OTC11: Open Textbooks and Learner Accessibility: Standards, Design, and Format


Published on

Online Teaching Conference 2011 Presentation on Open Textbooks and Learner Accessibility: Standards, Design, & Formats - May 25, 2011

Published in: Education, Technology, Design
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • ELLUMINATE/CCC Conference Opening Script   [Start recording…] Welcome to the ________ Webinar for DAY, MONTH, YEAR [sponsored by]. [If applicable] Today’s guests come to us from _______ in ____, ___. I will introduce them shortly, but first I want to go over a few details about this [Elluminate/CCC Confer] session for those who are new to [Elluminate/CCC Confer]. Details At the upper left of your screen, you should see the Participants window , which lists the participants in this session. You can use the icons underneath this window to: Raise your hand if you have a question or comment and you wish to speak There are also happy and sad faces and an applaud icon Below the Participants window is the Chat window to the center-left of this screen where you can type a question or comment into the box at any time. You can also send a private message to another participant at any time, but please be aware that moderators can see all private messages. Below the chat area is the Audio window in the bottom left of the screen. Click on the raised your hand button to let us know you would like to speak. You can use a head set or your phone for audio chat. If you are using a microphone and have been recognized to speak, Click the button with the microphone on it and begin speaking. Remember to click the button again when you finish speaking so that someone else can have a turn. You can control your mic and volume levels with the sliders. And if you are having trouble with your headset or microphone, you can access the Audio Setup Wizard from the Tools menu on the top toolbar. From Tools , select Audio , and then Audio Setup Wizard , and follow the on-screen instructions. [CCC Confer ONLY] If you are using the telephone to speak, Click on the phone handset below the microphone and audio volume sliders. The call-number and pin will then appear in a dialog box.
  • Learning styles, dyslexia, attention deficit disorder, etc.
  • OTC11: Open Textbooks and Learner Accessibility: Standards, Design, and Format

    1. 1. Open Textbooks and Learner Accessibility: Standards, Design, & Formats Alice Krueger, Virtual Ability, Inc. Una Daly, College Open Textbooks, Foothill College Dial-in: 1-888-886-3951 Pin: 690818
    2. 2. Elluminate window overview Chat Audio Emoticons Participants ON  OFF TYPE COMMENT HERE
    3. 3. Alice Krueger, Virtual Ability, Inc. <ul><li>President </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Former educational researcher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Woman with MS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gentle Heron leads the support community for people with real life disabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides development & employment opportunities for people with disabilities </li></ul></ul>Alice’s Second Life Avatar, Gentle Heron
    4. 4. Una Daly , College Open Textbooks <ul><li>Associate Director </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Book Reviews Manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workshops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Textbook Adoptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessibility Issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community Building </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foothill College </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Technology Instructor </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Agenda <ul><li>Introduce yourself in chat window </li></ul><ul><li>What are open textbooks? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How can digital resources help accessibility? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluation Results of 60+ Books </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards for open textbooks accessibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Findings and Recommendations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Next Steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal Design for Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formats for assistive tech, mobile, learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. College Open Textbooks mission <ul><li>Find, list, and support production and reuse of </li></ul><ul><li>High-quality </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible </li></ul><ul><li>Culturally-relevant </li></ul><ul><li>open textbooks for community college students </li></ul>John_C_Abell_CC -BY-NC-SA_Flickr
    7. 7. What are open textbooks? <ul><li>Digital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assistive Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open License </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reusable & adaptable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowers barriers to education </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Digital information explosion
    9. 9. An open textbook was … <ul><li>Copyright All Rights Reserved </li></ul><ul><li>to </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Commons License Some Rights Reserved </li></ul>From the Creative Commons store
    10. 10. Creative Commons allows creator to specify re-use <ul><li>Reuse: Copy and use as-is </li></ul><ul><li>Revise: Adapt and improve </li></ul><ul><li>Remix: Combine into new </li></ul><ul><li>Redistribute: Share copies </li></ul>The 4Rs of Open
    11. 11. Cost savings All Rights Reserved Some Rights Reserved Publisher: Wiley Open: Connexions & QOOP Downloadable version: $77.50 Downloadable & online versions: FREE Printed bound version: $141.95 new $110.25 used Printed bound version: $31.95 new
    12. 12. Educational equity <ul><li>26% of tuition @ public 4-years </li></ul><ul><li>72% of tuition @ community colleges </li></ul><ul><li>150% of tuition @ California community colleges </li></ul>Textbooks are a larger percentage of total cost for students at community colleges
    13. 13. Why textbook accessibility? <ul><li>It’s the law! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Section 508 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extend Your Reach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>instructors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improve learning for everyone </li></ul>Morguefile.com Source: webaim.org
    14. 14. Open Textbook Accessibility Evaluation Goals <ul><li>Review open textbooks to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empower faculty adopters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educate authors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support diverse learners </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. What challenges do diverse learners face? <ul><li>Cognitive learning disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory & motor impairments </li></ul><ul><li>English language deficits </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of engagement </li></ul>Kersti Nebelsiek CC-BY
    16. 16. Web accessibility guidelines and other requirements <ul><li>World Wide Web Consortium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Content Access Guidelines (WCAG 2.0) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PDF Checkpoints & Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Section 508, Rehabilitation Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic & Information Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(1998, 2011) </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Textbook Accessibility Reviews POUR matrix Textbook: Collaborative Statistics Accessibility reviewed by: Virtual Ability, Inc.
    18. 18. Evaluation Overview <ul><li>60 Open Licensed Textbooks Analyzed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selected from top enrolled GE courses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>35 websites, 25 downloadable PDFs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Issues Noted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Website Structural Accessibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PDF Accessibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Issues (both formats) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Positive Findings </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul>JAWS Screen Reader
    19. 19. Five open textbook repositories sampled <ul><ul><li>Connexions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat World Knowledge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MediaWiki. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Learn. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Learning Initiative. </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Repositories’ structural accessibility problems <ul><li>Pre-Set Formats (5 repositories): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural markup - 100% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>nesting headers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>data table title </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>summary attributes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fixed width </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color contrast - 80% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In-page navigation - 40% </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Author-created website structural accessibility problems <ul><li>Structural semantic organizers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>headers - 26%, bulleted lists 3% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tables: headings - 31%, attributes 40% </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed width page - 14% </li></ul><ul><li>In-page navigation - 14% </li></ul><ul><li>Data entry using Flash - 9% </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance on Java scripts - 6% </li></ul><ul><li>Non-mouse operation - 9% </li></ul><ul><li>Frames- 3% </li></ul>
    22. 22. PDF Accessibility Issues <ul><li>Features missing in all PDFs evaluated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tagging and reading order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Searchable text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fonts allow character extraction to text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive form fields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-mouse navigational aids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specified document or text block language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No security against assistive technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative text </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Download website accessibility in some PDFs </li></ul>
    23. 23. Common Issues in Both Formats Visual Appearance <ul><li>Dense text - 17% web, 32% PDF </li></ul><ul><li>Small font - 3% web, 20% PDF </li></ul><ul><li>Visual clutter - 14% web, 12% PDF </li></ul><ul><li>Specific issues with mathematical symbols </li></ul>
    24. 24. Visual Clutter/ Inconsistency <ul><li>There is lots of text on this page. And there are images too . That makes it difficult to figure out where to look first… </li></ul><ul><li>Especially if you have issues related to visual attention. </li></ul><ul><li>Because the page is so cluttered with text and images, it’s difficult to figure out how to study the material. Inconsistency adds to the sense of confusion. Of course, nobody would put this much material on one page, but it’s tempting to do so when authoring is so easy. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Common Issues Content Organization <ul><li>Important/less important - 14% web, 20% PDF </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational flow - 14% web, 4% PDF </li></ul><ul><li>Lack Table of Contents - 12% PDF, plus other issues </li></ul><ul><li>Lengthy pages - 23% web, 4% PDF </li></ul>
    26. 26. Common Issues Language Usage <ul><li>Content-related Vocabulary: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inconsistent emphasis - 9% web, 28% PDF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need Glossary - 54% web, 44% PDF </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Author’s Voice - 11% web, 12% PDF </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual format - 17% web, 28% PDF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading ease - 26% web, 44% PDF </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Common Issues Alternatives & Comprehension <ul><li>Need Alternatives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alt text - 63% web, 100% PDF, plus additional issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color coding - 14% web, 12% PDF </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comprehension Level - 37% web, 36% PDF </li></ul>
    28. 28. Missing Alt Text Example
    29. 29. Good Example of Color Coding
    30. 30. Positive Findings <ul><li>Five percent of websites exemplary </li></ul><ul><li>Eight percent of PDFs exemplary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate readability level - 3 PDFs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual-semantic organization - 2 PDFs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Format consistency - 2 PDFs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation style - 1 website, 2 PDFs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of clutter - 1 PDF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glossary - 1 PDF </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. How to Build In Accessibility? <ul><li>Authors/Creators need: </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>How-To Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Professional Assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives </li></ul>
    32. 32. Open textbook digital formats <ul><li>Web pages </li></ul><ul><li>Downloadable Formats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PDF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DAISY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ePUB </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Audio/Video </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mp3, .mov, .mp4 </li></ul></ul>Creative Commons Case Studies , CC-BY 3.0 License, Attribution 3.0 Unported
    33. 33. Standards for Accessible Readers <ul><li>Digital Accessible Information System (DAISY) Consortium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>digital talking books offer benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of regular audio books with addition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of navigation. </li></ul></ul>DAISY (Digital Accessible Info System) Reader
    34. 34. Standards for Mobile <ul><li>ePUB new standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Converts to DAISY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PDF often inaccessible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural markups missing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be reflowed for mobile devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily print format </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Universal Design for Learning <ul><li>Designed to be used by everyone without special adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits all ages and abilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Curb cuts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video captioning </li></ul></ul>3/11/2010
    36. 36. Universal Design for Learning Principles <ul><li>Provide multiple means of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Representation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action or Expression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engagement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UDL Guidelines 2.0 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Checkpoints </li></ul></ul>3/11/2010
    37. 37. Resources for educators in all CA Community Colleges <ul><li>High Tech Training Center Unit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Online and face-2-face training </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Video captioning grant for instructional </li></ul><ul><li>materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>administered by College of the Canyons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>College Open Text Accessibility Reviews </li></ul>
    38. 38. Join the Community for additional assistance <ul><li>Join the College Open Textbooks Community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://collegeopentextbooks.ning.com </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visit College Open Textbooks Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://collegeopentextbooks.org </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visit Virtual Ability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://virtualability.org </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Q & A Thank you for attending this morning Handout available Contact us for more information Alice Krueger: [email_address] Una Daly: [email_address]