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Pro-equity social policies        for Children in China         ------ through the view of    Poverty Alleviation and Deve...
LGOP1 Institutional function of LGOP2 China’s success on poverty reduction3 Factors behind China’s success poverty reducti...
1 Institutional function of The State    Council Leading Group of Poverty      Alleviation and Development( 1 ) The State ...
LGOP                      Structural Map of LGOPTeam Leader: VicePremier Mr. HUI Liangyu                                  ...
( 2 ) LGOP (The State Council Leading Group Office  of Poverty Alleviation and Development )  Function: Executive Agency f...
LGOP Organizational Chart for Government Departments     on Poverty Reduction on Different LevelsThe State Council Leading...
2 China’s Success on Poverty Reduction Through the 33 years after the reform, poverty reduction in China achieved world re...
(1) Poor Population substantially                reducedRural population of absolute poverty has beenreduced from 250 mill...
LGOP   Poor Population substantially reducedPopulation( 10,000persons )    30000    25000    20000                        ...
Dropping number of absolute poor and poverty                   incidence                                     Num ber of ab...
Poverty incidence in ChinaAmount of poor population under different poverty lines908070                  $ 1.25 Internatio...
( 2 ) Rural household income keeps            increasing  From 1989 to 2008, net income for rural  household in the nation...
Rural household income keeps increasing in the       nationally focused poverty county( Yuan  ) 5000 4500 4000 3500       ...
LGOPNet income growth rate for rural households in thenationally focused poverty counties continuously(%)    higher than t...
LGOP ( 3 ) Rural infrastructure dramatically               improvedChanges in the nationally focused poor villages from 20...
Rural infrastructure dramatically improved                    2002120%                                                    ...
( 4 ) Social development continues to               growFrom 2002 to 2008 :Percentage of kinder garden and pre-school educ...
73.70%qualified midwife                      9.58%   qualified rural                        77.40%    doctors and         ...
( 5 ) Regional economy accelerates       pace of developmentIndustrial structure, employment structurebetter adjusted in n...
Regional Allocation of Poor Population from               1981-2005              (WWW.WORLDBANK.ORG.CN)                   ...
Contribution to the world poverty                 reductionBased on the Chinese Government Standard on poverty, ruralpopul...
3 Development of poverty reduction in China Growth of poverty reduction in the past 31 years can be   divided into three p...
(1)1978-1985Institutional reform  pushed poverty reductionReform abolished the rural collectivism, setup household based “...
(2)1986-2007National plan pushed      poverty reduction Divided into three phases                                   24
1986-1993 starting phase :• found leadership organization• confirm working scope• set up criteria for poverty  reduction• ...
1994-2000 development phase : Implement the “National Eight-Seven       Poverty Reduction Plan”feed 80 million rural poor ...
2001-2007 continuous     development : Implement “The China National Plan for Rural Poverty Reduction (2001-2010)” The 16t...
( 3 ) 2007-present“two-wheel mode for poverty reduction” 2007 set up minimum living allowance system for rural areas (nati...
4 Factors behind China’s Success       Poverty Reduction Story( 1 ) reform and opening-up policy, institutional innovation...
( 1 ) Reform and opening up policy, institutionalinnovation        Poverty is not socialism !                  In December...
( group photo of people whotook the lead in “Dabaogan”-agricultural system of allowingresponsibility to individual )      ...
“two-wheel ” mode forpoverty reduction :set up minimum livingallowance systemEnhance poverty lineImplement two wheel modef...
( 2 ) economic growth strengthen         infrastructureFrom 1978 to 2007, maintain average annual growth of 9.8%for thirty...
( 3 ) Integrate urban-rural development   and implement repayment policy  Four kinds of subsidies, four kinds of waivers  ...
( 4 ) Development based poverty     reduction and self reliance                 two reflections     Economic development w...
Relation between development and relief   Relief is key to survival while development facilitates   development   Relief i...
Increasing of the Central Government Fund           for Poverty Reduction             ( 1986 - 2009 )200180160140120100806...
3. Main methods for development    based poverty reduction   Government initiative   Social participation   Self reliance ...
Yearly investment on poverty reduction                          2002     2003     2004     2005     2006     2007     2008...
4. Challenges faced by poverty      reduction in China  Large scale  Gravity of poverty  Return to poverty phenomenon  Inc...
Large scaleNew poverty line implemented bythe Chinese government since2008, increased to 1196 Yuanwith coverage of 40 mill...
Poverty population ( in million 2005PPP )    Poverty line   1.00    1.25     1.45     2.00     2.50AreaEast Asia,         ...
  World Bank : amount of poor population (unit: million)                                                           43
Depth of poverty                      i ncom per capi t a                            e                  pover t y l i ne45...
Ratio of rural poverty standard to national per capita             income for rural population                            ...
Return to poverty manifestChinese poor areas are 5 times more prone to disasterdamage than the national average levelAmong...
Income gap increases                       47
48
Impacts of global financial crisis and            economic recession           Coast export enterprises close           pr...
Cabbage Saleshardship for the Xia’Yicounty, HenanProvince                          Earlier return of migrant              ...
7 Plans for the futurePoverty reduction enters a newphaseLong-term historical taskGoalsNational strategy for povertyreduct...
Poverty reduction enters a new phasePoor population decreased greatlyMinimum living allowance system set up in ruralareasN...
“two wheel ” mode for poverty reduction  Traditional “relief” based poverty reduction-  agricultural society  Development ...
Long-term historical taskPoverty reduction in the new phase is a long-termhistorical task requiring consistent efforts to ...
Gini co-efficientSince the start of the reform, China’s Ginicoefficient has been ever increasing: 0.16 for1978 and 0.4 plu...
Figure 2.32: China ’s income inequality during its reform process                               (Gini coefficient 1981-200...
Figure 2.37: increasing urban inequality and rural inequality              (Rural Gini coefficient and urban Gini coeffici...
GoalsBy 2020 , eliminate absolute povertyWhat is absolute poverty and signs of absolutepoverty?Minimum living allowance is...
National Strategy for Poverty ReductionPrevious strategies built on the base of agriculture provision andsupport to indust...
New poverty linePrevious two poverty linesNew line is the previous line for low incomeA gradual process of increasing of p...
Prioritized tasks“Outline for poverty reduction in ruralChina ( 2001-2010 )” prioritize solution toabsolute poverty as the...
Focus of effortsPriority given to self-development capacity building ofrural poor populationMinimum living allowance syste...
Important work areas Comprehensive village developmentThe “rain and dew plan”Industry led poverty reductionimmigration bas...
China child protection laws systemConstitution: The right to education is the citizen enjoys according to law,states must ...
China child protection laws systemConstitutionLaw on the Protection of MinorsLaw of MariageMaternal and infant health care...
The student nutrition meal planFrom the beginning with the fall 2010 semester, the central and local governmentshave impro...
Main measures      --- the student nutrition meal planEstablishment of canteen: Boarding school lasting 5days per week, th...
Early childhood development in poor areasChina launched pilot program in 2009 September and 2011 April (inQinghai Ledu, Yu...
Problems and challengesChildren affected by migration. including the 27 million childrenwho have moved to cities with thei...
Children affected by disasters . China is prone to a range ofnatural disasters, with roughly 200 million people affected e...
Thanks!          71
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Pro-equity social policies for Children in China: through the view of Poverty Alleviation and Development

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Présentation de Tan Weiping, Deputy Director-General of the External Cooperation Department, China, à la Conférence Internationale d'Experts sur la mesure et les approches politiques pour améliorer l'équité pour les nouvelles générations dans la région MENA à Rabat, Maroc du 22 au 23 mai 2012.

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  • 这是 2006 年春节期间,胡锦涛总书记到革命老区陕北的安塞县(重点县)沿河湾镇慰问群众。
  • 建议把范主任原稿中的话分别融进去,“建立家庭承包经营体制,奠定制度基础;变“输血”为“造血”,确立开发式扶贫的方针;城乡统筹,形成大扶贫的工作格局”
  • 这个图和下一个图似乎放在“开发扶贫、自力更生”那块比较好
  • Transcript of "Pro-equity social policies for Children in China: through the view of Poverty Alleviation and Development"

    1. 1. Pro-equity social policies for Children in China ------ through the view of Poverty Alleviation and Development Tan Weiping PH.D Deputy Director General Department of International Cooperation and Social MobilizationState Council Leading Group Office for Poverty Alleviation and Development (LGOP), P.R. China Tel: + 86 10 84419687, + 86 13910803163 E-mail: tanweiping@cpad.gov.cn, tanwp@vip.sina.com
    2. 2. LGOP1 Institutional function of LGOP2 China’s success on poverty reduction3 Factors behind China’s success poverty reduction story4 Challenges faced by China’s poverty reduction5 The student nutrition meal plan6 Early childhood development in poor areas7 Problems and challenges 2
    3. 3. 1 Institutional function of The State Council Leading Group of Poverty Alleviation and Development( 1 ) The State Council Leading Group of Poverty Alleviation and Development Founded:16th May 1986 Member: Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Civil Affairs, and Ministry of Health, and other 27 government ministries Institutional function: Consulting and coordinating body for the State Council 3
    4. 4. LGOP Structural Map of LGOPTeam Leader: VicePremier Mr. HUI Liangyu Ministry ofNational Development People’s Bank of Finance and Reform China Commission State Council Ministry of Ministry of Leading Group Science and Agriculture Technology Ministry of Education National Bureau 27 other ministries of Statistics 4
    5. 5. ( 2 ) LGOP (The State Council Leading Group Office of Poverty Alleviation and Development ) Function: Executive Agency for the State Council Leading Group Task: propose policy plan and recommendation, allocation plan for poverty reduction fund, mobilize works for poverty reduction, guide local poverty reduction efforts, undertake routine work assigned by the State Council 5
    6. 6. LGOP Organizational Chart for Government Departments on Poverty Reduction on Different LevelsThe State Council Leading Group LGOP Provincial (Autonomous Region) leading group Provincial (Autonomous Region) LGOP Prefecture leading group Provincial (Autonomous Region) LGOP County leading group County LGOP Leadership Guidance and Township poverty Coordination reduction focal point 6
    7. 7. 2 China’s Success on Poverty Reduction Through the 33 years after the reform, poverty reduction in China achieved world renowned success(1)Poor Population substantially reduced(2)Rural household income keeps increasing(3)Infrastructure improved greatly(4)Social development continues to grow(5) Regional economy accelerates pace of development 7
    8. 8. (1) Poor Population substantially reducedRural population of absolute poverty has beenreduced from 250 million in 1978, to 14.79 million in2007, its share in rural poor population reduced from30.7% to 1.6%Population of lower income reduced from 6.213million in 2000 to 2.841 million, its share in ruralpopulation reduced from 6.7% to 3% 8
    9. 9. LGOP Poor Population substantially reducedPopulation( 10,000persons ) 30000 25000 20000 absol ut e pover t y 15000 l ower 10000 i ncom e 5000 0 85 93 02 07 78 00 19 19 19 20 20 20 9
    10. 10. Dropping number of absolute poor and poverty incidence Num ber of absol ut eNumber of absolute poor Absolute poverty poor ( 10,000 Absol ut e pover t y incidence ( % persons ) i nci dence ) 35000 35 30000 30 25000 25 20000 20 15000 15 10000 10 5000 5 0 0 78 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 01 03 05 07 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 19 19 19 19 20 10
    11. 11. Poverty incidence in ChinaAmount of poor population under different poverty lines908070 $ 1.25 International poverty line60504030 $ 1.08 poverty line2010 Poverty line set by the0 Chinese government 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2001 2005 2007 11
    12. 12. ( 2 ) Rural household income keeps increasing From 1989 to 2008, net income for rural household in the nationally focused poverty county increased from 303 Yuan to 2611 Yuan From 2003 to 2007, net income for rural household in the nationally focused poverty county increased from 1305 Yuan to 2278 Yuan, with five-year average annual growth of 9.04%, continuously higher than the national average level of 7.47% 12
    13. 13. Rural household income keeps increasing in the nationally focused poverty county( Yuan ) 5000 4500 4000 3500 nat i onal 3000 aver age l evel 2500 nat i onal l y 2000 f ocused pover t y 1500 count y 1000 500 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 13
    14. 14. LGOPNet income growth rate for rural households in thenationally focused poverty counties continuously(%) higher than the national average level141210 nat i onal 8 aver age l evel 6 nat i onal l y f ocused 4 pover t y count y 2 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 14
    15. 15. LGOP ( 3 ) Rural infrastructure dramatically improvedChanges in the nationally focused poor villages from 2002 to 2008: Road access 72.21% → 84.4% ; Electricity 92.79% → 96.8% ; Telephone 52.39% → 87.5% ; Television and radio 83.68% → 92.9% 。 15
    16. 16. Rural infrastructure dramatically improved 2002120% 2008100% 96. 8% 92. 8% 92. 9% 84. 4% 87. 5% 83. 7%80% 72. 2%60% 52. 4%40%20% 0% Road access El ect r i ci t y Tel ephone Tel evi si on and r adi o 16
    17. 17. ( 4 ) Social development continues to growFrom 2002 to 2008 :Percentage of kinder garden and pre-school education invillages increased from 7.38% to 55.2%;Percentage of rural medical facilities in villages increasedfrom 9.86% to 77.4%;Percentage of qualified rural doctors and sanitary staff invillages increased from 10.18% to 77.4%;Percentage of qualified midwife in villages increased from9.58% to 73.7% 17
    18. 18. 73.70%qualified midwife 9.58% qualified rural 77.40% doctors and 10.18% sanitary staff 2008 2002 rural medical 77.40% facilities 9.86% kinder garden 55.20% and pre-school 7.38% education 18
    19. 19. ( 5 ) Regional economy accelerates pace of developmentIndustrial structure, employment structurebetter adjusted in nationally focused poorcounties, accelerated development realized inresource giant and tourism giant counties withstructure adjustment completed 19
    20. 20. Regional Allocation of Poor Population from 1981-2005   (WWW.WORLDBANK.ORG.CN) 20
    21. 21. Contribution to the world poverty reductionBased on the Chinese Government Standard on poverty, ruralpopulation haunted with absolute poverty has been reduced from 85million (9.6% of rural population) in 1990 to 14.79 million (1.6% of ruralpopulation) in 2007. China is the developing country reaching thepoverty reduction dimension of UN MDGs. Even if applying the UNMDG inherent international poverty line of $ 1 per person per day, ruralpopulation living under this line has been reduced from 46% in 1990 to10.4% in 2005. This also testifies the reach of China for povertyreduction within the MDG context.From 1990 to 2005 , the world population living under the line of $1/per day has been reduced to 1.4 billion with a reduction of 418 million(23% reduction). The world poor population has increased by 58million if China is excluded.(“China’s Progress Towards the MDGs” jointly drafted by the Ministryof Foreign Affairs, China and UNDP) 21
    22. 22. 3 Development of poverty reduction in China Growth of poverty reduction in the past 31 years can be divided into three phases : (1)1978-1 985 institutional reform pushed poverty reduction; (2) 1986-2007 national plans pushed poverty reduction; (3) 2007-present “two-wheel ” mode for poverty reduction. 22
    23. 23. (1)1978-1985Institutional reform pushed poverty reductionReform abolished the rural collectivism, setup household based “two-leveled” operationsystem , freed the market and price ofagricultural products and markets, greatlydeveloped productivityAlso during this phase poor populationdecreased from 250 million to 125 million 23
    24. 24. (2)1986-2007National plan pushed poverty reduction Divided into three phases 24
    25. 25. 1986-1993 starting phase :• found leadership organization• confirm working scope• set up criteria for poverty reduction• arrange exclusive fund• accumulate working experience Poor population reduced from 125 million to 75 million with an annual reduction of 6.25 million 25
    26. 26. 1994-2000 development phase : Implement the “National Eight-Seven Poverty Reduction Plan”feed 80 million rural poor population inabout seven yearspoor people reduced to 32.09 millionannual reduction of 6.13 million 26
    27. 27. 2001-2007 continuous development : Implement “The China National Plan for Rural Poverty Reduction (2001-2010)” The 16th National Representative Meeting of CCP Concept for Scientific Development Integrated Urban-Rural Development Policy of encouraging industry to support agriculture and urban to help rural, investing more in and taking less from the rural area Implement the “re-payment” policyPropose new poverty line on low income Population of absolute poverty reduced from 32.09 million to 14.79 million Population of low income reduced from 62.13 million to 28.41 million 3.88 annual reduction of poor population below low income line in the first twoyears 8.6 million annual reduction of poor population below low income line in the 27latter five years
    28. 28. ( 3 ) 2007-present“two-wheel mode for poverty reduction” 2007 set up minimum living allowance system for rural areas (national scope) 2008 found the new poverty reduction line passed by the 3rd meeting of the 17th national congress of CCP, poverty reduction policy covers low-income population 2008 Vice Premier HUI Liang Yu announced on the 1st meeting of the State Council Leading Group for Poverty Alleviation and Development that China has begun its “Two-wheel ” mode of poverty reduction with development based approach and relief based approach combined. 28
    29. 29. 4 Factors behind China’s Success Poverty Reduction Story( 1 ) reform and opening-up policy, institutional innovation( 2 ) economic growth, strengthened economic basis( 3 ) integrate urban and rural development, implement re-payment policy( 4 ) development based poverty reduction and self reliance 29
    30. 30. ( 1 ) Reform and opening up policy, institutionalinnovation Poverty is not socialism ! In December 1978, the 3rd Plenary Meeting of the 11th Central Committee of CCP, confirmed the strategic decision to shift on economic construction 30
    31. 31. ( group photo of people whotook the lead in “Dabaogan”-agricultural system of allowingresponsibility to individual ) Specific plans drivenInstitutional reform driven poverty reduction :poverty reduction : identify development basedintroduce reform and opening poverty reduction principle, Integrated urban rural povertyup policy, scrap people’s “turning blood transfusion reduction strategy: economiccommune, establish to blood creation”, build the development, rural urbanhousehold responsibility poor’s self development development is coordinated, asystem capacities. grand poverty reduction structure 31 has taken shape.
    32. 32. “two-wheel ” mode forpoverty reduction :set up minimum livingallowance systemEnhance poverty lineImplement two wheel modefor poverty reduction 32
    33. 33. ( 2 ) economic growth strengthen infrastructureFrom 1978 to 2007, maintain average annual growth of 9.8%for thirty yearsStable price, economic prosperityCreate abundant employment, 200 million rural labor turn onnon-agriculture postsAgricultural infrastructure strengthened with outputs increasedremarkablyFeed 22% of world population with 9% land and 6% waterresources, ensure basic need for food and conditions forstructural adjustment 33
    34. 34. ( 3 ) Integrate urban-rural development and implement repayment policy Four kinds of subsidies, four kinds of waivers Regulation for least purchasing price Rural infrastructure construction (road, water, electricity and gas) Rural social development (education, medical) Minimum living allowance system in rural areas 34
    35. 35. ( 4 ) Development based poverty reduction and self reliance two reflections Economic development won’t tilt to the poor by itself ; Relief won’t improve the poor’s capacity for developmentSpecific poverty reduction plans and measures are necessaryStick to the principle of development based poverty reduction approach 35
    36. 36. Relation between development and relief Relief is key to survival while development facilitates development Relief is temporary, development is permanent relief heads for low, development pursue continuous growth Relief pertains only to material, development considers capacity Relief is to offer, development is to create 36
    37. 37. Increasing of the Central Government Fund for Poverty Reduction ( 1986 - 2009 )20018016014012010080604020 01986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 37
    38. 38. 3. Main methods for development based poverty reduction Government initiative Social participation Self reliance Development based poverty reduction approach Scientific development 38
    39. 39. Yearly investment on poverty reduction  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008fund of centralgovernment 106 114 122 130 137 144 167.34(including funds foremployment as aids)Interest subsidizedloans for poverty 185 185 185 90 142 124 141reductionLocal cost sharing 33.4 35.4 44.2 46.1 55.7 65.6 49.24Foreign investment 8.49 15.35 10.06 2.28 2.03 1.44 1.59Total 332.89 349.75 361.26 268.38 336.73 335.04 359.17(unit:100 million Yuan) 39
    40. 40. 4. Challenges faced by poverty reduction in China Large scale Gravity of poverty Return to poverty phenomenon Income gap Global financial crisis and economic recession 40
    41. 41. Large scaleNew poverty line implemented bythe Chinese government since2008, increased to 1196 Yuanwith coverage of 40 million people 41
    42. 42. Poverty population ( in million 2005PPP ) Poverty line 1.00 1.25 1.45 2.00 2.50AreaEast Asia, 179.8 336.9 388.6 748.3 987.2PacificChina 106.1 207.7 216.5 473.7 645.6East Europe 16.0 23.9 30.9 50.1 69.5Latin America 27.6 45.1 59.9 98.7 132.9Mid-east and 6.2 14.0 23.2 58.0 94.3north AfricaSouth-Africa 350.3 595.5 772.2 1091.6 1246.4India 266.5 455.8 590.3 827.7 938.0Sub-Sahara 299.1 384.2 442.0 551.0 609.9AfricaTotal 879.0 1399.6 1716.8 2597.8 3140.2 42
    43. 43.   World Bank : amount of poor population (unit: million) 43
    44. 44. Depth of poverty i ncom per capi t a e pover t y l i ne45004000350030002500200015001000 500 0 1978 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 The increasing pace of poverty line has long lagged behind the growth rate of farmers’ income 44
    45. 45. Ratio of rural poverty standard to national per capita income for rural population Ratio to the Net income Line for Ratio to the Line for national for rural Lower national absolute average population income average level poverty level2002 2476 869 35.1% 627 25.3%2003 2622 882 33.6% 637 24.3%2004 2936 924 31.5% 668 22.8%2005 3255 944 29.0% 683 21.0%2006 3587 958 26.7% 693 19.3%2007 4140 1067 25.8% 785 19.0% 45
    46. 46. Return to poverty manifestChinese poor areas are 5 times more prone to disasterdamage than the national average levelAmong the 40.07 million Chinese poor population, twothirds on the verge of returning to povertyReturn to poverty is more manifest now than ever 46
    47. 47. Income gap increases 47
    48. 48. 48
    49. 49. Impacts of global financial crisis and economic recession Coast export enterprises close production or semi-closed Employment difficulties Migrant workers from poor areas return Price of agricultural products decrease Resource advantage of poor counties hindered Market fluctuation trigger poverty returnTraditional, combined with newly emerged factorsincreased unpredictability of poverty reduction work 49
    50. 50. Cabbage Saleshardship for the Xia’Yicounty, HenanProvince Earlier return of migrant workers from Guizhou Province Financial crisis exacerbated employment hardship for college graduates 50
    51. 51. 7 Plans for the futurePoverty reduction enters a newphaseLong-term historical taskGoalsNational strategy for povertyreductionNew poverty linePrioritized tasksFocus of effortsImportant work areas 51
    52. 52. Poverty reduction enters a new phasePoor population decreased greatlyMinimum living allowance system set up in ruralareasNew poverty lineEnters in the “Two-wheel ” phase of povertyreduction which combines “poverty reduction andrelief” 52
    53. 53. “two wheel ” mode for poverty reduction Traditional “relief” based poverty reduction- agricultural society Development based poverty reduction—reform and opening-up Set up minimum living allowance system— industrialization, urbanization Set up minimum living allowance system in rural areas—industry facilitates agriculture, urban supports rural Two wheel mode resulted from urbanization 53
    54. 54. Long-term historical taskPoverty reduction in the new phase is a long-termhistorical task requiring consistent efforts to ensurewelfare of people and success of the reform policyPoverty reduction is not only to feed the hungry,capacity building, income gap reducing and buildingof harmonious society also need to be prioritizedPoverty can not be always perceived fromperspective of absolute poverty 54
    55. 55. Gini co-efficientSince the start of the reform, China’s Ginicoefficient has been ever increasing: 0.16 for1978 and 0.4 plus for 1998.In 2007, China’s overall Gini coefficient stoodat 0.48, with its urban Gini coefficient at 0.34and rural figure at 0.37.The World Bank’s World Development Report2006 suggests that among 127 countries, 94have lower Gini coefficients than China, only29 have higher numbers among which 27 areLatin American or African countries. 55
    56. 56. Figure 2.32: China ’s income inequality during its reform process (Gini coefficient 1981-2005) Adjusted on the basis of urban- rural living cost differencies Urban rural living cost differencies Adjusted on the basis of regional living cost differenciesNote: figures before the year 2001(including 2001) come from Chen and Ravallion(2004);figures for 2001 onward come from World Bank assessment based on rural-urban householdsurveies conducted by country statistics bureaus. 56
    57. 57. Figure 2.37: increasing urban inequality and rural inequality (Rural Gini coefficient and urban Gini coefficient 1981-2005) Rural areas Gini coef ficient Urban areasNote: figures for 2003 come from World Bank assessment based on rural-urbanhousehold surveies conducted by country statistics bureaus; other figures from Chenand Ravallion(2004). 57
    58. 58. GoalsBy 2020 , eliminate absolute povertyWhat is absolute poverty and signs of absolutepoverty?Minimum living allowance is a “bottom-line”institutional arrangementTo eliminate absolute poverty is a periodical goal,while solving poverty is a long-term taskA practical goal: pace of income increasing in poorcounties faster than the national average level 58
    59. 59. National Strategy for Poverty ReductionPrevious strategies built on the base of agriculture provision andsupport to industriesGrand poverty reduction consists of urban-rural integration andrepayment policyStick to the principle of development based poverty reduction(basis for the strategy)Minimum living allowance system connected with developmentbased poverty reduction is the core of the new strategyRelations between specific poverty reduction programs and socialpoverty reduction clarifiedSpecific poverty reduction programs, sponsored and targetedpoverty reduction programs, West east poverty reductioncooperation, sector based poverty reduction programs 59
    60. 60. New poverty linePrevious two poverty linesNew line is the previous line for low incomeA gradual process of increasing of poverty lineStart from the Chinese contextHeight of level irrelevant to work performance andresultsIntegrated with rural policies on other aspects 60
    61. 61. Prioritized tasks“Outline for poverty reduction in ruralChina ( 2001-2010 )” prioritize solution toabsolute poverty as the main task“Decisions on vital challenges to pushingforward rural reform and development”emphasizes the quickest solution for povertyreduction and rural enrichment as the firsttask 61
    62. 62. Focus of effortsPriority given to self-development capacity building ofrural poor populationMinimum living allowance system in rural area targetspoor population of non-laboring capacity or losinglaboring capacity as focus of social relief and aidsOverlapping of target might incur but through differentfunctional channels 62
    63. 63. Important work areas Comprehensive village developmentThe “rain and dew plan”Industry led poverty reductionimmigration based poverty reductionComprehensive management forspecific poverty typesPoor villages damaged by theWenchuan earthquake 63
    64. 64. China child protection laws systemConstitution: The right to education is the citizen enjoys according to law,states must provide equal education opportunities and conditions, in order toobtain the equal opportunity of survival and development of fundamental rights.Law on the Protection of Minors: Specifies a minors enjoy the right tolife, right to development, protected right, right of participation rights, stateaccording to the minors physical and mental development characteristics, toensure the special priority protection, safeguard the legitimate rights andinterests of minors are inviolable.Law of Mariage: protection of children s right to life, intergenerationalsupport obligations to expand, strengthen the protection of the rights of children,protection of illegitimate’s rightMaternal and infant health care law: neonatal disease screeningThe compulsory education law: guarantee school-age children the rightto receive education 64
    65. 65. China child protection laws systemConstitutionLaw on the Protection of MinorsLaw of MariageMaternal and infant health care lawThe compulsory education lawLaw of SuccessionLaw of AdoptionLow of TeacherLabor LawLaw of population and family planningLaw of woman-right GuaranteesPrevention of adult criminal lawThe Development Outline for Chinese Women and Children 65
    66. 66. The student nutrition meal planFrom the beginning with the fall 2010 semester, the central and local governmentshave improved the rural school meal subsidies standards, rural boarding studentsfrom the primary school living allowance 2 yuan (Chinese money) per person perday increased to 3 yuan RMB per person per day, junior high school students from3 yuan to 4 yuan per person per day. The central finance for special expenditureshave reached 7.4 billion yuan, local form a complete set also reached 7.4 billionyuan. Therefore, subsidy funds have exceeded 14 billion yuan. The grant funds aremainly used for boarding school meals.In 2011, Chinese State Council decided to carry out the pilot plan in minority areasand poor areas to improve student nutrition meal. The first batch in Ningxiaautonomous region, about 31 rural communities in 11 counties was the pilotimplementation of "feeding" plan. On October 26, 2011, the State Councilsexecutive meeting decided from 2011 autumn semester beginning, starting theimplementation of compulsory education student nutrition improvement program inthe countryside. In the concentrated special difficult areas, about 680 counties,approximately 26 million students have been improved nutrition meal allowance,while boarding pupils subsidies reaching to 4 yuan per person per day and middleschool students to 5 yuan per day.This subsidy policy has obviously effected to promote school meals, the nutritionsituation and physical quality of students. 66
    67. 67. Main measures --- the student nutrition meal planEstablishment of canteen: Boarding school lasting 5days per week, the canteen is the essential facility for studentseating supplyThe subsidy funds directly to the school, butnot to the parents of the students.Governments at all levels have increased thebudget for boarding pupils feeding.Establish a supervision mechanism, to ensurethe funds securely and effectively use. 67
    68. 68. Early childhood development in poor areasChina launched pilot program in 2009 September and 2011 April (inQinghai Ledu, Yunnan Xundian): The pilot project includes two parts: nutritionintervention and early education, specifically in three stages, according to thedifferent crowdMaternal nutritional supplements and" mother " school training. Forpregnant women to provide free multiple micronutrient nutrition and healthexamination. In township hospitals and village clinics set up "the mother school", forpregnant women and mothers of infants on nutrition knowledge training.Infant nutrition intervention: soybean meal " nutrition package" – containsaggrandizement of iron, zinc, calcium, vitamins and other11 kinds of nutrients forinfant food supplementsEarly childhood education (3 to 5 years old): recruitment of teachers andvolunteers, provides convenient access for children in remote villages. 68
    69. 69. Problems and challengesChildren affected by migration. including the 27 million childrenwho have moved to cities with their migrant worker parents, but lack urbanresidence status and access to basic social services; and the 55 million childrenof migrant parents left behind in rural areas, often under inadequate careconditions.Children living in poor, rural and remote communities .China’s huge population of 1.33 billion people means that it still has over 100million children who are poor, as estimated by UNICEF using the World Bank’spoverty measure of per capita consumption under US $2 per day. Chinacontinues to rank fifth in the world for number of deaths of children under theage of five (347,000 in 2009). The under-five mortality rate in rural areas isaround three times that in urban or coastal areas, due to poorer access toquality health services and financial means. Access to education, clean waterand sanitation also lag in these areas. 69
    70. 70. Children affected by disasters . China is prone to a range ofnatural disasters, with roughly 200 million people affected each year. The impactof these disasters tends to be greatest on the poorest and most vulnerable, aswitnessed in 2010 in the Yushu earthquake, Zhouqu mudslide and southwesternChina drought emergencies, all of which struck poor areas where developmentindicators lagged behind national averages, even before the emergency. TheYushu earthquake and southwestern China drought also struck areas with largeethnic minority populations .Children and women affected by HIV/AIDS . Womenincreasingly make up a greater proportion of people living with HIV/AIDS, from15% in 1998 to 30% of the estimated 740,000 people living with HIV in China in2009. Only 22.4% of the estimated HIV-positive pregnant women have access toPMTCT services.Other vulnerable children include street children,unaccompanied children , working children and childrenwith disabilities . 70
    71. 71. Thanks! 71
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