Indus Valley Civilization, UnfinishedPresentation Transcript
2300 BC – 1700 BC Jillian Nelson Fall 2010 Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus Civilization was located in the western part of South Asia, also referred to as the Indian Subcontinent.
The Indian Subcontinent is divided into three major land zones, the northern Gangetic Plain, the Deccan plateau, and the coastal plains on either side of the Deccan. The Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra Rivers were also within the territory, which made gathering water much easier. Major Physical Features
Being close to a desert, droughts occurred. There were also monsoons and typhoons on occasion. Monsoons, however, helped the people after a drought, but they could also overflow the rivers and cause deadly floods. If the rains are late, famine and starvation may occur. The Indians harnessed rainwater in case of late monsoons or rain. Challenges of the Landscape
The political leaders of Indus Valley were simply called “rulers.” Priests were also considers rulers. Rulers are chosen by inheritance, meaning leadership is passed down through the family. They carried seals with animal symbols , such as a Bull, Buffalo, Tiger, Unicorn, or Elephant, and writing, and wore ornaments made of rare materials. There are no significant leaders known from this civilization. Political Leader
The Indus Civilization had a monarchy government. It was also autocratic, meaning the ruler had absolute authority. A major governmental accomplishment achieved was their massive irrigation network. Government
The law was Autocratic within the caste system. The rulers could not change the people's religion, or regulate their commerce, but they controlled everything else. Individual princes did what they wanted. Law and Order
There were two major cities built along the Indus river valley, Ravi and Sutlej. Both cities have been excavated and completely exposed to the world. However, the culture still seems unrecognized and unknown. Urban Centers
They grew barley, peas, melons, wheat, and dates; cotton as well. Indus Valley agriculture has been highly productive, although little is known about the methods of the farmers. They relied on tools of the possible pre-Harappan culture, including the plough. They used large irrigation systems. Agriculture
This civilization used the Caste System; meaning that you were born into a class, and your class cannot change. The four main classes were…
Kshatriyas (Warriors and aristocrats; rulers)
Vaishyas (cultivators, artisans, and merchants)
Shudras (Landless peasants and serfs)
Social Class Structure
Women were highly valued because of their ability to produce offspring. While the men worked, the women nursed. Women in Society
The people there practiced Hinduism. In 365 BC, Buddhism was brought into India, then later into their culture. Gods and Goddesses that were worshipped include Ganesh, the elephant-headed god; and Annapurna, the goddess of food and cooking. Religious sacrifices were made. Religion
Burying the Dead Since this civilization participated in Hinduism for most of its time period, they followed the procedures of a Hindu funeral. They believed in reincarnation and moving into Nirvana when becoming a spirit. The corpse is usually bathed and dressed in white, traditional Indian clothes. If a wife dies before her husband, she is dressed in red bridal clothes. If a woman is a widow she will be dressed in white or pale colors.
This civilization developed writing during the Mature Harappan period. They mostly wrote on seals, as seen in the picture. Scripts were to be read from right to left, and looked like hieroglyphics. Writing
The Indus civilization was the first to establish individual buildings for bathing and using the restroom. Major Accomplishments
Natural resources were mostly the crops they harvested, but evidence of grapes and Indian jujube has been found. There were animals referred to as “wild big game,” which were animals such as nilgai, water buffalo, and elephant. Natural Resources
The civilization was very artistic. They created items such as pottery, figurines, and jewelry. Finished Products
The Indus Valley civilization’s economy greatly depended on trade. They traded with the Mesopotamian people often, because Indus seals were found in their society. It is found that the Indus people traded their materials for metal tools, pottery, beads, figures, and decorations. Trade
Civilization more/less Advanced I think the civilization was more advanced, because they were the first to accomplish urban sanitation systems.
I would consider living there, because the cites and the civilizations around them had no truly historical wars, so they probably had little conflict. The Indus people had a good sanitation systems, and they traded well with the Mesopotamians. They were also able to avoid any attacks because they were surrounded by barricaded and other large landforms. Live In Your Civilization?