%) and children practice? advocates, and those who provide services) are held in prison or police cells (4%). The ages• What do children think challenged to use the nation’s wealth in ways of the children were equally spread between about these issues? that effectively promote the fundamental and the age of eight and 17 and there were slightly developmental rights of children. more girls (54%) than boys (46%). Just over half (55%) were orphans. Children of similar It is on this basis that the National Planning backgrounds, ages or gender were grouped3 The four regions selected by the Commission, Government of Namibia, together, to allow the children to expressTWG were Karas, Kavango, Kunene supported by the United Nations Children’s themselves with ease.and Omaheke. The disabled children Fund (UNICEF), conducted this situation analysiswere from various regions but of children and adolescents in Namibia. Various ethical research techniques were usedschooling in Khomas, therefore they during the course of the child participationwere interviewed in Khomas Region. 1.2 Methodology exercises to avoid making the children feelA list of relevant details about the vulnerable and to protect the children fromFocus Group Discussions appears in This analysis is a combination of two approaches: any distress. Organisation of FGDs with theAnnex B a review of national development as it affects children was conducted in close cooperation children is combined with the voices of children with regional social workers from the MGECW, and those who support children. Together, or with relevant schools or local organisations the success of Namibia’s efforts at social who work with children. Social workers were development can be reported and areas where very helpful in organising the groups and were more work is required can be highlighted. also on stand-by in case sensitive issues were The review considered a wide range of policy discussed where children might need psycho- documents, studies and reports. Information social support or referrals. Parents or caregivers 8 CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN NAMIBIA 2010
  24. 24. (or the schools or organisations helping to identify the children) were asked to give their consent tothe children’s participation in the groups. The UNICEF Consent Form was used for this purpose. Inthe introductory remarks before each discussion started, the children were asked for their consentto participate (see Annex C for the focus group instrument including introductory remarks). Theywere also notified that they could opt out of the discussion at any time or refuse to respond toany specific question that might make them uncomfortable. All questions were asked in the formof “Do you know of children in your community or classmates who find themselves in situationXX?” rather than “Are any of you in situation XX?” They were informed that their responseswould be confidential and that their responses would not be linked back to them in any wayor form. They were also told that “nothing that was said in the room should leave the room,”to preserve confidentiality among themselves. Each group discussion lasted about two hourswith a short break in the middle with refreshments. Opportunities, during the break or after thediscussion was concluded, were given for private conversations with the FGD facilitator wherenecessary. For example, if a child drew their own situation in the drawing exercise, any drawingdepicting a sensitive issue was not shown to the other children in the discussion; rather the childwas asked more about the drawing during the break or after the discussion.The purpose of the group discussions was to enable children and adolescentsto share aspects of their lives with children around them. Listening to thechildren was an opportunity to see how children themselves saw theirdaily lives. Doing so in the settings where services, support andresources were less likely to be available was a check on the analysis. ...children’s views aboutFor example, official records of child labour might suggest quitelow numbers of children involved. However, children’s views their daily tasks in the home mightabout their daily tasks in the home might suggest that the scale, suggest that those chores impactextent and impact of those chores on their rights to education on their rights to education andand recreation. The children’s contributions are included in thisanalysis as words and pictures. Captions indicate the age group recreation.and gender of a child but avoid further information that might makeit possible to identify a child through the information used.In addition, a Technical Working Group (TWG) was consulted on a regular basis throughoutreport preparation. The group was made up of officials from the National Planning CommissionSecretariat (NPCS), UNICEF, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Ministry ofGender Equality and Child Welfare (MGECW), the Ministry of Education (MoE), the Ministry ofLabour and Social Welfare (MoLSW), the Ministry of Health and Social Services (MoHSS), the Non-Governmental Organisation’s Forum (NANGOF) Trust and the University of Namibia (UNAM). Otherindividuals joined the Technical Working Group when needed. An Extended TWG reviewed theprocess and reports at two points: 1) after the initial literature review was conducted and 2) aftercompletion of this report. The Extended Technical Workshop Group consisted of approximately40 people drawn from NPCS, MEGCW, MoHSS, MoE, Lifeline/Childline, Regional HIV and AIDSCoordinators, UNICEF, UNDP, European Union (EU) and the NANGOF Trust. Both national andregional views and opinions were therefore taken into consideration.1.3 Structure of the ReportThe report starts with an introduction and a review of the national frameworks, policies, laws andinstitutions, and describes the nature of poverty and its impact on children. There then follows adetailed analysis of the critical issues of life and development for children. Subsequently there isan analysis of the life cycle of children as they grow from birth to adolescence.Chapter 2 describes the policy, legal and institutional framework that supports children, withsome commentary. However, the analysis of how well this framework appears to function isconcentrated in Chapters 3, 4, 5 and 6.Chapter 3 outlines the resources which Namibia has available for supporting its children. Namibiahas seen steady economic growth over the past two decades and in 2008 reached the status ofSITUATION ANALYSIS 9
  25. 25. an upper middle income country. Despite this values. These are years in which a child builds a growth, challenges in income distribution and foundation of language, knowledge, identity, poverty reduction remain. values and social skills without which they will not be able to take the fullest advantage of Chapter 4 considers the critical issues that their future. Questions such as the following affect the life and development of the child are considered: How well do they do at school? and the nation’s support for a child. Questions What support is available for those in particular such as the following were considered: How need? What protection do they require and many children are there? How have they fared receive so that they have the opportunity to as Namibia has grown economically? How do take full advantage of these childhood years? they fare as growing wealth is divided? Poor households and the children living in them Chapter 7 follows children between the ages are discussed in detail before other factors of 13 to 17 years as they make the transition that affect children at any time in their lives to adulthood. Children at this stage experience are considered. Emerging and changing family significant biological and emotional changes. structures and parenting patterns are also They need advanced skills and knowledge to discussed. Special circumstances that children become effective and economically independent may face (such as child labour, violence, disability adults. At the same time they require protection or that of a refugee) are also discussed in this because they are transitioning from childhood chapter, which finishes by looking at emerging to adulthood. issues, such as expanding communication networks and responses to climate change and The final chapter, Chapter 8, brings together natural disasters that children are exposed to. the analysis of gaps and service delivery challenges that have been identified. Rather Chapter 5 follows a child from birth to around than provide a set of recommendations, it the age of five. These are key years for basic describes the level at which different services physical and emotional development. How does could be strengthened. In some cases, policy a mother fare, since her health and well-being and legislation interventions are required, while is a critical starting point for her child? How in other cases better coordination between well are infants and young children nurtured community-level and regionally based service and given the basics for development, through providers are necessary to fill a gap. Namibia immunisation, registration and by gaining has made good progress in terms of child rights. access to Early Childhood Development (ECD) The need is not so much to create something programmes? new, rather it is to sharpen what is often good, prioritise the need of the whole child, Chapter 6 deals with children from six to 12 and ensure that promises to support children years when they attend primary school to and their rights are attuned and match the learn the basic skills needed for society as well economic growth the country has experienced as developing their individual identities and in the last decade.10 CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN NAMIBIA 2010
  26. 26. 2. The National Framework Investing in children is central to the development targets set out in Namibia’s long-term strategy, Vision 2030 (Office of the President, 2004). The Government’s medium term development plans shape children’s rights by guiding development and operational activities in a way that meets the best interests of children. These interests are defined in national policies and laws, which are shaped by international documents, which set standards and enhance international collaboration. An institutional framework that includes nine out of 19 Ministries, many NGOs and development partners, is identified and focuses on the development support and protection of children in Namibia. Today’s newborn child will be an adult citizen in 2030. A generation of children has already matured in an independent nation that is now ranked as an upper middle-income country. A Namibian child exists within a comprehensive web of rights, such as the right to education, the right to protection, the right to participation, the right to good health and many more. Vision 2030 (Office of the President, 2004) seeks to support Namibians to ‘fully realise their full potential’. Investment in children, from the new born child and his or her mother through to adulthood, calls for a comprehensive and integrated approach.2.1 IntroductionNamibia has built an impressive framework of support for its children. Almost all children enrol forprimary education. Health care is widely accessible. Women and children in need can find referralservices from Woman and Children Protection Units (WACPUs) which operate in all regions andlarge population centres. A range of grants are available for those in need. These, and otherservices, are examples of the nation’s commitment to its children’s development. Their existenceis based on the investment of resources to put these services in place and make sure the servicesreach and are used properly.The programmes also depend on a strong legal and institutional framework and this Chapterdescribes this. The overall context lies in the National Constitution and Vision 2030 sets theStrategy. NDP3 establishes the detailed plans that lead towards Vision 2030. International andregional conventions and agreements establish standards and tools by which national frameworkscan be supported in an integrated world. National policies, laws and programmes that guidestrategies, standards and plans in practice are described, followed by the institutions that put thewhole framework into practice.SITUATION ANALYSIS 11
  27. 27. Vision 2030: ...ensure that Namibia is a fair, gender responsive, caring and committed nation. 2.2 National and 2.2.2 Vision 2030 International Frameworks Vision 2030 is a strategy, adopted in 2003, through which Namibia might achieve developed 2.2.1 Namibian Constitution country status by 2030. It contains eight broad goals (Office of the President, 2004). With Namibia’s Constitution provides a children representing almost half the population, comprehensive set of fundamental particular goals are directly relevant to this rights and freedoms for all. Article analysis4: 15 speaks specifically to children and their circumstances: • Objective 1. Ensure that Namibia is a fair, gender responsive, caring and committed • Children shall have the right nation, in which its citizens are able to from birth to a name, the right to realise their full potential, in a safe and acquire a nationality and, subject decent living environment. to legislation enacted in the best • Objective 2. Create and consolidate a interests of children, as far as legitimate, effective and democratic possible the right to know their political system (under the Constitution) parents and to be cared for by and an equitable, tolerant, free society them. that is characterized by sustainable and • Children are entitled to be protected from equitable development and effective economic exploitation and shall not be institutions, which guarantee peace and employed in or required to perform work political stability. that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere • Objective 3. Develop diversified, competent with their education, or to be harmful to their and highly productive human resources health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or and institutions, fully utilising human social development. For the purposes of this potential; and achieving efficient andNamibian Sub Article, children shall be persons under effective delivery of customer-focused the age of sixteen (16) years. services, which are competitive, notConstitution: • No children under the age of fourteen (14) only nationally, but regionally and years shall be employed to work in any internationally.Children have a factory or mine, save under conditions and • Objective 4. Change Namibia into circumstances regulated by Act of Parliament. an industrialised country of equalright to a name Nothing in this Sub-Article shall be construed opportunities, for all Namibians. Make the country globally competitive with maximum as derogating in any way from Sub-Article (2)and nationality hereof. growth potential on a sustainable basis. • Any arrangement or scheme employed on • Objective 5. Ensure a healthy, food-secured any farm or other undertaking, the object and breastfeeding nation, in which allChildren shall or effect of which is to compel the minor preventable, infectious and parasitic children of an employee to work for or in the diseases are under secure control, and innot be interest of the employer of such employee, which people enjoy a high standard of living. Ensure that the people have access shall for the purposes of Article 9 hereofemployed be deemed to constitute an arrangement to high quality education, good health and other vital services, in an atmosphere or scheme to compel the performance of forced labour. of sustainable population growth and • No law authorising preventive detention shall development. permit children under the age of sixteen (16) • Objective 6. Ensure the development of years to be detained. Namibia’s natural capital (land, minerals, marine resources, wildlife and beautiful Other parts of the Constitution also affect landscapes) for the country’s social, children and are touched upon in this analysis. economic and ecological well-being Article 14 recognises the family as “the natural • Objective 7. Accomplish the transformation and fundamental group unit of society…entitled of Namibia into a knowledge-based, highly to protection by society.” Article 20 protects competitive, industrialised and eco-friendly4 The presentation follows that of nation, with sustainable economic growth the right of all persons to education, includingNDP3 (NPC, 2008a) to show the and a high quality of life. the right to primary education without chargeharmony with the KRA of NDP3. (Government of Namibia, 1990). 12 CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN NAMIBIA 2010
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