INDEXS. NO. CONTENTS1. Executive Summary2. Introduction3. Company Profile4. Objective5. Research Methodology6. Data analysis and Findings7. Conclusion8. Suggestion9. Bibliography10. Questionnaire
EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThe Cadbury’s India’s number one chocolate is able to share with their market insights based upon unparalled breath of chocolate experience.The merge in 1969 with Schweppes and the subsequent development of the businesshave led to Cadbury Schweppes taking the led in both, the confectionery and softdrink market intech UK and becoming a major force in the international market.Cadbury Schweppes today manufactures product in 60 countries and a trade instaggering 120.This project is a sincere effort to look for the market potential in chocolate andconfectionery industry. A descriptive research procedure had been applied to cometo the conclusions of the project. A detailed questionnaire had been prepared and theresponses of the concerned people had been collected for the analysis. The projectlater concluded in recommending the market potential of the chocolate andconfectioneries.
INTRODUCTIONThe Cadbury’s Inc has taken the opportunity to offer us a broader view of chocolatecategory. The Cadbury’s India’s no.1 Chocolate is able to share with their marketinsights based upon unparalleled breath of chocolate experience.Cadbury has grown from strength to strength with new technologies beingintroduced to make the Cadbury confectionary business, one of the most efficient inthe world. The merge in 1969 with Schweppes and the subsequent development ofthe business have led to Cadbury Schweppes taking the led in both, theconfectionary and soft drink market intech UK and becoming a major force in theinternational market. Cadbury Schweppes today manufactures product in 60countries and a trade in staggering 120. The Cadbury story is a fascinating story of afamily business that grew in one of the biggest, most loved chocolate brand in theworld. A story that you will remember as the story of “The taste of life”.
OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECTMy main objective of the study on this project is to demonstratethe marketing strategies of Cadbury India Ltd.And to arrive at my findings, I have done few analysis:-(a) SWOT Analysis(B) PEST AnalysisAnd also 5 P’s of Marketing:- • Product • Price • Physical Distribution • Promotion • Positioning
RESEARCH METHODOLOGYAchieving accuracy in any research requires in depth study regarding the subject. Asthe prime objective of the project is to compare Cadbury with the existingcompetitors in the market and the impact of Nestle on Cadbury, the researchmethodology adopted is basically based on primary data via which the most recentand accurate piece of first hand information could be collected. Secondary data hasbeen used to support primary data wherever needed.Primary data was collected using the following techniquesQuestionnaire MethodDirect Interview Method andObservation MethodThe main tool used was, the questionnaire method. Further direct interview method,where a face to face formal interview was taken. Lastly observation method hasbeen continuous with the questionnaire method, as one continuously observes thesurrounding environment he works in.Procedure of research methodology# Target geographic area was Delhi. NCR.# To these geographical area questionnaire was given, the questionnaire was acombination of both open ended and closed ended questions.
# The date during which questionnaires were filled was between six week.# Some dealers were also interviewed to know their prospective. Interviews with thehonour of retailer of Cadbury were also conducted.# Finally the collected data and information was analysed and compiled to arrive atthe conclusion and recommendations given.Sources of secondary dataUsed to obtain information on, Cadbury and its competitor history, current issues,policies, procedures etc, wherever required.# Internet# Magazines# Newspapers
The legend called Cadbury1824 – A once business was opened in 1824 by a young Quaker, John Cadbury, inBull street Birmingham was to be the foundation of Cadbury Limited, now one ofthe world’s largest producer of chocolate.1831 – By this year the business had changed from a grocery shop and JohnCadbury had become a manufacturer of drinking chocolate and cocoa. This was thestart of Cadbury manufacturing business as it is known today. A larger factory inBridge Street Birmingham was rented in 1847, John Cadbury was joined by hisbrother Birmingham and the business became Cadbury Brother of Birmingham.1861 – John Cadbury resigned his business and handed over to his sons, Richard, 25and George, 21 who after 5 difficult years almost shut down the business to take upother vocation. Fortunately for generation of chocolate lovers, they didn’t.1866 – Saw a turning point for the company with the introduction of a process forpressing the cocoa butter from the coca beans. This not only enabled CadburyBrothers to produce pure coca essence, but the plentiful supply of coca butterremaining was also used to make new kind of eating chocolate. The essence wasadvertised as ‘Absolutely pure, therefore best’.1879 – Business prospered from this time and Cadbury Brother outgrew the BridgeStreet factory, moving in 1879 to a ‘Greenfield’ site some miles from the center ofBirmingham which came to call Bourneville. The opening of the Cadbury factory in
a garden also heralded a new era in industrial relations and employee welfare withjoint consultation being just one of the introduced by the pioneering CadburyBrothers.1899 – In this year the business private limited company – Cadbury BrothersLimited. Progress since the start of the century through the inter – war years onwardahs been rapid. Chocolate has moved being a “luxury” item to well within thefinancial reach of everyone.1905 – Cadbury has many famous brands with one of major success story beingCadbury’s Dairy Milk chocolate launched in 1905, today Britain’s favorite moduledchocolate bar.Cadbury today is the market leader in the U.K chocolate confectionary market,employing the most advanced processing technology and management informationand control techniques. The company is the confectionary division of CadburySchweppes plc which is major force in the confectionary and soft drinksinternational market.World - wide Cadbury is one of the pre – eminent names in confectionary withimpressive range of famous brands.Quality has been the focus of the Cadbury business from the very beginning asgenerations have worked to produce chocolate with that very special taste,smoothness and snap, so characteristics of Cadbury’s chocolate.
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE MANAGING DIRE CTO GENERAL MAN AGE VICE PRESIDENTMARKETING MANUFACT SALES FINANCE DISTRIBUTI U O R N
Design DevelopmentMilk chocolate for eating was first made by Cadbury in 1897 by adding milk powderpaste to the dark chocolate recipe of cocoa mass, cocoa butter and sugar. By today’sstandards this chocolate was not particularly good as it was very coarse and dry andwas not sweet or milky enough for public tastes.At that time there was a great deal of competition in the U.K from continentalmanufactures, not only the French with their fancy chocolates but also from theSwiss, who were renowned for their milk chocolate. Led by George Cadbury junior,the Bourneville experts set out to meet the challenge. A considerable amount of timeand money was spent on research and new plant design to produce the newchocolate in much large quantities.A new recipe was formulated fresh milk and new production processes weredeveloped to produce milk – chocolate not as merely as good as but better than theimported milk chocolate.Four years of hard work were invested in the project and in 1905 what was to beCadbury’s top selling brand was launched. Three names were considered JerseyHighland Milk and Dairy Maid. Dairy Maid became Dairy Milk and Cadbury’sDairy Milk with its unique flavor and smooth creamy texture was ready to challengethe Swiss domination of the milk chocolate market.By 1913 it had become the company’s best selling line and in the mid twentiesCadbury’s Dairy Milk gained its status as the brand leader, a position that it has held
ever since. Today more than 250 million bars of Cadbury’s Dairy Milk are madeevery year and sales reach over 100 million Pound in value.While advertising and label design g-have changed with fashion and considerablestrides have been made in manufacturing technologies, the recipe for Cadbury’sDairy Milk its ‘glass and a half of full cream milk in every half pound produced’ isstill basically the same as when it was launched.Cadbury’s Dairy Milk StoryChocolate has been enjoyed by successive generation since the manufacturingprocess was developed in the Victorian Times. Good chocolatiers is an art formdepending on recipe traditions, which have grown over the years. Chocolatiers haveuse their skills to make balanced recipe in which all the ingredients combine toproduced chocolate with all the characteristics that enable full delicious taste to beenjoyed by the consumers.By today’s standards the first chocolate for eating would have been considered quiteunpalatable. It was the introduction of the Van Houten cocoa press from Hollandthat was the major break through in the chocolate production as it provided extracocoa butter needed to make a smooth glossy chocolate.Cadbury’s Milk Tray – 1915Milk Tray has maintained its popularity in the changing world since the milkchocolate assortment made with the famous Cadbury’s Dairy Milk chocolate wasfirst introduced in 1915.
The name ‘tray’ derived from the way in which the original assortment wasdelivered to the shops. Originally Milk Tray was packed in five and as half poundboxes, arranged on trays from which it was sold loose o customers. The half pounddeep – lidded box with the traditional purple background and gold script wasintroduced in 1916, followed by one pound box in 1924.With its stylish, without frills presentation Milk Tray was the assortment foreveryday, not just special occasion and it represented the best buy in the chocolatefor millions of people. The pack design has been regularly updated and theassortment itself has changed in line with consumers taste and preferences.By the end mid – thirties the Cadbury’s Milk Tray assortment outsold all itscompetitions and today it is still one of the most popular boxes of chocolates in thiscountry.Cadbury SchweppesCadbury Schweppes plc, a global beverage and confectionary giant with annual saleof Rs 20,ooo crores,is the worlds number one non – cola soft drink company havingbottling and partnership operations in 14 countries and franchises of its brand in afurther 86 countries around the world. Its Hundred Percent subsidiary in Indianamed Cadbury Schweppes Beverage India (private) Limited (CSBIL) startedoperation in March 1995. The first brand was launched was crush which was laterfollowed by Canada Dry, Schweppes Tonic Water, Schweppes Bitter Lemon.
CSBIL with its franchise agreement with 19 bottles throughout India proposes to bea household name. It has a policy for FOBOs (Franchise owned bottling operationsunlike Coke and Pepsi which prefer COBO,s (Company owned bottling operations).In FOBO the beverages company only supplies the concentrate and the marketingsupport to build brand equity. The other aspects like machinery, bottling line, landand distribution is the responsibility of the bottler. As its CEO Mr. Ashok Jain says,“we are the software, they are the hardware”.
SWOTStrength 1. Very strong brand equity in India. 2. Due to its 54 years presence in India – has deep penetration – 2100 distributors; 450,000 retailers, 60 mid urban (22%) customers. 3. Three sectors; Chocs (70% share), Confec (4%), food drinks (14% - leader in brown segment). 4. Low cost of production due to economic of scale. That means higher profits and / or more competitioners. Better market penetration. 5. Second best manufacturing location throughout Cadbury Schweppes.Weakness 1. Poor technology in India compared to current international technologies (Godiva, Mozart, Fazer, Dint, Naushans, etc...) 2. Ltd. Key products, only one central brand (CDM). Pralines range totally wising in India. 3. “Make in India” tag once the economy opens up wore and imports rush in.Opportunities 1. Tremendous scope for per capita consumption (160 gms of 8 – 10 kg)
2. Increasing per capita national income resulting in higher disposable income. 3. Growing middle class and growing urban population. 4. Increasing gifts cultures. 5. Substitute to “Mithais” with higher calories/cholesterol. 6. Increasing departmental stores concept – impulse @ at cash counters. 7. Globalisation: optimal use of global Cadbury Schweppes.Threats a) Major :- None. Due to low cost and highest brand equity, it is today in India. b) Minor :- Globalization will being in better brands for upper end of the market (Liest, Monarch, Godiva, etc…).Conclusion:-Will lose market share with globalization (a la Maruti) but will remain brand leader.
Pest AnalysisP: since the budget range is decontrolled, no political effects are envisaged.E: 1) increasing per capita income resulting in higher disposable income 2) Growing middle class/urban population – increase in demand 3) Low cost of production – better penetrationS: 1) Per capita consumption expected to increase – fashion
2) Increasing gifts culture – increase in demand 3) Lower cholesterol than “mithais” (sweet meat) – substitute demandT: Will have to reinforce technology to international levels once India is a “free” economy4 P’S Of MarketingPRODUCT Satisfaction suffices. But delight dazzles the average company will compete forcustomer by conforming to her expectation consistently. But the winner will surpassthem by constantly exceeding her expectation, delivering to her door step additionalbenefits which she would never have imagined possible. Cadbury’s offer suchproduct. The wide variety products offered by the company include:
PricingMake no mistake. Second P of marketing is not another name for blindly loweringprices and relying on this strategy alone to increase sales dramatically. The strategyused by Cadbury’s is for matching the value that customer pays to buy the productwith the expectation they have about what the production is worth to them.Cadbury’s has launched various products which cater to all customer segments. Soevery customer segment has different price expectation from the product. Thereforemaximizing the returns involves identifying right price level for each segment, andthen progressively moving through them. Dairy Milk Rs. 15 Perk Rs. 10 5 Star Rs. 10 Friut and Nut Rs. 22 Gems Rs. 10 Break Rs. 5 Nutties Rs. 18 Bournvita (500 gm) Rs. 104 Drinking chocolate Rs. 50Physical Distribution – “Place”
BRAND ISN’T THE ONLY ANY MORE. Marketers and finance manager need anew term to evaluate their business:Distribution Equity. It takes much more time and effort to build, but once built,distribution equity is much together to erode.The fundamental axiom of Indian consumer market is this:You can set up a state-of –the-art manufacturing facility, hire the hottest strategieson the block, swamp prime television with best Ads, but the end of it all, you wouldbe know of selling your products. The cardinal task before the Indian market ismanaging is to shoe-horn its product on retail shelves. Buyers are paying fordistribution equity not brand equity and market shares.Why does the company need distribution equity more anything in India? Withtechnology and competitive pressure slash in it is becoming increasing difficult for marketers to retain a unique product differentiation for ling period. In a product and price parity situation, the brand that sells more is the one that reaches the highest number of customers.India – 1 billion people, 155 million household has over 4 million retail outlets in5351 urban markets and 552725 villages, spread cross 3.28 million sq. km.
television has already primed and population for consumption, and the marketer whocan get to the to the consumer ahead of competition will give a hard – to – overtakelead. But getting their means managing wildly different terrains-climate, language,value system, life style, transport and communication network. And your brandequity isn’t going to help when it comes to tackling these issues.Own distribution network consist of clearing and forwarding (C&F) agents &distribution stockiest. This network of distribution can either contact wholesalersand which in turn retailers or the distributors can contact to the retailers directly.Once the stock product reaches retailers, the prospective customers can have accessto the product.Cadbury’s distributes the product in the manner stated above.Cadbury’s distribution network has expanded from 1990 distributors last year to2100 distributors and 4,50,000 retailers. Beside use of TI tom improves logistics,Cadbury is also attempting to improve the distribution quality. To address the issueof product stability, it has installed visi colors at several outlets. This helps inmaintaining consumption in summer when sales usually drops due to the fact thatthe heal effects product quality and thereby off takes.Looking at the low penetration of the chocolate, a distribution expansion woulditself being incremental volume. The other reason is arch rival Nestle reaches morethan a million retailers.
This increase in distribution is going to be accompanied by reduction in channelcosts. Cadbury’s marketing costs, at 18% of total costs, is much higher than Nestlé’s12% or even pure sugar confectionery major Parry’s 11%. The company is lookingto reduce this parity level. At Cadbury, they believe that selling confectionery is itlike selling soft drinks.
PromotionIf an advertisement is to communicate effectively, the receiver must at least halfwant it to, and be prepared too take step toward the sender. Effective advertising israrely hectoring or loudly explicit…. It often both attracts and generates armfeelings. More often than not, a successful campaign has a stronger element of theunexpected a quality that good advertising shares with much worthwhile literature.To penetrate into the inner recesses of her memory, communication must first ensureexposure, grab her attention evoke her comprehension, grab her acceptance and thenextract retention competing with thousands of other units of communication tryingto do the same.Finding showed that the adults felt too conscious to be seen consuming a productactually meant for children. The strategic response address the emotional appeal ofthe band to the child within the adult. Naturally, that produced just the valuevacuum that Cadbury was looking to fill. Thereafter it was the job of the advertisingto communicate customer the wonderful feeling that he could experience by re-discoursing the careful, unself conscious, pleasure – seeking child within himself – agraft these feeling onto the Ad campaign like “Khane Walon Ko Khane KaBahana Chahiye” for CMD and “Thodi Si Pet Pooja – Kabhi Bhi Kahin Bhi” forPerk have been sure shot winner with the audience.Whirl with the new launched temptations with the slogan “Too To Share” thecommunication resolves around the reluctance of a person who’s got their hand on abar of temptation to let anyone else to have a bite. As well as outdoor and radio ads,
ad agency contract has created communication for cinemas and even ATM machinesfor the brand.All ICICI’ s ATM a message flashes on the screen as soon as customer insert hisATM card. It tells the customer that this would be good time to get out of hertemptation since he/she is bound to be alone. Something familiar is planned forphone-book as well. In cinemas, Cadbury has a message on-screen just before thelights are dimmed to give them a chance to get their temptations. There will also beafter dinner sampling in restaurants – to begin with, 30 catteries in Mumbai havebeen selected.The next round of activity will include the wafer-chocolate Perk and the Picnic bar,which has faced problems with its taste, because of the peanut it contains. Milk treathas also been launched in a module bar form, just in time of Diwali gifting market.Éclairs has got potential for much wide distribution, in a small sweets that airlines,hostels, and up market retail outlet offer to guest and customers.Ad spend in 2000 was about 14% of sales and the management said that plans tomaintain as spend at this level in the current year also.Ad since any discussion today would be incomplete without mention ‘e’ word, themanagement plans to tap this new channel of marketing. Beside three companywebsite (i.e. www.cadburyindia .com, wwww.bourvita.com, www.cadburygift.comthat the company has launched, it had also entered into various marketingrelationship with other portals, specially targeted during festivals and events such asValentines day , etc….
It’s a combination of spiffing up its key brand, researching and improving the newerproducts that haven’t taken off, supported with high ad – spends that Cadbury hopeswill see it emerges stronger after the current slowdown, as well as expand themarket.PositioningIn the 1970s consumers were ready to pay “more for more”, and luxury goodsflourished. In the 1980s, consumers began to demand “more for same”, and thediscounting era grew strong. Today’s consumer demanding “more for less”, and thewinner will be that super value marketers…. Some of today’s most successfulcompanies recognize those customers are more educated and able to recognize truecustomer value…Positioning is simply concentrating on an idea – or – even a word defines thatcompany in the mind of the consumer. It is more efficient to market one successfulconcept to one large group of people than 50 product or service ideas to 50 separategroup… repositioning is a must when customer attitude have changed and producthave strayed away from the consumer’s long standing perception of them…Cadbury’s is an anchor in sea of confectionary products. As a variety of competitiveclaims assails her senses, today customer uses complicated decision making processto assess the alternative before making a purchase. Since Cadbury’s is more clearlyassociated with a particular set of attributes in terms of benefits and prices, thequicker becomes her search process.Positioning of individual product:
1) CMD: is and always remain flagship brand. The punch by the company for advertising this product life. ‘Real taste of Life’, itself defines the positioning of the product. The chocolate is meant for all age groups. It symbolizes fun, enjoyment, good items. It has goodness of milk, taste and appetite appeal.2) 5 star: although positioned internationally as an energy bar, 5 star was positioned on an emotional platform in India during the late 1980s. Symbolizing togetherness, 5 star was originally targeted at teenagers. In June 1994, the company reworked the strategy for 5 star to make it a source of energy. In fact, before the launch of Perk, 5 star’s energy bar positioning made it a snacking chocolate.3) Éclairs: competing in the chewable toffees segment. Éclairs was re-launched during the mid-nineties with a new name, Dairy Milk Éclairs.4) Gems: broadcasting Gems, though, didn’t prove to be feasible proposition for Cadbury. Targeted at children under 12 years with ‘Gems Bond’ advertising. Cadbury decided to too teenagers with the ‘Smart Very Smart’ campaign. But now, the company is retargeting children with its animated commercial. “Gems are the best brand to speak to children. Colorful chocolate buttons appeal most to children and that is why Cadbury is re-targeting children.”
5) Crackle: it was the first Cadbury’s chocolate to have crunch in it. It was targeted as a funky chocolate to add spark to life. 6) Perk: in September, 1995, Cadbury preempted the launch of Nestlé’s Kit-Kat by rushing a new brand, Perk into the market. Positioned much further on the functional scale than 5 star, Perk was meant to be light snack-product for subduing the first pangs of hunger. 7) Bournvita: positioned as tasty health drink. While its competitors concentrated only on health aspect, Bournvita combined the nutritious value with taste.Cadbury’s Market SegmentMarket place for any product is comprised of many different segments ofconsumers, each with different needs and wants. Markets segmentation can bedefined in a number of ways such as: Demographic variables (e.g. Consumers are groups, gender, material states income etc…) The lifestyle of consumers (i.e. their interests and activities) the benefits which consumers look for in a product or on the occasions when the product might be consumed. Cadbury takes into account all these factors when producing a range of products. It targets different segments within the market, such as the.
Break segment – products which are normally consume as a snatched break and often with tea and coffee, for example Cadbury’s Perk and snack range. Impulse segment – these products are often purchase on impulse, eating these and then. They include product such as Cadbury’s Dairy Milk. Take home segment – this describes product that are normally purchased in supermarkets, taken home consumed at a later stage.The Real Taste of RejuvenationIt was the market – leader, but sales inched along. It focused firmly on its targetsegment, but the real buyer lay beyond. For seven long years, Cadbury’s Dairy Milkchocolate suffered stagnancy even as other consumer products boomed. Just howdid the company rejuvenate an old brand to create the marketing megs-hit of the199s?
It Stand First Among Second coming. And it wasn’t so much a re-launch as it wasa process of rejuvenation. Over a period of 12 months, starting February, 1994, theRs. 314 crore confectionery makers Cadbury embarked on the most outrageousrepositioning exercise in the recent history of Indian marketing. For, itsystematically dismantled the franchise that the company had built over 30 years ofits flagship brand, Cadbury’s Dairy Milk (CDM)-Cadbury’s Milk chocolate until1986-destroying the very fundamental of generic association that had made millionof Indians refer to a bar of a chocolate as a “Cadbury”.More proof of the chocolate is in the eating: two years into process, CDM’s marketshare at 25%, with sale rising by an average 40% per annum.The DiagnosisToday, The Real Taste of Life campaign, which servedUp chocolate in general, and COM in particular, into the consciousness of adult, hasalready become a classic of advertising and marketing. By 1993, Cadbury wasdesperately seeking growth for the brand… “With a market share of 70%, trying towin away customers from competitors in this stagnant market wouldn’t help. Theyhad to find new customers, people who’d never bought chocolate before. Or, theyhad to increase consumption levels”. The obvious solution, in a peculiarpredicament. Despite low penetration, both the brand and the category weredisplaying symptoms of age: faltering growth, high recognition, and lack ofexcitement. The market research revealed the cause of the graying: chocolate wasn’t
a snack in India. “In mature markets, chocolate straddle a continuum, from boutiqueproduct – packaged raw indulgence – to a casual food”. So, Cadbury whipped up agrowth solution that involved associating the brand with snacking and functionally,which inevitably go together with high consumption rates in the Western markets.The next step: identify the barriers preventing consumers from chocolate as a snack.A battery of test, both quantitative and qualitative, comparing chocolateconsumption to a basket of competitive products revealed an unmistakable answer.
“Cadbury’s Was Caught In Its Own Trap”How? The company had, over decades, created a context of chocolate consumptionthat was now chocking growth possibilities. “The baggage of the past was sooverpowering that people didn’t get influenced by minor shifts in the message”.In fact, the behavioral and attitudinal patterns conveyed by the communication tobuild the brand were proving restrictive. For, Cadbury had, using the traditionaldemographic variables of age, socio-economic groups, and usage intensity,positioned COM as a product that elders – typically, parents – bought for children –typically, their own.But admittedly – enduring values of love and sharing, parental affection, and rewardthat Cadbury had labored to associate with the brand, which had helped it forge arelationship with customers, had relegated it to being a special – occasion item,ruling out increased individual consumption. After all, special occasion item, rulingout increased individual consumption. After all, special occasion were meant to be arare.A typical Ad would show parents bringing home chocolate for their child. It wouldnever, ever, show the child, or the parent, buying it for himself or herself. The punchline – Sometimes Cadbury’s Can Say It Better Than Words, and Nothing ButThe Best Will Do – reinforced the notion, with an unwelcome side – effect: adults,as research showed, felt distinctly guilty and embarrassed about eating chocolate,whether alone or socially.
“Not only were adults not indulging in chocolates, but they were also activelycurtailing child consumption” solution? Forget children as the core consumer.Universalize the product, targeting the parents.The TestsDespite the Need To Clear The residual memory of CDM’s former association,caution prevented a big break with the past, forcing Cadbury to experiment with acombination of continuity and change. The process entailed understanding thefoundation of the brand, since it was these that would support the new structure”.Out went the caring - and - sharing element, but the family context stayed. “Cadburyhad two pillars, so it made sense to change one”.Chocolate should be eaten whenever you feel like. It was an impulse item, so whyshouldn’t it be sold as one?”. The first of the two commercial focused onfunctionality, purging the emotional element.Is the storyline, The father watches TV, engrossed, gnawing away at a bar of CDM.The children enter, followed by the mother-but, by that time, the father hascompleted the distinctly un paternal act of devouring the entire bar. The children areshocked, where upon the produces another bar for them-only to eat that up too.Finally, the mother brings another bar out of her bag. The last shot more CDM barsstrew around casually.The second commercial conveyed the same message, depicting four member of afamily doing their own thing on a Sunday afternoon, each casually munching awayon chocolates. The less than – subtle message: eating chocolate’s just an everyday
affair, without special occasion or relationship coming into play. Despite theirstrategic intent, both ads failed on pre – airing tests.Why for stators, children were outraged at the idea of a parent consuming chocolate,while adults were down right angry at the notion of the father depriving his childrenof chocolate bar. Just as important, consumer rejected the idea that chocolate-eatingcould be equated with mechanical activities like combing one’s hair. After all,chocolates were about feelings. There had to be magic, romance, love and emotion.These elements had been ripped away from the advertising. It was sans emotion”.“Parent Are Different From Adults”Even as the ad failed, however, they generated a valuable byproduct, in the form of anew insight, into adult behavior. “Using transactional analysis on response,Cadbury’s found that adult as parents behave very differently from adults as adults.People forbid their children from having chips, but gorge themselves. “Theimplication”:-“The moment the adult was shown in the context of his role as a parent, all hiscognitive preconception about the product would come to the fore. He’d think aboutthe reasons why, and the block would automatically come up”. Tap child-ego statewithin the adult, stimulating desire, spontaneity, and the craving for instantgratification.
The PrescriptionThe crucial question that Cadbury was confronted with: what strategy should itdeploy to rejuvenate COM in a way that would appeal to the child lurking within theadult? To inject a modern flavor into COM, they chose to create a new brandidentity, borrowing a leaf from marketing guru David Aaker, who decrees that brandidentity should establish a relationship between the brand and the customer bygenerating value proposition involving functional, emotional, or self-expressivebenefits.“The Ads Had To Be Linkable”“The consumer will always tell what his current belief system is, not what it shouldbe Cadbury’s job to mould has habits and behavior in a way that would increaseconsumption for product and brand”.“Impulse Drives Chocolate Sales”One of the tools Cadbury’s used was Jean – Neal Kapferer’s Brand Prism model toexamine whether contemporary value systems offered a peg on which the brandcould be judge. The study disclosed, interlaid, a distinct shift from collectivism toindividualism, with the pre – 1990’s sacrosanct values of filial and family love beingovershadowed by the manifestation of a larger need for self – expression. “Therewas a definite yearning to be free child”. Therein lay the opportunity for bothunshackling consumption and creating all-new association for CDM.
The ElixirHaving decided to barter the distinctly use selfish values of sharing and caring forthe suspiciously self-centered one of self-expression, Cadbury’s people insisted thatthe rejuvenate be enriched with compensation – and equally enduring – positivevalues: universal truths, enduring human values, and universal moment of joy. Totranslate the brief into the commercial, they decide to simply portray occasion ofchildlike-but not childish-behavior from adults, without explicitly identifying adultsas the target customer.“They left the connection to be made by the customer” “In the process they wereable to get viewer involvement and high levels of empathy. Nowhere did theyactually say, you’re an adult, you can eat it. Because nobody wants to be told”. Thusit was that, the montage of the child in the man-the old man kicking the football; thepregnant woman carving a chocolate; young girl breaking into a spirit; the youngman tossing a bar of chocolate at his sweet-heart departing in a bus-was created.That the consumption had to be liked before it could penetrate the cultural resistanceto chocolate consumption by adults was obvious. Taking a contrition stance,Cadbury decided to test the commercial being devised by O&M’s creative team notfor the tire battery of likeability, comprehension, credibility and behaviormodification – but only for the first two. “If asked upfront, the consumer was hardlylikely to consider the dramatically-different idea credible. Nor was there muchchance of her announcing an immediate change in behavior”. But why likeabilityand comprehension? Simple: the first was meant to be the vehicle on which the
daring idea-that adults should enjoy chocolate-would ride into the consumer’spsyche.In other words, the commercial was meant to make him smile at first-and only thenrealize the import once of the message, which is where the comprehension had to betested. “What was clear in this case was that likeability would have to includeidentification and feeling warmth.”
The Real Taste of Life CampaignThe very first ad in the campaign in 94 was ‘block – Buster’. It depicted the essenceof one and a half glass of milk pouring in to a boy Dairy Milk unique glass and halfin to a chunk icon shows the glass and a half of full cream milk flowing in to thechunk of dairy milk conveying the deliciousness and taste appeal of the gooey,creamy, smooth chocolate inside the pack that children like. The mnemonic of 1 ½glass reached to consumer through every magazines, poster, T.V, newspaper.The second ad was montage of vignettes from every day lives of young and oldwhich focused on showing a series of emotions. The ad created a being out the childin the man created to bring out the child in the. The old man kicking the football, thepregnant women craving chocolate, young girls breaking into a spirit, the youngman tossing a bar chocolate at his sweet heart departing into a bus. The commonrefrain linking them was the adult in a free child mode – spottiness, impulsive andcarefree.The ad was protested among adult’s trough focus groups. The ad received anoverwhelming response. It was high on likeability, evoked a great degree ofempathy and identification consumers’ response were those me…… “Feel likethat…….”. “Every feels like this”…….. Brand usage was perceived to cut across allage groups and accessions. Consumers described dairy milk as “… of all ages”“Eat, when ever you feel like it…you do not have to wait for an occasion.”Dairy Milk had successfully enabled the free child in the consumer subsequentadverting used the same communication strategy.
The next ad featured an on going match in the field. Think of a match India battingagainst Pakistan. The score, 6 runs to win with 1 ball left and India wins the match.The ad shows a girl dancing with jubilation on the cricket field when her hubby hitsthe winning stroke. The award winning campaign, designed by ogilvy and matter,were intended to rid the Indian chocolates eater of that guilt complex. Theadvertisement suggested, through not in so many words, that it was ok to be seenincluding in a chocolate in public. You could relate the sweetness of success ofchocolate. The ad draws attention to the actual eats experience.The fourth in this series was the girl with on her hands. The ad focused on showinghow the girl relishes the Dairy Milk when she has mehandi on her hands. The ideabehind this advertisement was to show the nature of chocolate as an impulse –driven product. Post campaign saw a great turn around. Dairy Milk transformed in toa young full brand full of zest. It came to be recognized as an expression ofspontaneity and in pulse. The campaign succeeded I softening attitude towardschocolate and lifting then out of the ream of kiddies / special occasion only. Itembraced a wide range emotion all build around them that chocolate means differentthings to different people at different times, but most importantly chocolate isCadbury.The New CampaignAnd finally, with the launch of the new colloquial advertising campaign ‘KhaanneinWallon Khaannein Ka Bahana Chahiya featuring MTV VJ Cyrus Broacha, Cadbury
India aimed to ‘substantially’ increase penetration level of the chocolate category inthe next few years.’The new campaign is worth noting as it clearly differ from the earlier one in terms ofrectifying the consumer perception about chocolate being an up market impulse –driven product. The attempt now is to change the image, to make chocolate eating aregular habit.The current estimated penetration level of the chocolate category is 19% in theurban market. The objective behind tne new communication on Cadbury Dairy Milkis to make the chocolate category more socially and culturally relevant and drivepenetration in the process.The new campaign has been launched in tandem with the old ar@@ Winning ‘KuchKhass Hai’ campaign and the media strategy is to let the two co – exist towards acommon vision “providing a Cadbury in every pocket”.
Chocolate Market ShareThe Indian chocolate market is getting bigger and better. While on one hand, thepremium segment (composing imported varieties) is opening up on the other,companies like Cadbury India are launching indigenous product made tointernational standards. Of the 20,000 tonne chocolate market worth aboutRs. 400 crore, Cadbury account for about 70% followed by Nestle, with a share ofaround 20%. Amul has about 5% of the market, with minor player taking the rest.The battle, though, is between Cadbury and Nestle. Though with a much smallerportfolio, Nestle is putting up a tough fight.From a treat for kids, chocolate are now being positioned near meal substitutes,thanks to the initiative taken by the Cadbury India during early nineties. The marketitself has become more broad based, in the sense adults are an important targetsegment now. The reposting of Cadbury’s Dairy Milk in 1994 as the ‘real taste oflife (through the Slice of Life and Cricket commercial by Ogilvy and Mather) grewthe entire milk chocolate by 20%, and gave the Cadbury’s range – 5 Star, Gems,
Éclairs, Fruit & Nut, Crackle, Nutties, Butterscotch & Tiffns – a new lease of life. Inother words, it facilitated the repositioning of Cadbury’s sub brands in the basket.Some o the strategic clicked, while other did not quite take off.The company is pushing the gifting segment, through occasion linked gifts.Chocolates contribute to 64% of Cadbury’s turnover. Confectionary salesaccounting for 12% of turnover is contributed largely by Éclairs. The companyattempted expanding its confectionary product portfolio, with launch of sugar basedconfectionary goodly and fruits, without much success. Cadbury also has a strongbrand vita in the malted health drink category which account for 24% of turnover.There exists an even larger unorganized market in the confectionary segment.Cadbury has 4% of the market share in this segment. Leading national players arenutrine, Pary’s Ravalgoan, Candico, Parle, Joyoco India and Perfetti, the MNCssuch as Joyco and Perfetti have aggressively expanded their presence in the countryin the last few years.Malted food drinks category consists of white drink and down drink. White drinksaccounts for almost two third market of the 82,000 for market south and east arelarge market for drinks, accounting for largest proportion of all India’s sale.Cadbury’s Bourn Vita is leader in the down drink coca based segment in the whitedrink segment Smith Kline’s Horlicks in the Nestle Milo , GCMMF nitramul andother Smith Kline brand Boost, Maltova and Viva Cadbury bold 14% market sharein food drinks segment.
Despite tough market condition and increased competition Cadbury managed torecord a double digit (11%) top line growth in 2000. The company achieved avolume growth of 5.2%. This was achieved through innovative marketing strategiesand focused advertising campaign foe flagship brand Dairy Milk. Net profit rosesharply by 41.8% to Rs. 520 million. Reduced material and energy cost and tiotercontrol over working capital over working capital and capital expenditure enabledthe company to improve the profitability. Company added 8 million new consumersand saw its outlets grow to 4.5 lakhs and consumer to 60 million.In the foodsegment, Britannia is the leader brand with 21% among those who expressed anopinion saying that they like advertising for the brand Cadbury was clearly No.2with 18% to which CDM throw in its weight with 13% and pork with 4%. For theChowlate company, Khane Walo Lo, Khane Ka Bhanna and the Karwa Cauth,Sports are clear winners.Tied for the brand place are Amul, Parle and south based Arun Le Gram with 5%each. Disappointment among bid brands Kissan and Maggi and Kwality Walls (1%)each.
Cadbury’s Fruit & NutNew LaunchCadbury target kids with Milk Treat: - It is a product that talks directly to thetarget consumer. The product benefits havebeen defined as “The goodness of milk to thefun of chocolate”. it combines both goodhealth, multinational value of milk along withthe values of fun and excitement. The kindsformally associate with Cadbury chocolate offering.Temptation :- It is aimed at the niche “international chocolate “ segment of the chocolate market a segment how upgrade from brands such as Cadbury’s to premium international offering such as Tolerance, Lindit and Hersheys. Roughly 5%of the total domestic consumption expected to grow to some 10%. This segment is too good to miss out on. The Previous Cadbury’s range available in India did not offer consumer an option to upgrade to
international chocolate within the Cadbury’s fold. Temptation is an attempt to lugniche, priced Rs. 30.Future StrategyIn the branded impulse market, the share of chocolate in 6.6% and Cadbury’s sharein the impulse segment is 4.8% factor like changing attitude, higher disposableincome, a large youth population, and low penetration of chocolate (22% of urbanpopulation) point towards a big opportunity of increasing the share of chocolate inthe branded impulse among the costly alternative in the branded impulse market.It appears that company is likely to play the value game to expand the marketencouraged by the recent success of its low priced ‘value for many packs’.Various measures are undertaken in all areas of operation to create value for thefuture.New channel of marketing such as gifting and child connectivity and low end valuefor money product for expanding the consumer base have been identified.In terms of manufacturing management focus is on optimizing manufacturingefficiencies and creating a world class manufacturing location for CDM and Éclairs.The company is today the second best manufacturing location of Cadbury’sSchweppes in the world.Efficient sourcing of key raw material i.e. coca through forward purchase ofimports, higher local consumption by entering long term contract with farmer and
undertaking efforts in expanding local coca area developing. The initiatives in theterms of development a long term domestic coca a sourcing base would fieldmaximum gains when commodity prices start moving up. • Use of it to improve logistic and distribution competitiveness • Utilizing mass media to create and maintain brands. • Expand the consumer base. The company has added 8 million new consumer in the current year and how has consumer base of 60 million although the growth in absolute numbers is lower than targeted, the company has been able to increase the width of its consumer base through launch of low priced products. • Improving distribution quality by addressing issues of product stability by installation of visi coolers at several outlets. This would be really effective in maintaining consumption in summer, when sales usually dip due to the fact that the heat effects product quality and thereby consumption. • The above are some steps being taken internally to improve future operation and profitability. At the same time the management is also aware of external changes taking place in the competitive environment and is taking steps to remain competitive in the future environment of free imports, lower barrier to trade and the advent of all global players
in to the country. The management is not unduly concerned about the huge deluge of imported chocolate brands in the market place.It is of the view that size of this imported premium market is look small to threatenits own volumes or sales in fact, the company looks at the tree important as anopportunity, where it could optimally use the global Cadbury Schweppes portfolio.The company would be able to not only provide greater variety, but it would also bemore cost effective to test market new product as well as improve speed of responseto change in consumer preference through imports. The only concerns that thecompany has in this regard is the current high level of duties, which limit theopportunity to launch value for money products.Changing Product Mix Contributing to turnover Contributing to turnover 1994 2000Chocolate 59% 64%Sugar Confecting 9% 12%Food Drink 32% 24%Current Market ShareChocolate 69.2%
Sugar Confectionary 4.0%Food Drink 14.2%Expanding Distribution Reach2001 + Distribution450000 Retail Outlet60 Million Consumers
RECOMMENDATIONS• Maintain dominance in chocolate, confectionery and market leadership in blown drinks.• New channels such as gifting, child connectivity and value for money offering to be the key growth drives.• Grow volume sales at least 20% p.a. over the next years.• Achieve the goal of best manufacturing location in Cadbury Schweppes world for Dairy Milk and Éclairs.• One new major product launch every year.
The Cadbury StoryCadbury’s success storyIn 1984, John Cadbury founded U.K. company with one aim:- to create the highestquality chocolate. By1969, when Cadbury merged with the soft drink giant.Schweppes, Cadbury brands were already famous all around world.Today Cadbury’s production are enjoyed in 120 countries, with 40 chocolateconfectionary brands, Cadbury dominated markets as far as the U.K. and Australiathat’s why Cadbury have been dubbed “The world’s master chocolate makers”.The secret of Cadbury’s successWhat is the secret of Cadbury’s continuing success first there’s the careful selectionof the finest coca beans from west Africa, as well as tasty hazel nuts from Turkeyand the fine sheet and choicest natural ingredient available to us anywhere.Finally there’s skillful marketing Cadbury always takes extreme care in selectingand marketing the right range of product in every cause.The right product, the right partners, the right marketing, the promotional back up andthe right employees. These are the ingredients in Cadbury’s latest recipes for success.Right from the stand Cadbury Dairy Milk Chocolate success has been based on 4factors:- Quality
Case StudyPrior to deciding on the communication strategy for Cadbury Dairy Milk it wasimportant to understand the habits and mindset towards chocolates. A large scaleusage and attitude study was conducted among adults. The research revealed that:Adults were primarily purchasers, and not consumers of chocolates. However, as formost children’s product, they exercised a strong influence on the children’sconsumption behavior. Adults acted as gatekeepers of sorts when it came to fooditems. Considering the advertising history, it came as no surprise that chocolate wereperceived as “kiddy” product and certainly not part of the repertoire for productsconsumed socially. Chocolate consumption among adults evoked feeling of selfindulgence and guilt.Chocolates seemed to offer virtually no significant positive and certainly no overtpsychogenic benefits. Food and nutritive values associated with chocolates werelow. And, in fact they were categorized as ahazard, being responsible for obesity, dentaland respiratory problems.Brands images were undifferentiated and thecategory had low saliency, “can do without”.Purchase was almost always planned andtriggered by motives ranging from celebration,bribing and reward to gifting. For an impulseproduct category such as chocolates, this was
likely to limit market growth. This conditioning and social learning about chocolateswas restricting consumption among adults as well as driving them to restrictchildren’s consumption.There was evidence to suggest the need for shifting focus from child as chocolatesconsumers to adult’s communication, hitherto, had always addressed adults aspurchasers rather than consumers. Communication had positioned chocolates forspecific situations, thus imposing boundaries for the growth of the market. Emphasison casual everyday situation could help promote core consumption opportunities.For low involvement product categories like chocolates which offer emotional andsensory benefits, it is suggested that communication is most effective with repeatedlikeable ads promising unique and authentic emotional benefit a shift fromportraying everyday moments as an opposed to special ones.The radical change however was focus on bringing out the spontaneity in adults.And, finally CDM a symbol of manipulation was henceforth to symbolize fun,enjoyment and good times.The mnemonic of a glass and half milk was to reinforce the goodness of milk andcue physiological benefits.The only variation was in the Rituals, where communication had shifted from, andspecial occasion to every moment. A strong volume growth was witnessed in theearly 90’s when Cadbury, repositioned chocolates from children to adultconsumption. The biggest opportunity is likely to stem from increasing theconsumer base.
The OutlookThe Cadbury management has cut down on its growth target by setting a 10%average volume target for next 3 years (as against previous growth) coupled with infactionary price increases, this could translate into top line growth of 14 –15%. Thistarget also appears difficult to achieve given the consumer slowdown and the factthat the company’s consumer slow down and the fact that company is dependent ona single category chocolates to drive growth. Effect it expanding confection anyportfolio have also not yielded desired results. The management has declared itsintention to focus only in Éclairs (which forms a major position of its 4% share inthe confectionary segment) for the time being in this category.In chocolates too ones remain on the 2-3 key brands as CDM, perk in E claimswhich have supported growth in the past. While new launched such as milk @ andPerk slims have been doing will, the management expects that dairy milk wouldcontinue to be the central driving force in Cadbury’s growth and that all other brandswould remain peripheral to this central brand.Few Concerns Come To MindWith a market share of 70% in the chocolate category and with the free availabilityof international brands that you see in the market today, it is only natural that
Cadbury’s market share will move down from here marinating a 70% market sharein a closed environment may have been easy, but it certainly won’t be easy inliberalized environment of free imports. And whatever be the anomalies of taxationor low, the consumer is surely going to have a wider choice. And it is going to beshared with other brands too in future. There is additional challenge of Cadbury’sbrand just aiming market share when the consumer has a wide portfolio of brand tochoose from.While there would be new chocolates launch towards the end of the year, thecompany has ruled out a real big chocolates launch in the current year. And it is tooearly yet to comment on the long term response to the new launch temptations. Theysay chocolates are mostly am impulse purchase. Therefore consumer would prefersmaller, low cost packs to bigger higher priced ones.The growth trend of the brands therefore clearly indicates that the only brand thathas grown is the one that gas received tremendous marketing and advertisingsupport Dairy Milk withdraw support for any brand and growth loses momentum. Insuch scenario, for how long and how many brands can the company continuouslysupport?
POSITION OF THE VARIOUS BRANDS IN THE MARKET HAS BEEN LISTED BELOW Cadburys Positioning Nestle’s brands Positioning brandsCadbury Dairy “The Real Taste Classic Milk Positioned as anMilk of Life” Chocolate affordable enriched milk chocolate Positioned asFruit n Nut Position as Bar One Trendy, Cool, adults as anCreamy bar any time snack. impulse anyRoast Almond time purchase –Crackle self expression values attachedBournvita5 Star / Perk – KitKat Positioned as aPerk/Break Positioned as snacking Snacking consumption
consumption “Have a Break,“Thodi si Pet Have a Kit Kat”Pooja”5 Star Energybar Reach forthe Stars.
DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGSData was tabulated manually and was also analysed manually. Excel was used to make graphs had pie charts.Main technique used were :Modal value was used to analyse the questions, which has 2 ormore choices as their answers.Simple average were used to get answer to questions
FINDINGS AND SURVEY1. Do you eat chocolates? Yes 26% No 74%
2. Which brand of chocolates do you use? 80 75 65 70 60 60 50 40 30 30 20 10 0 Cadburys Nestle Amul Others
3. Where do you buy chocolates from? Others 6% Movie Halls Super stores 17% 32% Restaurants 10% Retail stores 35%
4. Are you aware of any campaign of the above brands? Yes 46% No 54%
5. Which cadbury’s product do you usually prefer or use? 80 70 80 60 40 24 35 40 20 0 Dairy Milk 5 Star Fruit & Nut Perk Temptation
6. Do you think Cadbury’s chocolate is easily available in market ? No 9% Yes 91%
CONCLUSIONThis company project has demonstrated “CADBURY’SMARKETING AND COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES” that hasproved to be extensive through, and of great benefit to the company infurthering its competitive advantage.In this project it possible to see the success of Cadbury’s in its indorseits strong potential to continue to do well.
Bibliography• A L Ries (1996), “Focus” Harper Collins Publishers Ltd.• David A. Aaker (1991), “Managing Brand Equity”, The Free Press.• David A. Aaker (1996) “Building Strong Brands”, The Free Press.• Philip Kotler (Eighth Edition) “Marketing Management”, Prentice Hall of India Ltd.• Advertising and marketing Magazine• The Economic Times – “Brand Equity”• Company Literature• Market survey and questionnaires• Web site: www.cadburyindia.com
• Web site: www.Cadbury.uk.com• Business World• Business Today ANNEXURE
QUESTIONNAIRE1. Do you eat chocolates? Yes No2. Which brand of chocolates do you use? Cadbury’s Nestle Amul Others3. Where do you buy chocolates from? Super stores Retail Stores Restaurants Movie Halls Others4. Are you aware of any campaign of the above brands? Yes No
5. Which cadbury’s product do you usually prefer or use? Dairy Milk 5 Star Fruit & Nut Perk Temptation6. Do you think Cadbury’s chocolate is easily available in market ? Yes No7. Describe Cadbury’s Chocolate in one word? ______________________________________________________8. Your comments on Cadbury’s products? ______________________________________________________
AcknowledgmentI am thankful to Ms. Smita Sharma (Brand Manager : New DelhiBranch of Cadbury) for providing me important information essentialfor the successful completion of the project.I am also extend heartiest thanks to Dr. K.R. Chaturvedi (InternalGuide) who initiated this interesting project and helped us solve all thedifficulties confronted at various stages. NARENDER BHATI BBA 6TH SEMESTER APEEJAY INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT GREATER NOIDA
PROJECT REPORT ON “Market Strategies OFCADBURY INDIA LTD.” “Real Taste of India” Submitted To: AIT SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT affiliated to Dr. B.R. Ambedkar University, AgraIn the Partial Fulfillment of the requirement for the Award of Degree of Bachelor of Business Administration In Marketing Submitted By NARENDER BHATI ROLL NO. 173 BATCH- 2003-2006
SUPERVISOR’S CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that Mr. Narender Bhati a student of Bachelorof Business Administration, APEEJAY INSTITUTE OFMANAGEMENT, GREATER NOIDA has successfulcompleted his project under my supervision.During the project, he has worked on Project Titled “MarketingStrategies of Cadbury India Ltd.” In partial fulfillment for theaward of Degree of Bachelor of Business Administration, Dr.B.R. Ambedkar University. The project report work done bythe candidate has not been submitted to any other university forthe award of any degree.His performance has been good during the project research.Prof. R.K. Agarwal Dr. K.R. Chaturvedi (Director) Faculty of ManagementAIT School of Management AIT School of Mgmt.Greater Noida Greater Noida
STUDENT’S DECLARATIONI hereby declare that this project report on the Topic “MarketingStrategies of Cadbury India Ltd.” Is an original work done by me underthe guidance of Dr. K.R. Chaturvedi, Faculty.APEEJAY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT. Thisis submitted in partial fulfillment of Bachelor of BusinessAdministration. NARENDER BHATI BBA 6TH SEMESTER APEEJAY INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT GREATER NOIDA
STUDENT’S DECLARATIONI hereby declare that this project report on the Topic “MarketingStrategies of Cadbury India Ltd.” Is an original work done by me underthe guidance of Dr. K.R. Chaturvedi, Faculty.APEEJAY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT. Thisis submitted in partial fulfillment of Bachelor of BusinessAdministration. NARENDER BHATI BBA 6TH SEMESTER APEEJAY INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT GREATER NOIDA