OER Impact at Community
Colleges
Rob Farrow, Ph.D.
The Open University
Una Daly
CCCOER
Background
• Research project at The Open University (UK)
• Funded by William & Flora Hewlett Foundation for two years
• Two professo...
Keyword Hypothesis
Performance OER improve student performance/satisfaction
Openness People use OER differently from other...
Collaboration Model
Collaboration Model
Collaboration Model
Collaboration Model
CCCOER Mission & Goals
• Promote adoption of OER to enhance teaching and learning
• Document impact of OER on teaching and...
General stuff about OERRH & CCCOER, collaboration
240+ Colleges in 16 states & provinces
Research Collaboration
Focus on impact of OER adoption on teaching practice, institutional policies and
factors of cost an...
Survey Research in Community Colleges
• Many community colleges require IRB approval for faculty surveys
• IRBs may meet i...
OER Impact Map
OER Impact Map
http://chaos.open.ac.uk
OER Impact Map
http://chaos.open.ac.uk
Survey of College Educators
Sample
136 usable survey responses were recorded:
• De Anza College, CA (5)
• Foothill College, CA (33)
• Houston Community Colle...
Masters Degree
61%
PhD or Professional
Doctorate
35%
Bachelors Degree
4%
Highest Educational Qualification
72%
11%
10%
6% 1%
Years of Teaching Experience
More than 10
7-10
4-6
1-3
Less than 1
Work-
based
training
Part-time
blended
(face to
face and
distance/on
line)
teaching
Part-time
face-to-
face
teaching
Full-...
52%
24%
18%
11% 9%
7%
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
I have adapted
open educational
resources to fit my
needs
I have created
o...
• Most respondents were
experienced teachers with
postgraduate degrees
• A majority teach full-time and are
involved in on...
OER Behaviours
7.9%
10.8%
12.2%
18 %
23%
25.2%
25.9%
29.5%
32.4%
34.5%
37.4%
38.1%
38.8%
64.7%
69.8%
Data sets
Whole course
Interactive g...
OER Repositories Used
1% 2% 4% 5%
9% 11% 13%
17%
20%
26% 26%
32% 35%
43%
71%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
Factors relevant to choosing OER
7%
9%
21%
29%
33%
36%
42%
42%
43%
43%
48%
48%
48%
49%
51%
58%
69%
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% ...
Factors relevant to choosing OER
7%
9%
21%
29%
33%
36%
42%
42%
43%
43%
48%
48%
48%
49%
51%
58%
69%
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% ...
Impact on teachers/students
Impact on teaching practice from OER use
6%
13%
14%
14%
16%
18%
19%
21%
22%
23%
3%
5%
1%
3%
4%
2%
2%
2%
2%
2%
0% 20% 40% 6...
OER: perceptions of impact on learners
8.5%
8.6%
8.7%
11.5%
11.8%
12.3%
14.3%
15.2%
15.2%
15.4%
15.5%
17.1%
0% 10% 20% 30%...
Financial Savings
Has your institution saved money
through OER?
yes
44%
no
19%
don't know
37%
“OER resources are old-school, low-tech
module...
Have your students saved money
through OER?
yes
62%
no
13%
don't know
25%
“Saving money is a big incentive
for students an...
Student Retention
strongly agree
12%
agree
26%
neither agree nor
disagree
50%
disagree
8%
strongly disagree
4%
“OER use helps at-risk studen...
Attitudes
“Some at-risk students benefit from
OER because of the obvious release
of financial obligation. Others are
chall...
11%
18% 21%
35% 36% 36%
47%
57% 60%
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Materials
are
available in
different
languages
Availability
of c...
Importance of Open Licensing
How important is open licensing (e.g. CC)?
crucial
20%
very important
34%
somewhat important
19%
neither important nor
uni...
Summary
Summary of Results
• Most of the respondents have used some sort of OER, though only around a
quarter create OER
• Only ar...
Summary of Results
• There were mixed views about whether OER was saving institutions money, but
approximately 2/3 felt th...
Next Steps
Next Steps
• Further analysis of this cohort, including isolation of the OER advocates and
OER detractors to identify beha...
Thanks for listening!
oerresearchhub.org
chaos.open.ac.uk
oerconsortium.org
in service of The Open University
OER Impact at Community College: eLearning 2014
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OER Impact at Community College: eLearning 2014

  1. 1. OER Impact at Community Colleges Rob Farrow, Ph.D. The Open University Una Daly CCCOER
  2. 2. Background
  3. 3. • Research project at The Open University (UK) • Funded by William & Flora Hewlett Foundation for two years • Two professors lead four researchers among a team of ten • Tasked with building the most comprehensive picture of OER impact • Organised by eleven research hypotheses • Collaboration model across different educational sectors • Global reach but with a USA focus OER Research Hub oerresearchhub.org
  4. 4. Keyword Hypothesis Performance OER improve student performance/satisfaction Openness People use OER differently from other online materials Access OER widen participation in education Retention OER can help at-risk learners to finish their studies Reflection OER use leads educators to reflect on their practice Finance OER adoption brings financial benefits for students/institutions Indicators Informal learners use a variety of indicators when selecting OER Support Informal learners develop their own forms of study support Transition OER support informal learners in moving to formal study Policy OER use encourages institutions to change their policies Assessment Informal assessments motivate learners using OER
  5. 5. Collaboration Model Collaboration Model
  6. 6. Collaboration Model Collaboration Model
  7. 7. CCCOER Mission & Goals • Promote adoption of OER to enhance teaching and learning • Document impact of OER on teaching and learning • Promote integration of OER into curricula • Share best practices for OER through professional development opportunities. Funded by the William & Flora Hewlett Foundation
  8. 8. General stuff about OERRH & CCCOER, collaboration 240+ Colleges in 16 states & provinces
  9. 9. Research Collaboration Focus on impact of OER adoption on teaching practice, institutional policies and factors of cost and access Feb-May 2013 Faculty Survey Development IRB Process May-Dec 2013 Survey Deployment Ongoing Interviews and focus groups with faculty; policymakers; students Incorporation of institutional evidence into impact map Jan-Apr 2014 Analysis & Dissemination
  10. 10. Survey Research in Community Colleges • Many community colleges require IRB approval for faculty surveys • IRBs may meet infrequently particularly during academic breaks • IRBs limit approvals to prevent duplication and survey fatigue • The process can take longer than expected - good planning is essential!
  11. 11. OER Impact Map
  12. 12. OER Impact Map http://chaos.open.ac.uk
  13. 13. OER Impact Map http://chaos.open.ac.uk
  14. 14. Survey of College Educators
  15. 15. Sample
  16. 16. 136 usable survey responses were recorded: • De Anza College, CA (5) • Foothill College, CA (33) • Houston Community College, TX (41) • Northern Virginia Community College (30) • Roane State Community College, VA (13) • South Florida Community College, FL (4) This is supplemented with qualitative data gathered from college visits in Virginia, Maryland, Washington, and California.
  17. 17. Masters Degree 61% PhD or Professional Doctorate 35% Bachelors Degree 4% Highest Educational Qualification
  18. 18. 72% 11% 10% 6% 1% Years of Teaching Experience More than 10 7-10 4-6 1-3 Less than 1
  19. 19. Work- based training Part-time blended (face to face and distance/on line) teaching Part-time face-to- face teaching Full-time distance/on line teaching Full-time blended (face to face and distance/on line) teaching Part-time distance/on line teaching Full-time face to face teaching Series1 20 23 26 31 39 46 49 15% 17% 19% 23% 29% 34% 36% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 No.ofresposes Types of Teaching Activity
  20. 20. 52% 24% 18% 11% 9% 7% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 I have adapted open educational resources to fit my needs I have created open educational resources for study or teaching I have added a resource to a repository I have created resources myself and published them on a Creative Commons (CC) licence I have added comments to a repository regarding the quality of a resource I have added comments to a repository suggesting ways of using a resource Patterns of OER Use Of those that create OER (24%) less than half publish them on an open (CC) licence
  21. 21. • Most respondents were experienced teachers with postgraduate degrees • A majority teach full-time and are involved in online instruction • Around half have adapted/used OER but only around half of these create or upload OER
  22. 22. OER Behaviours
  23. 23. 7.9% 10.8% 12.2% 18 % 23% 25.2% 25.9% 29.5% 32.4% 34.5% 37.4% 38.1% 38.8% 64.7% 69.8% Data sets Whole course Interactive games Infographics Audio podcasts Learning tools, instruments and plugins Lesson plans E-books Tutorials Elements of a course (e.g. a module/unit) Open textbooks Quizzes Lectures Images Videos Types of OER Used Multimedia content is around twice as popular as other OER (including textbooks) Few reported using a whole course of OER, suggesting they cherry pick resources as needed Very few are using openly available data to teach
  24. 24. OER Repositories Used 1% 2% 4% 5% 9% 11% 13% 17% 20% 26% 26% 32% 35% 43% 71% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80%
  25. 25. Factors relevant to choosing OER 7% 9% 21% 29% 33% 36% 42% 42% 43% 43% 48% 48% 48% 49% 51% 58% 69% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Being required to use a resource for a project/task The resource featuring a catchy title or attractive image(s) The resource having previously been used with students Evidence of interest in that resource (e.g. lots of downloads) The length/complexity of the resource The resource being recently created, uploaded or updated Personal recommendation Having previously used this resource successfully Use of interactive or multimedia content Positive user ratings or comments about the resource A description of learning objectives or outcomes being provided The resource having a Creative Commons license A detailed description of the resource content The resource being easy to download The resource having an open license allowing adaptation Created/uploaded by a reputable/trusted institution/person The resource being relevant to my particular interests/needs
  26. 26. Factors relevant to choosing OER 7% 9% 21% 29% 33% 36% 42% 42% 43% 43% 48% 48% 48% 49% 51% 58% 69% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Being required to use a resource for a project/task The resource featuring a catchy title or attractive image(s) The resource having previously been used with students Evidence of interest in that resource (e.g. lots of downloads) The length/complexity of the resource The resource being recently created, uploaded or updated Personal recommendation Having previously used this resource successfully Use of interactive or multimedia content Positive user ratings or comments about the resource A description of learning objectives or outcomes being provided The resource having a Creative Commons license A detailed description of the resource content The resource being easy to download The resource having an open license allowing adaptation Created/uploaded by a reputable/trusted institution/person The resource being relevant to my particular interests/needs
  27. 27. Impact on teachers/students
  28. 28. Impact on teaching practice from OER use 6% 13% 14% 14% 16% 18% 19% 21% 22% 23% 3% 5% 1% 3% 4% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% I make use of a wider range of multimedia I reflect more on the way that I teach I have broadened my coverage of the curriculum I now use OER study to develop my teaching I have improved ICT skills I more frequently compare my own teaching with others I have a more up-to-date knowledge of my subject area I use a broader range of teaching and learning methods I collaborate more with colleagues I make more use of culturally diverse resources strongly agree– agree– neither agree nor disagree– disagree– strongly disagree–
  29. 29. OER: perceptions of impact on learners 8.5% 8.6% 8.7% 11.5% 11.8% 12.3% 14.3% 15.2% 15.2% 15.4% 15.5% 17.1% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% ... increases learners' interest in the subjects taught ... builds learners' confidence ... allows me to better accommodate diverse learners' needs ... increases learner collaboration and/or peer-support ... increases learners’ enthusiasm for future study ... increases learners' participation in class discussions ... increases learners' satisfaction with the learning experience ... leads to improved student grades ... increases learners' engagement with lesson content ... develops learner independence and self-reliance ... leads to learner interest in a wider range of subjects ... increases learners' experimentation with ways of learning Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree
  30. 30. Financial Savings
  31. 31. Has your institution saved money through OER? yes 44% no 19% don't know 37% “OER resources are old-school, low-tech modules that are not peer-reviewed or nationally normed. There are some interesting tentative attempts at creativity but much of OER is cr*p.” “Students return for additional classes” “They don't like losing the revenue stream from the bookstore” “I know that some instructors are only using OER which provides substantial savings for our students.”
  32. 32. Have your students saved money through OER? yes 62% no 13% don't know 25% “Saving money is a big incentive for students and institutions.” “I still use publishers' textbooks in my classes. I use OER as supplements to the textbook.” “My students tell me and enrollment in my classes has continually increased over those of my peers.” “I developed an online textbook for the personal health class that I teach. This saves each of my students approximately $100.” “I know that some instructors are only using OER which provides substantial savings for our students.”
  33. 33. Student Retention
  34. 34. strongly agree 12% agree 26% neither agree nor disagree 50% disagree 8% strongly disagree 4% “OER use helps at-risk students to continue their studies” “Driving down the cost coupled with the ability to modify and adapt the material to meet the needs of my learners are two major factors in why I like using OER materials.” • More than 1/3 believed that OER use promotes student retention • Around half feel it has no effect • The remainder (12%) disagreed or strongly disagreed with one noting that “other things are more important”.
  35. 35. Attitudes “Some at-risk students benefit from OER because of the obvious release of financial obligation. Others are challenged by the technology and OER actually makes their success rates drop.” “My concern is that at-risk students don't seem to do well in online environments because it doesn't always provide them the structure they need.” “Many at risk students don't have the means to access high speed internet or have limited technological availability. To assume they do is simply wrong. Additionally, they have more complicated extrinsic factors impacting their lives, which may require more intensive contact from the instructor to keep them involved in the course. OER is not going to be a make or break issue of retention. It is not a panacea for at-risk students.” “The biggest factors in physics for student attrition are time-constraints and insufficient previous preparation, neither of which is affected by the class resources.” OER and student attrition: comments
  36. 36. 11% 18% 21% 35% 36% 36% 47% 57% 60% 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Materials are available in different languages Availability of culturally- relevant materials Materials can be used for improving non-native language skills Materials can be adapted to suit student needs Greater range of learning methods Use of resources for improving study skills Materials can be used flexibly Materials can be accessed at any time Reduced cost of study materials OER as promoter of student retention: factors
  37. 37. Importance of Open Licensing
  38. 38. How important is open licensing (e.g. CC)? crucial 20% very important 34% somewhat important 19% neither important nor unimportant 22% not at all important 5% More than half feel that open licensing is important, but fewer actually practice it. This could indicate either 1) that educators are not confident about licensing their work or 2) they feel it is an avoidable addition to their workload.
  39. 39. Summary
  40. 40. Summary of Results • Most of the respondents have used some sort of OER, though only around a quarter create OER • Only around half of OER creators have used open licensing • There is a core of OER advocates who understand and actively promote • Most report positive effects on their teaching practice as a result of OER use, particularly around peer collaboration and improved subject knowledge • Positive effects were also identified for learners, especially around increased self-reliance, subject interest and experimentation • There were similar numbers who thought OER wasn’t making much of a difference and a core of ‘anti-OER’ responses
  41. 41. Summary of Results • There were mixed views about whether OER was saving institutions money, but approximately 2/3 felt that students had saved money • Around 1/3 believe that OER is improving student attrition while around 1/2 believe it is not having an effect
  42. 42. Next Steps
  43. 43. Next Steps • Further analysis of this cohort, including isolation of the OER advocates and OER detractors to identify behavioural and attitudinal patterns • Mapping the survey data • Cross-referencing with other OERRH surveys, e.g. Saylor ‘informal learners’ survey (n=3014) to build picture of different stakeholders/sectors • Integration of institutional metrics and qualitative data gathered in field work • Open dissemination of raw data; openly licensed research instruments
  44. 44. Thanks for listening! oerresearchhub.org chaos.open.ac.uk oerconsortium.org
  45. 45. in service of The Open University

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