16 hr foecasting and planing vibhaDocument Transcript
H R Forecasting and Planning -1- INDEXPrefaceAcknowledgementExecutive SummaryIntroductionChapter IStrategic Human Resource • A New Paradigm for HR • What are Strategy, Planning and Forecasting? • The Importance Of People To Organizational Success • Michael Porter’s View Of StrategyChapter IIHuman Resource Planning • A Successful Approach To Human Resource Planning • Strategy, Planning And Forecasting For Hr Professionals • The Process Of Forecasting • Creating Hr Scenarios • Assessing The Demand For The People • Assessing The Supply Of The People In The Organisations • Culture In The Strategy Process • Gap AnalysisChapter IIIVoltas Profile • Operations • Awards • Community Development And Environmental Protection • Voltas HRD Center • Annual Strategic Business Plan • Goals • Autonomous Teams • Recruitment Plan • Selection Plan • Orientation And Placement • Training And Development
H R Forecasting and Planning -2- • Performance Appraisal • Motivation • High Potential Scheme In Voltas • Rewards • Punishment • Retention Scheme In Voltas • Employee Communication • Employee Remuneration • Promotion • Transfer • Separation • Retirement • Public ApproachChapter IVOnidas Profile • Vision Statement • Corporate Statement • Research And Development • Human Resource Initiatives • Products • Human Resource Management In OnidaChapter VConclusion - “Strategic Human Resource Management”Case StudyAnnexureBibliography
H R Forecasting and Planning -3- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI wish to express my heartfelt gratitude to MR. RAKESH KUMAR, GeneralManager (water cooler business) of Voltas Limited for providing detailedinformation regarding the Human Resource Forecasting and Planning in hisorganisation.I am grateful to MRS. PRIYANKA AJAY, Hr Executive of Onida Limited, forgiving me necessary details of Human Resource Forecasting and Planning inher organisation.I thank B.M.S Coordinator of my college MRS. BHANU KRISHNAN and myguide MISS. DIPTI SONI for her help and guidance.I sincerely thank to my parents who have played a crucial role in the research ofthis project.
H R Forecasting and Planning -4- PREFACEIndian industry is waking up to the challenges thrown in by the market economy.To survive in this highly competitive scenario, Managers are being pressurised toimprove quality, increase productivity, cut down waste and eliminateinefficiency. The collective efforts of the employer and the employee assumerelevance in this context. And this is where Human Resource Forecasting AndPlanning Plays a Crucial Role.This project on Strategic Human Resource Forecasting (SHRF) and HumanResource Planning (HRP) is a modest attempt towards the understanding ofhuman resource in its proper perspective in the huge corporates like VoltasLimited and Onida Limited. The contents have been logically stated according tothe actual Human Resource Management. The report is replete with the planningand management followed by contemporary business organisations Voltas andOnida.In all, the report provides rewarding insight into the true Strategic Managementand Development of Human Resource Present In Two Big Corporates!
H R Forecasting and Planning -5-OBJECTIVE:The learning objective: • Understanding the nature, scope and objectives of Human Resource Management. • Understanding the nature and importance of Strategic Management and HR planning. • Understanding the nature and appreciate the role of recruitment, selection, induction programmes in organisational effectiveness. • Understand the nature and importance of training and development, performance appraisal and identify various inputs that should go into any such programme. • Identify different components of employee remuneration and incentive payments. • Appreciate the role of employee benefits and retention policy in attracting and retaining competent people. • Understand the nature of motivation and draw a model which helps know motivation process in the company better. • Understand communication process and methods used in it. • Realise the need for employee welfare. • The promotion, transfer and retirement policy of the company. • Understand the nature of industrial relations and stress the need for peaceful employer and employee relationship.
H R Forecasting and Planning -6-SHRF, HRP AND ORGANISATIONAL STRATEGY
H R Forecasting and Planning -7-StrategicHuman Market Financial P.E.S.TResource Analysis Analysis AnalysisForecast Strategic Options Choice Of Strategy Or StrategiesHuman Product FinanceResource /Market Plan OperationsPlan Plan and Plan Targets The Organisational Plan Implementation of StrategyINTRODUCTION
H R Forecasting and Planning -8-“Those who work in the HR nowadays need the imagination of StevenSpielberg, the incisiveness of Jeremy Paxman, the interviewing skills ofOprah Winfrey and the skin of a rhinoceros tiptoeing between the politicalsensitivities of managers, the skill of Darcey Bussell is hardly lessessential. An organisation’s tendency to demand so much from HRprofessional requires broad range of competencies, more than morefunctions in the organisation.” Two of the attributes that do not get nearly enough, though, areSRATEGY & PLANNING. One thing we can do is contribute to strategy-setting ina way that is seen is adding value. STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE FORECASTING (SHRF) – in which we look at the radar of organisation and start joining up the dots as they appear on the screen. HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING (HRP) -- in which we take these patterns and convert them into meaningful activity. The demand for HR input at strategic level is there: chief executive officers increasingly see people issues as critical to competitive advantage. And the supply is there: there is the basis for the methodology for HR to excel at strategy and planning. What we have to do is to pull everything together in a consistent and professional way. Among the most important of these are performance management, knowledge management, individual and organisational learning, and how to manage change. All of these elements are within the domain of HR, and dealing with them will determine how successful those responsible for HR will become. Taking a strategic view across the organisation is essential.
H R Forecasting and Planning -9- Chapter I (I) STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCEWhat decides whether infact the human resource of an organisation isused strategically is how much the people of the organisation- theirattributes, motivation, development, priorities and performance – directlysupports the company’s strategic goals. How, then, can human resources be used strategically? Firstly, the people of the business must be genuinely recognized ascritical to it.Secondly the human resources functions has to be and integral part of thestrategic planning and thinking within the business, and businessmanagers need to incorporate people issues into their strategic andtactical activities.Thirdly, the HR strategy must not only support current businessrequirements but must also prepare the business and its people for thegrowing demand for talent, and the competition for the best humanresource. Human resources (with the talent it incorporates) is likely tobecome the key differentiator for innovation, for understanding customers,for managing human relationships and for developing the business. A great deal is expected of people who work in HR. not only are weasked to deliver six-sigma quality in recruitment and training, reward,industrial relations, employee communications and organisation design,we also have to be strategists, employee champions and businesspartners. HR is a very diverse, challenging and satisfying profession. Themanagement of strong effort combined with investment in new technologyis a significant contributor to growth and prosperity.A New Paradigm for HR: HR is becoming multi-disciplinary and has to embrace newconcepts as it strives to succeed in its overall “strategic” direction. The USjournal of ‘Cost Management’ contained an article about skills-basedhuman capital budgeting. The article forecasts that human capital planningwould become a strategic driver because a key issue facing organisationswas ‘ensuring that the right people with the right skills are in the right jobsin the right time’.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 10 - HR cannot afford to have a restricted view of the future. It has to beexpansive in its outlook. Right now, imagination is as important asknowledge for HR professionals. The role of HR is to make sure thatpeople receive all the considerations possible in times of organisationaldecision-making. In the new business paradigm by which people are the enablers oflong-term organisational success, HR professionals play an important role.They have to deliver not only operational excellence in our traditional rolesof personnel and training, but also strategic value added through ourunique knowledge of people dynamics. This is a combination of practicalefficiency and professional insight.What is Strategy, Planning and Forecasting? Strategy, planning and forecasting is the ability to use evidence inorder to predict outcomes. It is the value derived from being able toassess the implication of the environment and how that informs theactions that need to be taken. A step before that is to be initiated is to usean analysis of the environment to determine, to some extent, what theobjective ought to be. The all-pervasive sense that strategy-planning and forecasting is anecessary part of ‘knowing where you are going and knowing how to getthere’ seems more dominant today than ever before. It is that strategy-planning and forecasting arise from much more fundamental in humannature: the need for security and the need for reassurance that the rightchoices are made. This is much less analytical, and centres strongly onthe values and desires of the individual (or enterprise).The Importance Of People To Organisational Success In the new business paradigm by which the people are the enablersof the long term organisational success, HR professionals play animportant role. There is an acceptance that organisation has to get thepeople things right. If they fail to, people will walk away, there is customerdissatisfaction, the organisation suffers, the shareholder’s value falls. Thisraised profile of people in organisations is something of double-edgedsword for the HR profession. At long last they are getting the recognitionthat has long been denied- but now they also have to deliver on thestrategic stage and come up with more contribution than the excellenttransactional activity for which they are respected. They have to delivernot only operational excellence in our traditional role of personnel andtraining, but also strategic value added through our unique knowledge of
H R Forecasting and Planning - 11 -people dynamics. This is a combination of practical efficiency andprofessional insight. Today there is a greater recognition for forecasting and planning,which has been precipitated by the economic adjustment that came aboutwhen the new economy turned out to be different than expected.Michael Porter’s View of Strategy Michael Porter has been one of the foremost experts on businessstrategy during the past twenty years. He defined the strategy-settingprocess as ‘the search for a favourable competitive position in anindustry… competitive strategy aims to establish a profitable andsustainable position against the forces that determine industrycompetition‘. The six principles on which the fundamentals of strategy can beachieved are given as: 1. Start with the right goal. 2. A company’s strategy must enable it to deliver a value proposition or set of benefits. 3. Strategy needs to be reflected in a distinctive value chain. 4. Robust strategies must involve trade-offs. 5. Strategy defines how all elements of what the company does fit together. 6. Strategy involves continuity of direction. In porter’s terms an organisation has to take a clear strategic position, and then make sure that its activities along the value chain (sales, marketing, production, HR. etc.) are aimed at achieving or enhancing the strategy. Porter gave three potential positions as ‘GENERIC STRATEGIES’ Cost leadership, as the name implies, involves an organisation’s becoming the lowest cost provider in its industry sector, and competing on that basis in a broad market. Differentiation means achieving a position that has different or unique characteristics in relation to the competition in a narrow market. Focus means achieving competitive advantage in narrow market segments.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 12 -Which strategy to choose? HR professionals have an opinion about which is the right way toset the strategy. The most important thing for them is to find out exactlyhow the organisation is undertaking its strategy-setting, and to ensure thatthey conform to it by gaining admittance. It is incumbent on those directingan organisation to take the responsibility for evaluating strategic choiceson behalf of the employees, shareholders, other stakeholders andthemselves. The role of the people responsible for human resources in anorganisation is to provide rationally-derived information in respect of thepeople implications of strategy, and to combine it with their own uniqueinsight into people aspects. It is the requirement of strategic human resource forecasting thatsome basic questions are answered: 1. How many people do the organisation need to achieve its business or organisational strategy? 2. What kind of skills those people need? 3. What kind of management culture should prevail in the quest for sustained organisational success? 4. How leaders can provide direction in prevailing culture or, indeed, how culture should be changed? 5. How employees can be engaged in the organisation’s mission? Chapter II
H R Forecasting and Planning - 13 - (II) HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING “Human resource planning” was born as different approach. Il was anattempt to make the process a more dynamic and iterative one. Human resourceplan ‘consists of a range of tasks designed to ensure that a appropriatenumber of right people are in the right place at the right time. In essence itinvolves assessing the current levels and utilization of staff and skills,relating the internal elements to the market demand for the organisation’sproducts, and providing alternative to match human resources withanticipated demand’. But most importantly it is ‘fundamentally a dynamic process thatendeavors to monitor and manage the flow of people into, through, and out oforganisation’. A Successful Approach To Human Resource Planning The key considerations for successful Human resource planning can belisted as: HR planning must always be seen within the strategy making context. Human resource planning can most usefully be defined as ‘the relatively specific element of HR making that proposes appropriate action with regard to human resourcing’. HR planning involves creation of formal and explicit sets of proposals intended to achieve actions that will help achieve long-term organisational performance. The challenge is to propose actions that contribute to the long-term corporate success, not only by being prepared to take into account surprise circumstances but also by introducing new ways of thinking. This requires sufficient flexibility or openness about the direction proposed. It also requires that there are opportunities for variety of individuals and groups that make up an organisation to have an input into both the thinking and the action implicit in the planning. The systems and processual perspective provides two different ways of viewing the relationship between and organisation and individuals who constitute that organisation. HR planning involves a combination of thinking and acting. This involves incorporation of continual experimentation, revision and rethinking in
H R Forecasting and Planning - 14 - which processes of argument, debate and conflict between different managers and interest groups play a part. Strategy, Planning And Forecasting For HR ProfessionalsThe main reasons for the use of strategic human resource forecasting andhuman resource planning are: To ensure that organisation takes into account of “people as contributors to its success by recognizing their unique contribution to strategic direction and performance. To align and integrate people strategies with organisational strategies. To ensure that the demand of people numbers, knowledge, skills, attitudes and values are matched with the supply of these attributes. To provide a process by which people considerations are raised early in the strategy-setting. The Process of Forecasting The SHRF is based on the iterative process that takes its initial feed from the business or the organisational strategy and works through the strategic dialogue to the HRP, the people output of strategic planning. The component parts of the SHRF are summerised as follows: 1. Establishing business or organisational strategy or strategic options: This requires a good understanding of the business implications of the strategies that are being proposed. The involvement of HR at this point is increasingly accepted part of business planning cycle because of the recognition that inappropriate skill sets, organisation design or culture can impair the chances of strategic success. 2. Creating HR scenarios:
H R Forecasting and Planning - 15 - Scenario planning means trying to anticipate people implications of the possible strategic options. For each of the strategic options that are identified, a series of HR scenarios can be created.3. Assessing demand: This step includes the process to assess the number of people needed for the HR plan. The various other factors that are critical to the aspect of strategy that relates to demand for skills. The demand forecast will stem directly from the financial, sales or production forecasts.4. Assessing the supply: Supply factor include an internal analysis of potential, but have a particular focus on the external variables such as demographics, overall country or regional skill levels, and so on. (1) Creating Hr Scenarios Scenario planning is preparing for the unexpected. It is a way ofbuilding a mindset aimed at anticipation. It represents, ‘an attempt tosidestep or circumvent the hazards predicting, and in process to reapcertain mental and practical gains that are commonly sacrificed in a singletrack predicting’. The second aspect of the strategic human resource forecastingprocess is to look at scenario-planning as a way of addressing criticalissues. Scenario planning is inexorably linked with creative thinking.Imaginative solutions to the problems created by expanding targets incompetitive world can be enhanced by instituting creativity as part of theintrinsic make-up of the organisation. In some organisations Scenario planning is a ‘Blue-Sky’ type ofactivity, in which those involved in strategy setting process think theunthinkable or dream up ‘left-field’ options for the organisation. It is thus summerised as a way of anticipating changes in theexternal environment that will impact positively or adversely on both theorganisation’s goals and the means of achieving them. Scenario-thinkingis response to fallibility of prediction-making in the business ororganisational environment. The strategic human resource forecastrepresents an ideal opportunity to incorporate some scenario planning intothe people aspects of the strategy.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 16 -In its purist sense scenario-planning tries to imagine the future at its mostunpredictable.The following are the steps involved in creating a scenario:1. Consider possible scenarios: after having looked at the possible options that might arise from the business strategy, it might be possible to plan out some scenarios in advance and be prepared to face the possible contingencies that will arise from the situation.2. For each scenario identify a range of HR outcomes: the next stage will be after formulating an input to the scenario to identify a range of possible outcomes. This is an exercise in broadening the vision beyond the organic and incremental. it is certainly an exercise in moving out of box.3. Identify success and disaster possibilities: once the possible outcomes from the various scenarios have been identified, two important questions should be raised: What would success look like? What are the risks to and the possible show-stoppers of these outcomes?4. Identify difference between current position of the organisation and desired future position: Once the scenario has been created, once the HR outcomes have been identified, once the plan is beginning to emerge, then gap analysis should start. As in HR outcomes aspect of scenario, gap analysis will facilitate action-planning once one projected scenario becomes firm.5. Identify successful actions and measure of success: At this point there will be several inputs to the scenario. It is worth sanity-checking the whole process with those responsible for establishing the scenario, to evaluate what the outcomes have been and how beneficial they are. One of the important aspect of this part of scenario-planning process is time and timing. (2) Assessing The Demand For The People
H R Forecasting and Planning - 17 -Strategic resourcing Attracting, development and retaining the right personnel forbusiness today is what lies at the root of the corporate success or theirfailure. The alignment of corporate and personal values should lie at theroot of any recruitment exercise, whether recruiting a CEO or manualworker. There is a responsibility on everyone who is recruiting to devotesufficient time and understand and clarify exactly what is required. Oneshould also look forward to the development and retention of eachrecruited individual both in personal terms and in developing the business.The result then will not be a repetition of the recruitment process and astatic or decreasing business.The demand for the people The demand and supply are the ‘yin and yang’ of the SHRF: twocomplementary activities- not of Chinese philosophy but of very realchallenge of getting enough people to fill the posts created by strategy.Attaining equilibrium is very desirable objective by having goodunderstanding of the labour market. In theory, demand forecasting should be more straightforward thansupply forecasting as demand forecasting is based on the interpretation ofthe organisation’s business plans. The outputs of the demand forecast arelikely to be: An estimate of the numbers required to achieve the business strategy in one to three to five year’s time. An understanding of how will these employees will work, by division or by location. An understanding of the types of skills required, including an estimate of how many skilled people will be required within each skill type. The process for deriving a demand forecast
H R Forecasting and Planning - 18 -1. The business or organisational strategy determines the likely people requirements in terms of numbers, location, skills, etc.2. Quantify people requirements by total numbers3. Quantify requirements by business unit or division4. Quantify requirements by location5. Quantify requirements by skill types6. Prepare an initial demand forecast7. Feedback to business managers8. Feed results into a quantified HRP.(3) Assessing the Supply Of The People In The Organisations HR would not be HR without its essential raw material- PEOPLE. Aforward look at the number and quality of the people available in the jobsmarket is therefore necessary prerequisite of strategic HR. people supply – inparticular external supply – is an important determinant of whether anorganisation will be able to deliver its required levels of performance. Supply ifgenerated by internal and external sources f labour and includes supply ofskills. The process for deriving a supply forecast1. The business or organisational strategy informs internal supply of people.2. Environmental analysis used to inform likely external sources of supply.3. Quantity of supply analysed by total numbers.4. Quantity of supply analysed by location.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 19 - 5. Quantity of supply analysed by skill types. 6. Quantity of supply analysed by business unit. 7. Feedback to business managers. 8. Input to the HRP. 9. Measures of the implementation set. Culture In The Strategy Process ‘Culture’ is the context within which the individuals and the groupsoperate. For an organisation, it comprises a set of beliefs, values and emotionsthat enable its members to work effectively. In most companies, the culturalcontext is assumed: newcomers absorb the unwritten rules through a process ofobservation, trial and error-otherwise, they face rejection. Successful companiesestablish a culture that fits their operating models. In the era of gradual change, the culture of the company adjusts over timeto new market requirements and opportunities. Today, however, the pace ofchange in the economy- driven by the interlocking forces of the globalization,technological innovation, deregulation and government intervention – is such thatthe company is forced to adapt their operating models far more quickly to remaincompetitive. With the acceleration of the changes in the competitive environment, itbecomes vital to synchronise changes in business processes, organisationalchanges and reward systems with the appropriate shifts in the culture. Changing culture is therefore not about building a company – it isnecessary to create an organisation that can deliver hard results.The cultural implications of strategyThe cultural implications of business strategy continue to be serious matters ofthe HR personnel. And there is evidence that cultural issues, always important,are now becoming more appreciated. Understanding the culture of anorganisation is a prerequisite to managing any sort of change. HR personnelhave a major role to play as ‘the voice of the culture in the organisation’ –analysing and articulating what it is, and doing something about it.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 20 -The importance of understanding culture Assessing the culture and style of the organisation – and how appropriatethey are to the future direction and strategy – is critical. It is an era that is one ofthe softer aspects of HRM…. and as the result of often ‘parked’. When organisation fails to recognize cultural issues during the strategysetting process, it has an impact on the ultimate success or failure of thestrategy. The possibility of building a culture that values difference in the race,gender and ability should enthuse everyone in the organisation. Anorganisation’s culture is pervasive. It can also stifle the change or innovation ifmismanaged or misunderstood. Organisational culture is a powerful force – andnow there is a growing recognition that its management is important facet oforganisational success. Every organisation has a culture, and the way the human behaviourexpresses itself - in both speech and action – defines that culture.The ways in which culture shows itself in organisation are illustrated below: • The way in which people interact, their forms of address, and language they use • The dress code. • The way in which work is organised and conducted. • The organisation’s self-image and the dominant values it espouses, often through its mission statements, company and product literature. • The way in which it treats its employees and responds to its customers – this is often reflected in the physical facilities provided in the organisation. • The rules for ‘playing the organisational game’ – e.g. the types of behaviour associated with being a good employee or effective manager.The process of assessing the cultural implications of strategy
H R Forecasting and Planning - 21 -1. Highlight the possible changes to strategy from the overall strategic plan.2. Conduct a cultural audit for the existing organisation3. Assess the cultural implications of the new business strategy4. Identify culture gaps5. Communication, education and HR practices to develop required culture6. identifying measures of success7. Monitor the cultural change GAP ANALYSIS A gap is an opening, an opening is a space between barriers, a space betweenbarriers makes for tremendous vulnerability. At first sign of gap, it should beshored up, or repelled, or stopped, or hidden, or overwhelmed. These are calledthe principles of stopping gaps. In traditional manpower planning, gap analysis was the means ofcontrasting the current ‘numerical size of the workforce against the size predictedin the strategic plan. It is now necessary to extend this simple but effectivebalancing act to include other factors, such as: • Training • Culture • Succession management These elements are increasingly of high profile because of the war of talent and its implications for recruitment and retention, and because of the need to keep a firm grip on cost management. Gap analysis in a people context
H R Forecasting and Planning - 22 - In people context there are four critical areas in which the gap may be identified as part of SHRF process. These are:• In the supply and demand for labour- either as excesses of supply between current and proposed strategy (downsizing) or as excesses of demand (the war for talent)• In the difference between the current cultural make-up of the organisation and that desired for future• In the difference between the current organisational structure and that indicated by strategy debate• In all aspects of organisational development, such as learning, reward, and employee relations. Chapter III
H R Forecasting and Planning - 23 - VOLTAS PROFILEVoltas Limited is Indias premier air conditioning and engineering servicesprovider. It offers engineering solutions for a wide spectrum of industries in areassuch as heating, ventilation and air conditioning, refrigeration, climate control,electro-mechanical projects, textile machinery, machine tools, mining andconstruction, materials handling, water management, building managementsystems, pollution control and chemicals.The Companys strengths lie principally in the design and manufacture ofindustrial equipment; management and execution of air conditioning and publicwork projects; sourcing, installation and servicing of technology-based systems;and representation of global technology leaders, serving diverse industrialsectors and applications.OPERATIONSVoltas operations have been organized into four independent business-specificclusters, namely the Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Business Group, UnitaryProducts Business Group, Engineering Products Business Group andInternational Operations Business Group. Each of these has its own facilities formarket coverage and service to customers.• Air conditioning and Refrigeration Business Group Central Plant Equipment Packaged / Ductable Split Units HVAC Turnkey Projects and Services• International Operations Business Group Electro-mechanical Projects Pumps and Projects Civil Construction Chemicals• Unitary Products Business Group Room Air Conditioners Water Coolers Commercial Refrigeration• Engineering Products Business Group Textile Machinery Mining & Construction Equipment Machine Tools Materials HandlingAWARDS
H R Forecasting and Planning - 24 - • United Nations Grand Award for Excellence in Public Service Worldwide, 1993-94. • International Public Relations Associations Golden Trophy for Excellence in Customer Service, 1994-95. • Mumbai Chamber of Commerce and Industrys Good Corporate Citizenship Award, 1995-96.COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTIONThe Company has consciously laid emphasis on corporate social responsibilityand also on ecology and environment protection. Exemplary corporatecitizenship is demonstrated in numerous social upliftment projects, whetherindependently undertaken or in support of the Tata Council for CommunityInitiatives.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 25 - CHAIRMAN BOARD OF DIRECTOR MANAGING DIRECTOR Voltas HRD Centre, inaugurated on June 7, 1995, was designed by a group VICE- of architects, engineers, behavioural scientists and HRD executives to PRESIDENT provide the right environment for Training and Development. Set amidstidyllic sylvan surroundings, the Centre has an auditorium and a conference hall, as well as a number of syndicate rooms of varying seating capacities, backed by modern training aids and accessories.VOLTAS is one of India’s oldest companies embarking its true existence foralmostconditioning It is one of the few Multi-National Company’s who had evolved Air 5 decades. International Unitary Engineeringimportance of HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 3 decades ago. and Operations Products ProductsSays VOLTAS General Manager Mr. Rakesh Kumar, “Our Company has Business Refrigeration Business Businessconstantly framed the plans and policies so as to attract the best talent towards Business Group Group Groupour empire and satisfy and nurture our most valuable assets - our employees.” Group ORGANISATION STRUCTURE H.R.D DEPARTMENT GENERAL MANAGER
H R Forecasting and Planning - 26 -ANNUAL STRATEGIC BUSINESS PLAN The Strategic Business Plan in VOLTAS is formulated every year keeping inview the need of the entire firm, its employees and most importantly the
H R Forecasting and Planning - 27 -customers. The company has an HR department who is responsible completelyin designing the whole working plan effectively and efficiently. Like everysuccessful organisation today, VOLTAS too lays more emphasis on providingmaximum customer satisfaction through value-added services and qualityproducts. In the world of intense competition, every firm’s true objective is to have acompetitive edge through technologically advanced products and services at themost competitive prices. A team of expert personnel is very essential in achievingthe corporate objectives. The core contributors is the internal strength of thecompany i.e. the employees and to build up that strong force is the team of HRpersonnel. The main frame of this Strategic Business Plan includes the following: 1. The human resource requirement. 2. The training programmes to be initiated. 3. Implementing various motivational techniques and give incentives to the deserving employees. 4. Annually conducting an overall assessment of the working of the organisation. 5. And how to meet the competition. GOALS Every year the HR department in consent with the top level of management prepares a list of goals and objectives to be fulfilled by every employee. They are also delegated with the required responsibility and authority for their efficient and smooth working. The goals and objectives are formulated in such a way that they are aligned with the Strategic Business Plan as the ultimate target of the organisation. The bottom line for the company is ultimately providing its customers the best of value added services and quality appliances. The main role of the HR
H R Forecasting and Planning - 28 - department in this concern is to initiate a plan where the internal customers i.e. the employees are motivated to provide complete satisfaction to the external customers. The HR department considers the past records of the assessment which is conducted by the Employee Agencies appointed by the company to carry out satisfaction survey.AUTONOMOUS TEAMS The formulation of the goals for the company is not only done by the toplevel of the management but also by the cross divisional functional team, typicallyconsisting of the personnel from every functions and departments. After a clearview of the entire picture framed by the management, the job of distributing therespective tasks rests with the HR department. The most interesting technique which the VOLTAS follow is the process ofdiscussing the goals and objectives between the head of the department and hissubordinates. They thoroughly discuss the ways and the order in which one willattain its respective goal. Every employee participates equally to help andsuggest pathways by which they can achieve their target. This shows the teamwork culture that the company follows which gives every one a chance to presenthis/her view and thus result into a successful master plan. RECRUITMENT PLAN
H R Forecasting and Planning - 29 -Human Job Determine Recruitment Resource Analysis And Selection needs Planning RECRUITMENT “It is the process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment. The process begins when the new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted. The result is the pool of applicants’ form which the new employees are selected.” Every company has its own recruitment plan designed to suit the specifications and requirements that a job demands. The HR department keeps a track of the employees in various departments in the organisation. The Company considers two ways to recruit an employee i.e. either internally or externally. Internally it fulfills the place of the job by transferring or promoting the existing capable employee. In case of external recruitment, it considers two ways according to the job specification. The 2 levels of the external recruitment are: 1. Entry level: At this level, the recruitment is done by Campus interviews. The company considers mainly the MBA’s and Engineer graduates from a well recognized institution. The leading institutions which cover the company’s preference are Weginkars, Somaiya, Symbiosis, Nagpur engineering college. It invites the job- profile of the potential prospects suitable for their organisation through or direct contact with these institutions. This is a proactive method of recruitment. Basically, the need for an employee is anticipated by the HR department and the best prospects are attracted much before the actual need for the employee. 2. Experienced level:
H R Forecasting and Planning - 30 - The level is need-based i.e. the recruitment is only done when there is no chance of internal placement. It usually is in the case of top and middle level management. The company as far as possible considers promotion to be the ideal way but in case of any contingency, external recruitment is opted. The specification for the job includes requisite experience of with high degree qualification and work experience from a reputed firm. The company places advertisement in leading newspaper with job specifications to target the right prospect.Recruitment on contractual basis: The company hires consultants for getting applications. The jobdescription is provided to the consultant. According to the specification of the job,he sends resume of eligible applicant to the company. From the received bio-data, the HR department shortlists the applicants pertaining to job demand forinterview. SELECTION PLAN SELECTION “It is the process of differentiating between applicants in order to identify (and hire) those with greater likelihood of success in the job.”The role of selection in an organisation’s effectiveness is crucial for atleast tworeasons: Improving Work performance by hiring the people who have the competence and the willingness to work. Cost incurred in recruiting and hiring the personnel speaks volumes about the role of selection.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 31 -OUTCOMES OF THE SELECTION DECISION False Negative True Positive SUCCESS Error (“High Hit”) True Negative False Positive FAILURE (“Low Hit”) Error FAILURE SUCCESS PREDICTED PREDICTEDThe company selects the applicants on the basis of their academic recordsdepending upon the post levels.STEP 1: Selection criteria 1. Cut off – 60 %STEP 2: Selection tests Job seekers who are shortlisted in the first step are called for a written testwhich assesses the applicant’s mental ability and I.Q. level. The test is based onBasic, Logic and Reasoning questions. The test is conducted to evaluate andselect only those individual who are able to score maximum. This is nextelimination step from which the applicants are called for Group Discussion.STEP 3: Group Discussion The applicants who pass the test are called for Group Discussion. Here allthe prospects are made to sit together and are given a topic to discuss. Thepanel members closely watch the move of every individual and are allottedpoints. Those who score the maximum are then interviewed for final selection.STEP 3: Employment Interview The next step in the selection process is employment interview. Interviewis a formal, in-depth conversation conducted to evaluate the applicant’s
H R Forecasting and Planning - 32 -acceptability. The panel interview consists of two or more interviewers. Here thepanel consists of the HR department entirely involved with the senior membersfrom all other departments. After obtaining information through the preceding steps, selectiondecision-the most critical of all steps-is made. The other stages in the selectionprocess have been made to narrow the number of candidates. The final decisionhas to be made from the pool of individuals who pass the tests, interviews andgroup discussion and interview. The views of all the panel member is considered in the final selectionas it is he/she responsible for the performance of the new employee.STEP 4: Job offer The next step in the company selection process is job offer to thoseapplicants who have crossed all the steps of screening and testing. Job offer ismade through letter of offer which contains the date by which the appointee mustaccept the offer and inform the date of joining, whom to report, his designation,salary structure. ORIENTATION AND PLACEMENTORIENTATIONAlso called induction, is designed to provide a new employee with the information he orshe needs to function comfortably and effectively in the organisation.It is a planned introduction of employees to their jobs, their co-workers and theorganisation.PLACEMENTAfter an employee has been hired and oriented, he or she must be placed in the respectiveright job. Placement is understood as the allocation of people to jobs. It is the assignmentand re-assignment of an employee to a new job.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 33 -The Voltas company conducts orientation/ induction program for a week. It is aformal induction done by the company. The idea is to make the new employeesfeel ‘at home’ in the new environment. The ease with which employees adjust toa new job and work environment is, often, a function of the expectations theybring to the job. There are two ways in which the new employee is oriented: 1. Classroom induction where there is formal induction program conducted. 2. C.D. - here a compact disc projects visual display of the entire organisation and its people.The probation period is 1 year. The employee is given the letter of appointmenton joining. After the completion of the tenure, letter of confirmation is issued tothe employee with 100% consent of the top level management. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTTRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTIt is any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing anemployee’s ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employee’s attitudeor increasing his or her skills and knowledge. The need for training and development isdetermined by the employee’s performance deficiency, computed as follows: “YOU TRAIN BEST ON OUR TERRAIN” Training and development need = Standard performance – Actual performance.The training and development program in the company starts from the entry leveland is continuous thereafter.Steps in training programme
H R Forecasting and Planning - 34 - Who Are The Who Are The What Methods & Trainees? Trainers? Techniques?What should be the What Principles Where to conductlevel of Training? of Learning? the program? • Entry Level Training: The new employee undergoes training in two ways: In-house training where the basic training is imparted in the organisation by respective person who acknowledges the employee about the job requirement. Through a trainer who is hired by the company for 1-4 days depending upon the length of the training program. The trainer provides complete information about the job to be performed and how to be done. • General Training: There is on-going training programmes conducted every year on various aspects. These programmes are organised for all the employees in the company. Each employee undergoes training for 12-15 days every year. The basic knowledge regarding the latest trends and ways for performing tasks is the course content of the training program. Mentoring system of training: Every new employee is placed under the guidance of a senior employee who undertakes the responsibility of coaching and teaching. This is an effective way to learn as the experience of the mentor is passed to the new employee who adapts to the corporate culture of working. Mentoring a usually done by the employees immediate boss or by an elderly person who assess the new recruite problems and difficulties. On-the-Job Training:
H R Forecasting and Planning - 35 - OJT is an ongoing training program facilitated to the employees throughout their association with the company. It is the most effective method as the trainee learns by experience, making him/her highly competitive.Executive training programme: The VOLTAS company holds specials training programmes for the executives which is for a duration of 3-6 days. It is organised at the TATA MANAGEMENT TRAINING CENTRE (PUNE). It is a residential training programme where training is given to the senior level executives.Training Aids available • Overhead projector • Slide projector ( 35 mm ) • Direct projector • Electronic Pan Board (PANA) • White board • Motorized projection screen • Video scope • Microphone systems • Computer available • LCD • E-mail • Library
H R Forecasting and Planning - 36 - PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL It may be understood as the assessment of an individual’s performance in the systematic way, the performance being measured against such factors as job knowledge, quality and quantity of output, initiative, leadership abilities, supervision, dependability, co-operation, judgement, versatility, health, and the like. Assessment should not be confined to past performance alone. Potentials of the employee for future performance must also be assessed. Performance appraisal is a formal, structured system of measuring and evaluating employee’s job related behaviours and outcomes to discover how and why an employee is presently performing on the job and how an employee can perform more effectively in the future so that the employee, organisation and society all benefit. The performance appraisal process Objectives of Establish Job Design an AppraisalPerformance Appraisal. Expectations Programme Appraise Performance Use Appraisal Data For Performance Interview Appropriate Purpose. • In Voltas, the appraisal programme is held every year. The programme highlights the company’s goals and objectives to be accomplished in that year. These targets to be achieved are given to the respective department and each employee. The head of that department, with his subordinates, discuss the way in which the targets are to be met
H R Forecasting and Planning - 37 -The appraisal programme process of the company is done in the following steps: 1. The strength and weaknesses analysis of the employee as perceived by the appraiser. 2. The rating of the employee is done on the predetermined parameters. 3. On the job performance evaluation is assessed. 4. The training requirements are evaluated. 5. All the information relating to the appraisal is forwarded to the HR department. 6. The HR department analyses the performance level, whether increased or decreased, whether the said target has been achieved or not. 7. The result of the data is compared with the past data. On the basis of the evaluation the employee is allotted grades. 8. All the information thus assessed is discussed by the company. The goals of the next year is simultaneously set and duly signed.The performance appraisal is recorded and maintained for the following reasons: 1. To determine the immediate or future training and development needs. 2. To effect promotions based on competence and performance. 3. To confirm the services of the probationary employees upon their completing the probationary period satisfactorily 4. To set the goals and targets next year. 5. To use the data for comparing the performance of the employee. 6. To let the employees know where they stand insofar as their performance is concerned and to assist them with constructive criticism and guidance for the purpose of their development. 7. Performance appraisal is used to determine whether HR programmes such as selection, training, and transfers have been effective or not.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 38 - MOTIVATIONA basic principle is that the performance of an individual depends on his or herability backed by motivation. Stated algebraically the principle is: Performance= f (Ability x Motivation)-Ability refers to the skill and competence of the person to complete a giventask.-Motivation in simple terms may be understood as a set of forces that causepeople to behave in certain ways. 1. Identifies Needs 6.Reassess needs 2.Searches for ways deficiency. to satisfy needs. EMPLOYEE S 5.Receives either 3. Engages in goal- rewards or punishment. directed behaviour 4. Performs HIGH POTENTIAL SCHEME IN VOLTASThe company runs from time to time a unique programme High PotentialScheme. This programme is specifically designed to assess the competency ofthose employees who exhibit high level of capability and progress at much fasterpace than other employees in short span of time.These employees are selected by the company for a Grooming trainingprogramme which trains and develops the skill of the employee to enable themto take a higher post in future. It is a kind of internal recruitment wherein thecompany identifies the potential employees who will be able to resume positionat the middle or top level of management. This scheme is a fast track groomingprogramme done by the HR department to develop a competent employee.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 39 - REWARDSPeople join organisations expecting rewards. Firms distribute money and otherbenefits in exchange for employee’s ability, competencies and behaviours.Membership and Seniority-based RewardsBenefits an employee receives depend on the firm joined. In VOLTAS, MBA andEngineer taking up a job gets more benefits than a graduate. The MBAs andEngineer reach middle level and top level of management faster.Job Status-based RewardsThe firm uses job evaluation system which helps establish differentials in statusof job. A job that requires more skills and efforts have more responsibility andhave difficult working conditions is given more value and consequently places inhigher pay grades. The pay scale and reward increases from lower level to toplevel of management and according to the job expectation achieved.Competency-Based RewardEmployees who reflect their competencies through skills, knowledge and traitsleading to desirable behaviour are given skill-based pay. In skill based pay thecompany pays employee on the basis of number of jobs discharged, or the depthof their knowledge. VOLTAS uses skill-based system of rewarding to motivateemployees to acquire additional skills so that they become more useful to theorganisation.The Rewards are given to the employees in the following forms:1. Monetary rewards where the employee receives reward in kind over and above his normal pay-scale.2. Reward in intangible form like appreciation and recognition. Announcement of the employees who show exceptional and outstanding achievement is done in the company meeting or formal function.3. Appreciation to the employee, as the G.M. of the company Mr.Rakesh calls, a pat on the back serves as a motivational tool.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 40 - PUNISHMENTJust as every company has a strong motivational reward system, thepunishment concept too is required to arrest mismanagement and undisciplinedbehaviour. The company follows the strategy of punishing the employees onlyas a last resort. The following are the steps involved for curbing the undesirablebehaviour of the employee: 1. Any complaints received or misbehaviour observed is handled by the senior executive of the respective department and the HR department. This is in case of middle and low hierarchy employees. 2. Counseling is given to the employee to change his attitude and behaviour. 3. Further, if no positive response is received, the report of the same is made by the HR personnel to the top level executive. More stringent action is taken to solve the problem. 4. Final warning is given to the employee. 5. At last, if no alternative is left, the respective employee is asked to resign the post. This is the most rigorous action taken after the consent of the entire concerned personnel department and the HR team. 6. The application of all the steps involved lies with the HR department. RETENTION SCHEME IN VOLTAS In Voltas, several special programmes are initiated by the company to manage the use of its human resource effectively and to the optimum level. One of the unique schemes being the Retention scheme. The following are the steps involved: 1. This programme is conducted at a spaced interval annually as a powerful motivational technique.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 41 -2. Nominations from all the department is invited by the HR department. These nominations are referred by the senior executive of the respective department.3. From the nominations received, say 20, 5 employee names are selected according to their database and capability observed.4. All the selected employees are taken to a programmed venue which is their assessment center.5. The entire scheduling and planning is done by the HR department with the approval form the top level management.6. The programme involves rigorous tests which the employees are supposed to give in the assessment center.7. These tests involves written test, Group Discussion and Individual Exercises to ascertain individual capability.8. The results which are recorded by the selected panel members from all the departments are evaluated by the Senior Executives.9. After thorough evaluation, the Panel shortlists the employees who are selected on the basis of the evaluation done.10. These employees are added to the category of “Fast Trackers”.11. The “Fast Trackers” are trained and groomed for high positions.12. This is done by further rigorous tasks such as giving them challenging assignments to complete.13. The assignments are allotted to develop the personal attributes of the employee and to validate whether he/she possess high potential or not.14. The employees who are able to pass through the tough training programme are given “Accelerated Promotion”.15. It is an employee based promotion technique.16. Once the employees are identified as “Fast Trackers”, they are washed with training and development programme on a regular basis.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 42 - Thus, the Retention scheme truly caters as an effective too to retain those potential and competent employees who are identified as future valuable asset to the company. Such schemes help the company to make optimum utilization of the Human Resource. The entire programme is carried successfully by the HR department of the Voltas company.Employee satisfaction surveyEvery year, the company conducts employee satisfaction survey to assessthe requirement of employee individually. This also helps the company toimplement any modification or changes to suit the employee needs. Theinformation thus collected is maintained as database for future reference. Thistask is conducted by HR personnel. EMPLOYEE COMMUNICATION “Communication may be understood as the process of exchanging information, and understanding among the people”The communication process of the company is formal and involves the use of‘Intranet’ and circulars. The communication channel is both horizontal andvertical. Meetings and conferences are held once every quarterly between theexecutives vertically and general meeting is held between all the departmentheads and the employees monthly to discuss the corporate progress andissues.The communication process SENDER MESSEGE ENCODING MESSEGE NOISE CHANNEL MESSEGE DECODING MESSEGE RECEIVER
H R Forecasting and Planning - 43 -• E-Mail: “LOTUS NOTES” The information to be imparted is transferred to the employees through E-mail system. The information through e-mailing system is general and is fast to communicate. This system is most popular among companies as it can be readily accessed anytime and saved for future reference. This system is known as “Lotus Notes”.• Circulars: Circulars are one of the ways in which the information is transmitted fromdepartment-to-department or from one department to the concerned department.In some cases, the circulars are circulated to get the consent of the respectivedepartment concerning certain specific issues.• Letters:Letters are issued in case of individual employees concerning with importantissues. It is mostly used in case of promotion, appointment or award letter. Theletters are also issued in case of resignation or transfer. EMPLOYEE REMUNERATION EMPLOYEE REMUNERATION Remuneration is the compensation an employee receives in return for his/her contribution to the organisation. His/her standard of living, status in the society, motivation, loyalty and productivity depend upon the remuneration he/she receives. The remuneration in the company is fixed according to the job evaluation. The applicant has no say in matter of salary fixation. The HR department evaluates the job and presents the final salary structure to the employee as per his job requirement. The salary is negotiated for the MBA professionals and it is fixed according to the goals to be achieved for the engineers.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 44 -Salary structure: Basic salary. + House rent allowance/reimbursement. + traveling allowance. + leave travel allowance in a year. + Medical reimbursement. + Annual limit fixed to claim the expenditure for medical facilities. + Provident Fund contributed by the company. + contribution to Super Annuation fund.Incentive: Incentives are monetary benefits paid to employees in recognition of theiroutstanding performance. They are defined as “Variable rewards grantedaccording to variations in the achievement of specific results”Variable Incentive scheme: The scheme is entitled to employees on achieving the set targets. Theprimary advantage of this scheme is the inducement and motivation ofworkers for higher efficiency and greater output.Formula for Variable Incentive scheme • Basic salary • Gets Variable Incentive if the employee meets 120% of the set target. • Gets Maximum preset Variable Incentive if the employee meets 100% of the set target. • Gets 80% Variable Incentive if the employee meets 90% of the set target. • Gets 50% Variable Incentive if the employee meets 80% of the set target.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 45 - • Gets no Variable Incentive if the employee meets less than 50% of the set target.Leave: There are two types of leave facilitated to the employees: 1. 7 days Need-Based leave. 2. 30 days Privileged leave.It is mandatory for the employees to provide written intimation of leave to theconcern person. In case where the employee takes more than the permittedleave then the computed amount of the leave is deducted from the salary.Employee Benefits and services Employee benefits and services include any benefit that the employee receives in addition to direct remuneration. “Fringes embrace a broad range of benefits and services that employee receives as a part of their total compensation package… pay or direct…is based on critical job factors and performance. Benefits and services, however, are indirect compensation because they are usually extended as a condition of employment and are not directly related to performance”The following listed below are the employee benefits and services that theVoltas Company facilitates to its every employee. 1. Legally required payments: • Old age, survivors, disability, and health insurance. • Worker’s compensation 2. Contingent and deferred benefits: • Pension plans • Medical expenses (hospitalisation and surgical) • Maternity leave • Sick leave
H R Forecasting and Planning - 46 - • Medical officer at every branch of the company • Medical reimbursement schemes which vary from department. • Hospitalisation • Insurance. • Provident fund as per the government rules and regulations • Gratuity provided as per the government rules and regulations after completing 10 years of service. 3. Other benefits: • Travel allowance • Company car and subsidies • Car allowance – reimbursement for vehicle at high level of management. • House rent allowance as a part of salary structure.Compensation policy:The employees get compensation according to the framed legal rules andregulations of the industries. Every department has different compensationstructure according to their function. PROMOTION Promotion means an improvement in pay, prestige, position and responsibilities of an employee within his/her organisationThe promotion in the company is done mainly to fill up higher positionsinternally. The promotion is also done to motivate employees to higher
H R Forecasting and Planning - 47 -productivity. It is done in case of fast trackers to attract and retain services ofcompetent and qualified people. TRANSFER A transfer involves a change in the job (accompanied by a change in the place of the job) of an employee without the change in responsibilities or remuneration.The transfer in the Voltas company is need based. It is done in the followingcases: 1. Shortage of employees in one department. 2. To remove the incompatibilities between the worker and his/her senior or peer or subordinate. 3. To reduce monotony of the employee. SEPARATIONLayoffs, resignations, retirements and dismissals separate employees fromthe company.The separation is done only as an extreme measure against theemployee in case of any unsuitability.Resignation refers to the termination of employment at the instance of theemployee. The employee resigns for personal reasons or when he securesbetter job elsewhere. Resignation in case of female employees is mainly dueto marriage and has to quit for personal reason.The employee must furnish intimation 3 months prior leaving. The employeeis provided Super Annuation. The company contributes every month 15% ofthe basic salary of the employee in the Super Annuation account. This SuperAnnuation is given to Life Insurance Corporation of India which then givesincome to the employee after retirement annually. RETIREMENTThe age for retirement is 58 years. Further extension is considered if requiredon contractual basis. The employee is given superannuation scheme afterretirement.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 48 -There are 3 after retirement benefit provided to the employee: 1. Provident Fund : Every year 12% of the Basic salary of the employee is deducted and transferred to the Provident Fund account. Additional 12% of the Basic salary of the employee is contributed by the company to the Provident Fund account. At the time of retirement the employee is entitled to the entire accumulated amount of the Provident Fund. 2. Super Annuation : The company contributes every month 15% of the basic salary of the employee in the Super Annuation account. This Super Annuation is given to Life Insurance Corporation of India which then gives income to the employee after retirement annually. 3. Gratuity: The gratuity is given to those retiring employees who have completed atleast 10 years of service in the company. the proportion of the gratuity is pre-decided which is usually half of the basic salary of the employee. This amount is given to the retired employee in lump sum.Voluntary retirement scheme (VRS)The company offers VRS to the employee when it wishes to downsize. Thecompany computes VRS on last 5 years pay. It gives VRS to office level orclerical level.Grievance Redressal MachineryThe company has a special cell for handling the problems and complaints ofthe employees. The rule of the company is to solve the problem within amonth’s time. This is done by the HR department with the consent of theconcerned department. The person handling the matter refers to the appraisalrecord of 5 years for reference and to study the nature and performance ofthe employee.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 49 -Employee record planning: Employee record planning is a computerized database which consists ofall the information relating to the employee. This database is maintained bythe HR department at spaced interval. It is a centralized system as the HRdepartment handles all the matters concerning the database. INDUSTRIAL UNIONVoltas limited company has a strong union presence which comprises of thelabours, sub-ordinate workers and clerical staff. There is an Industrialrelations department which is part of Human resource department of Voltascompany. The company does not conduct any recruitment programme at theUnion level as it is not cost beneficial for the company. The Union isregistered as Voltas Employee Union (Mumbai). The company has 12 majorbranches all over India. Every branch has its individual Union establishment.It is known as “All India Federation (Mumbai)” of which all the workers and theclerical staff are the members. The leadership is internal i.e. it is within thecompany and not associated with any other Union. The purpose of the Unionis to do Collective bargaining for the benefit of the workers.Complaint handlingThe approach of the Voltas Company towards the customers has been amajor focus. The company strives hard in its best way to provide bestservices to its people. There is call center established at every branch toreceive complaints from the customers. It ensures that the complaints arelooked up at as fast as possible to avoid any delay in solving the problem ofthe customers. The complaints are forwarded to the respective department immediately andare assigned the responsibility to provide optimum solution in shortest span.The company advertises in the leading newspaper information of the callcentres situated nearest to their discretion.Every department, through the use of computers, keeps track of the customergrievance.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 50 - “HR goes through the cultural implication”Culture refers to the complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art,morals, laws, customs, and other capabilities and habits acquired by anindividual as a member of society. In the first place, culture creates the type ofpeople who become members of the organisation. Culture trains people onparticular lines in certain way. When people with different cultural backgrounds promote, own andmanage organisations, they themselves tend to acquire distinct cultures.The attitude of the workers towards the work is the result of their culturalbackground. The time dimension, which influences HRM, has its roots inculture. Time orientation refers to the people’s orientation-past, present orfuture. Finally, the work ethics, achievement needs and the effort-rewardexpectations, which are significant inputs determining behaviour, are theresult of culture. It is too well known that a perfect match between effort-reward will produce better performance from and individual. When anemployee perceives that he/she has been treated unfairly, the performancesuffers. This phenomenon is the result of culture.The Voltas company believes in change management i.e. cultural change.All the people in the organisation are explained the prospects of the culturalchange that needs to be initiated. HR department facilitates the task ofcultural change to the people so that they absorb the change. The mindset ofthe employees is diverted to accept the cultural change as rightly said byMr.Rakesh,”Unlearning is difficult than learning”. Therefore changemanagement is very crucial for the company. A plan is prepared by the HR department and the divisional head toimplement the cultural change. The plan is thus put to practice after receivingapproval from the head of the department.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 51 - CHALLENGES OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENTThe 1990s have brought a revolutionary change in the business environment.Post-liberalisation is marked by a shift from command economy to marketdriven economy, from sheltered market to competitive market, from monopolyto competition, from domestic trade to global trade. Such a shift calls for adifferent approach to HR problems. The need of the hour is pro-activeapproach to HR problems. Proactive strategies call for awareness about thelikely challenges the HR manager will face in the time to come.The major challenges are: 1. Globalisation 2. Corporate reorganisations, 3. New organisational forms, 4. Changing demographics of workforce, 5. Changed employee expectations, 6. New industrial relations approach, 7. Managing the managers, 8. Interest of the weaker sections of the society. Present status: Such being the challenges and the role of the HR manager, it is strange that the status of the HR function is not realised and respected in our country. In most organisations, the HR function receives the attention of the top management only when there is breakdown in industrial relations. During other times too training and development programmes are organised not out of genuine concern for employee development but to comply with statutory requirements or to patronize training schools or consultancy firms. Position wise, it is sad that HRM personnel seldom rise to the top echelons of organisation. The head of an HR function may hope to glide up to board level and never beyond. For decades, the HR activity has remained a staff function (advisory) as opposed to a line (decision making) function. This makes all the difference between the department which enjoys a clout in an organisation and which does not. To be specific, the HR department does not enjoy the status or wield power equal to that of production department or a finance department.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 52 -Though the stakes are too high, the present status of the HR managers isless satisfactory. The HR function does not figure in any discussion oncorporate reorganisation.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 53 - Chapter IV ONIDAOnida’s principal assembly operations are conducted in a state-of-the-art plant atWada, 80 kms from Mumbai. The plant in Delhi caters to the productionrequirements for the Northern region. Our network of 29 branch offices, 140service centres and 35 godowns across India, enable products to be alwaysavailable on retail shelves.At Onida, we recognize that we can strengthen our competitive edge if weproduce as much as possible from a given capacity at the lowest possible cost.We reduced the time it takes for a single colour television to be produced from 20seconds to 12 seconds and increased the capacity from 0.5 million to 1.2 millionsets during the year under review.In 2002-3, we extended our manufacturing excellence a decisive step forward: byentering into the manufacture of washing machines and air conditioners at theWada factory, using our existing infrastructure.Vision StatementTo be the number one brand in our chosen fields and to be recognized as one ofthe most prestigious organizations evoking pride of ownership by offeringunmatched quality products through Innovation, Speed, Flexibility andEmpowered Employees.The vision is the guiding principle: a dream that is realistic, credible andachievable. Successful leadership that results in quality performance begins withthe vision of what a leader and his/her followers intend to accomplish.Corporate StatementTo benefit society at large - through innovation, quality, productivity, humandevelopment, and growth, and to generate sustained surpluses, always strivingfor excellence, within the framework of the law and with pride in ethical values.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 54 - RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENTAt Onida, we recognize that a vigorously intelligent research initiative works attwo ends: cost reduction through effective process improvement, and value-addition through a sustained ability to put innovative and customised products inline with customer needs.We have team strength of 64 Engineers, working from our R&D centers inMumbai, Delhi and JVC collaborative development center in Japan.The team conducts research in the areas of: • Embedded Software • Industrial Design • Mechanical Engineering • Electrical Engineering • Model ShopSome of Onida’s Achievements • Launched 16 new models compared to 14 in Year 2001-2002 • Movie-like experience to TV Programs with Onida KY Theatre, a home theatre built into a television, the first such launch in the Indian television industry. The product provides a 5.1 Channel output, independent of whether the source was a mono, stereo or 5.1 channel Dolby stereo recording, done for the first time anywhere in the world. • High picture clarity with DVMC (Digital Velocity Modulation Circuit) technology, one of the best in the world, ensures uniform scanning at the centre and corners - the ultimate in flat TV technology with Onida Black. • Awesome digital sound with (((KY Inside))) The indigenous efforts of the inhouse R & D team helped create the `KY Inside` technology which has become an industry benchmark in acoustic engineering for televisions. • Product extension: Sustained efforts by the team has helped Onida to create a strong presence in technology-heavy product categories including presentation products, plasmas & LCDs among others.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 55 - HUMAN RESOURCE INITIATIVESMr. A.C. Augustine (Vice President HRM)Initiatives for a performance-driven work culture To ensure a robust performance-driven work culture, the HR team at Onida undertook the following initiatives:1. A role clarity exercise was carried out for the entire Mirc team through one-to- one sessions. Competencies required for each position were identified and linked to performance and training. Based on performance, individuals were either retained or redeployed.2. Through a senior management workshop, the company revisited its vision, mission and values statements and the result was re-articulated.3. To link values and performance, employees were required to explain how they planned to align their performance with the corporate value system.4. The company engaged Gallup to identify engaged (take the organisation ahead), disengaged (seize the first alternative job opportunity) and highly disengaged (no point in staying on) individuals.5. Talent management programmes and capability development studies were conducted to convert the ‘disengaged’ into ‘engaged’ individuals.6. A nationwide MIS transmitted recruitment-attrition data with speed and helped individuals vocalise problems.7. An online induction programme shrank the absorption process, resulting in a shorter learning curve. A week-long flagship MDP programme for middle- management executives was conducted by the IIM Ahmedabad faculty to focus on strategic thinking, people skills and finance.8. A ‘lateral thinking’ workshop conducted by trainers certified by Edward de Bono helped encourage a culture of thinking ‘out of the box’ among the strategic planning cell, R&D and production teams.9. An NLP programme for factory, corporate office and branch employees helped energise and maximise peak performance.10. Attitude-building programmes were conducted for all factory workmen. A four-day, holistic personal growth lab for the top management by Dr. Girish Shankar focused on the ‘self’ balancing the professional and personal life.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 56 - Workshops in skills, project, and stress and negotiation management were also conducted.11. Quantifiable KRAs, relating salaries to the multiplication of KRA scores helped the company migrate to a performance-oriented culture.12. Star performers were identified and their competencies were reinforced through relevant responsibility-enhancing programmes.13. The company recruited 15 management trainees from the IIMs for its marketing and strategic planning cells and 15 MTechs from the IITs for its R&D and production departments.PRODUCTSTele visionHome theatresDVD playerPlasma TVWashing machinesAir conditioners
H R Forecasting and Planning - 57 -HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN ONIDA. 1. Strategic Planning • The strategic planning known differently as “Strategic Stair casing Exercise” is framed by ONIDA. • It is planned every 3 years. • The last plan was commenced in the year 2001-2004. • The plan comprises of all the factors relating to the corporate matters concerning products and Human resource. • ‘Manpower plan’ is prepared by the HR department to assess the supply and demand of the human resource. • The entire department conducts brainstorming session in the company and decides on the necessity of recruitment. 2. Goal setting • The goals and targets are formulated by the top level management as a whole as an overall objective of the company. • Further, these goals are cascaded according to the functions of the company by the senior executives and the HR team. • The goals are again segregated into departmental goals by the HR team and the middle level executives. • And finally into individual goal by departmental head to its subordinates. 3. Job Analysis and Design(technique used-work simplification, job rotation, job enlargement, job enrichment, autonomous teams, high performance work design) • Job analysis is done periodically of every post and position in the company. • Reviewing is done in interval to assess the validity and to make necessary modifications if required.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 58 -• The latest reviewing of Job analysis was done in year 2003. 4. Recruitment plan• The company provides Application blank to the applicants.• The recruitment is conducted by ONIDA by considering 3 categories: Job fit: this specifies the minimum qualification, work experience required, job compatibility. Culture fit: specifies the background of the applicant, cultural factors, and person is aligning with the corporate culture. Value fit: assessing the relative worth of the individual through probing in interview.• The company contacts placement agencies for acquiring required personnel.• The placement agency sends bio-data of the suitable applicants. 5. Selection plan• The company sends Application blanks to the applicants whose résumé has been selected.• The HR department sorts the eligible applicants form the data received from the placement agency.• The short listing is done on the basis of Job fit Criteria.• Then the applicants are called for screening test.• Further the applicants selected in the screening test are called for preliminary interview. This is done by the HR team and the head of each department.• Next step involves filtering of the selected applicants from the interview.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 59 -• The applicants chosen from filtration are assessed by the senior level management with the functional head concerning the respective department. 6. Placement Programs : Orientation/Induction The orientation programme is for 2 categories of people recruited: Freshers: The employees recruited from campus and institutions, have 3 month induction programme. --Classroom training is provided for 1 week. --2 months on assignments, projects to ascertain interpersonal skills. --15 days in the branch. Experienced: The employees who have considerable years of work experience has a formal induction programme where he/she is introduced to the company people by the CEO or the Manager. They are also taken to a days visit to the Factory premises. 7. Training and Development Every year the company publishes “Competence Development Calendar” which includes all the training and development programmes to be held throughout the year. In-house training: 20% of training is given by the company personnel to the new entrant. The in-house training could be conducted within the company or in any hotel/resort. It could be in form of workshops or seminars. Contractual: 80% of the training is imparted by the hired trainers. They train the employees according to job description.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 60 - 8. Performance Appraisals and Evaluation.• The company does performance appraisal annually along with job evaluation.• The technique used is to set parameters, corporate objectives, and measures and rank the employee according to set target achieved by him in percentage.• This is compared with the previous appraisals to record the growth in performance and to assess the need for training.• The appraisal reviewing is done every 6 months by the HR department to keep the records updated with the performance of the employee. 9. Remuneration plan services• The remuneration plan is unanimous for every employee.• It differs from designation of the employee. 10. Communication• The communication channel is both vertical and horizontal.• The company uses internet for communication.• Newsletters to provide general information about the happenings in the organisation in and around the industry.• Annual magazine is published by the company named, “ONIDIAN”.• The other modes of communication are conferences, meetings between the executives vertically and between employees horizontally. 11. Reward and Punishment system
H R Forecasting and Planning - 61 -• The company rewards on monetary terms to the employees for their outstanding work efforts.• No intangible reward like appreciation or recognition is promoted.• There is no direct punishment system. But only indirect by way of counseling and warning to the employee is punished. 12. Employee Satisfaction result• The ONIDA company initiates employee satisfaction survey periodically.• The technique used by the HR department is, “Galobs Employee Engagement” theory of satisfaction.• Here, the employees are graded into 4 slots according to satisfaction survey conducted by the HR personnel, Highly Engaged Excellent Medium Engaged Good Only Engaged Satisfactory Disengaged Expelled• The results of the survey are presented to the top level management.• Employees falling in the “Disengaged” category are given vigorous training program. 13. Compensation Policy• The compensation policy of the company is equal for every employee.• The compensation policy covers all the items specified under the law.• Every employee is covered under Medical Policy.• The employees are also covered under ESIC.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 62 -• The employees are also given Mediclaim. 14. Incentive payments• The company uses the “Differential payment” strategy.• Here, the employees are segregated in to different categories according to their work efforts. The technique used is “A,B,C analysis”: “ A “ category 10 % employees “ B ” category 20 % employees “ C ” category 60 % employees “ D ” category 10 % employees• The employees falling into the “ D” category i.e. 10 % employees are dispelled form the company.• This system enables the company to keep a track on the potential employees.• The employees falling in the “A and B” categories are given monetary incentives in the form of kind.• The “C” category employees are provided training and development sessions to help improve their performance. 15. Employee benefits and development• The employees are provided various developmental facilities like 1-2 days of outbound sessions.• They are provided with counseling programmes.• The employees are given Medical facility for his/her spouse and two children.• They are also given Educational Facility for their two children.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 63 -• The company provides conveyance facility and Car facility to the employees at certain designation. 16. Retentions policy• In case where individuals are identified as prospect employees, the company implements retention policy.• According to the policy, the employees are directed towards career progression path and are given training and development programmes to groom their skills and ability.• These employees are then considered for internal recruitment as a motivational tool. 17. Union relations• ONIDA has a strong union presence.• There is separate department, ‘Industrial relation’ department which handles the union matters.• Recently there was dispute between the company and the Union because the company had closed down one of its Service Sectors.• There was a case filed in the same case where the company won the battle.• The labourers where given compensation and the wage due to them by the company. 18. Grievance handling• The grievance of the employees is managed by the HR department.• There is no separate cell. 19. Leave
H R Forecasting and Planning - 64 -• Every employee is allowed 135 days leave in a year excluding public holidays.• Every second Saturday is granted as holiday.• They are compensated for the extra working hour put by them during holidays.• The employees have to compulsorily submit leave application to his immediate boss. 20. Exit Interview• The employees who wish to leave the company are required to give a two month’s intimation to the company.• The company conducts Exit Interview to know the reason behind the separation.• The HR personnel, Mrs. Priyanka Ajay, are of the opinion that usually the employees do not reveal the true reason behind the decision.• They generally assess the reason through probing by asking them to narrate any incidence which was unpleasant to their experience. 21. Absenteeism• There is no serious problem such as absenteeism in the company.• This problem is usually faced in the Sales department as the employees stop coming to work only when they intend to leave and they have fear of confrontation.• Here, the HR department traces the person to know exactly the reason for their absence to curb the problem. 22. Turnover• The company has a turnover rate of 12 % to 15% annually.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 65 -• The company tries to evaluate the reason for separation by way of probing and negotiating terms with the employees who are identified as potential for the company.• The company considers this keeping into mind the interest and wellbeing of other employees in the company so as to not to disturb their environment. 23. Retirement• The retirement age like in every organisation is 58 years of age.• They are facilitated Super Annuation after retirement. 24. Promotion, Transfers and Separations(VRS system)• The company promotes executive who have been under the training and grooming programme conducted by the company who are selected as eligible employees.• The promotion is a part of employee retention policy and motivation technique.• The transfers are done as a part of job enrichment and job rotation scheme.• The employees are transferred interdepartmentally or within the same department as a policy of job rotation.• The employee is given projects, assignment, OJT, Competency level training as a part of Job enlargement policy. This creates a pool of talent for the company.• The company gives VRS in case of downsizing. The employees are given 5 years computed VRS.• In some cases, the company makes compulsory for the employee to opt for VRS where the company wants to separate its employee. 25. Employee record planning• The HR department has the responsibility to maintain employee database.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 66 -• It is done with the help of computers.• All the surveys reports and appraisal reports are saved in the hard disc.• The HR department does periodic review of the reports to keep them updated. 26. Public approach• The company does not indulge into much of public and social welfare programmes.• Last social approach was ‘Blood donation camp’ organised by the company. 27. Stress management programs• ONIDA initiates a very effective stress management programmes for the employees for their mental and physical relaxation.• The employees are taken to 2-3 days in any yoga or stress management programmes sponsored by the company especially.• There, various sessions of yoga, meditation, and stress busters are undertaken by the experts and employees are trained under them.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 67 - CONCLUSION “Strategic Human Resource Management”Today’s intensely competitive and globalized marketplace, maintaining acompetitive advantage by becoming a low cost leader or a differentiator puts aheavy premium on having a highly committed competent or workforce.Competitive advantage lies not just in differentiating a product or service or inbecoming the low cost leader but in also being able to tap the company’s specialskills or core competencies and rapidly respond to customer’s needs andcompetitor’s moves. In other words competitive advantage lies in management’sability to consolidate corporate-wide technologies and production skills intocompetencies that empower in individual businesses to adapt quickly to changingopportunities.In a growing number of organizations human resources are now viewed as asource of competitive advantage. There is greater recognition that distinctivecompetencies are obtained through highly developed employee skills, distinctiveorganizational cultures, management processes and systems. This is in contrastto the traditional emphasis on transferable resources such as equipment.Increasingly it is being recognized that competitive advantage can be obtainedwith a high quality workforce that enables organizations to compete on the basisof market responsiveness, product and service quality, differentiated productsand technological innovation.Strategic human resource management has been defined as ‘the linking ofhuman resources with strategic goals and objectives in order to improvebusiness performance and develop organizational culture that foster innovationand flexibility ‘. Strategic HR means accepting the HR function as a strategicpartner in the formulation of the company’s strategies as well as in theimplementation of those strategies through HR activities such as recruiting,selecting, training and rewarding personnel. Whereas strategic HR recognizesHR’s partnership role in the strategizing process, the term HR Strategies refers tospecific HR courses of action the company plans to pursue to achieve its aims.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 68 -HR management can play a role in environmental scanning i.e. identifying andanalyzing external opportunities and threats that may be crucial to the company’ssuccess. Similarly HR management is in a unique position to supply competitiveintelligence that may be useful in the strategic planning process. HR alsoparticipates in the strategy formulation process by supplying informationregarding the company’s internal strengths and weaknesses. The strengths andweaknesses of a company’s human resources can have a determining effect onthe viability of the firm’s strategic options.By design the perspective demands that HR managers become strategicpartners in business operations playing prospective roles rather than are beingpassive administrators reacting to the requirements of other seeing themselvesas relationship managers to resource managers knowing how to utilize the fullpotential of their human resources.The new breed of HR managers needs to understand and know how to measurethe monetary impact of their actions, so as to be able to demonstrate the valueadded contributions of their functions. HR professionals become strategicpartners when they participate in the process of defining business strategy, whenthey ask questions that move strategy to action and when they design HRpractices that align with the business strategy. By fulfilling this role, HRprofessionals increase the capacity of a business to execute its strategies.The primary actions of the strategic human resource manager translate businessstrategies into HR priorities. In any business setting, whether corporate,functional, business unit or product line a strategy exists either explicitly in theformal process or document or implicitly through a shared agenda on priorities.As strategic partners, HR professionals should be to identify the HR practicesthat make the strategy happen. The process of identifying these HR priorities iscalled organizational diagnosis, a process through which an organization isaudited to determine its strengths and weaknesses.Translating business strategies into HR practices helps a business in three ways.First, the business can adapt to change because the time from the conception tothe execution of a strategy is shortened. Second, the business can better meetcustomer demands because its customer service strategies have been translatedinto specific policies and practices. Third, the business can achieve financialperformance through its more effective execution of strategy.In brief, a strategic perspective of HRM that requires simultaneous considerationof both external (business strategy) and internal (consistency) requirement leadsto superior performance of the firm. This performance advantage is achieved by: • Marshalling resources that support the business strategy and implementing the chosen strategy, efficiently and effectively. • Utilizing the full potential of the human resources to the firm’s advantage.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 69 - • Leveraging other resources such as physical assets and capital to complement and augment the human resources based advantage. CASE STUDY THE MODERN MBAGautam Mukharjee is the general manager (HR) of ANZee bank, which is oneof the larger foreign banks doing business in India. Every year Gautam visits thecampuses of various leading management institutes and picks up bright MBAs towork for his bank. Every year since 1998, he has been recruiting 5 to 6 MBAsto work for his bank. Gautam’s selection is excellent as none of their MBAs haveyet switched jobs and most of them have been doing quite well.Vijay Basudev is one such bright MBA that Gautam has recruited in 1999. Likemost of the other people Gautam has recruited, Vijay too has been doing verywell and his product (he is in the consumer services division) has been a grandsuccess. Due to the success of this product Vijay has come in the limelight and afew competitors have already made him job offers. One of these offers hascome from Case Tanhattan, one of the leading foreign banks in India. Besides ahandsome salary, he has been offered a furnished house, an air conditioned carand frequent foreign travel. Vijay is finding it extremely difficult to refuse this offer.Gautam gets word of this. As Vijay is a great asset to the bank, he calls himover for a chat. When he get to hear the details of the offer, and of Vijay’sdemand of a matching counter-offer from ANZee bank (if they want to retainhim), Gautam is in a fix. If he does make a counter-offer to Vijay, it will involve 3promotions and superseding of 8 others who are senior to Vijay and doing aswell as he. If he refuses, he loses Vijay, who is definitely worth what he isdemanding. Vijay walking out would mean he would take all his clients with him,which would lead to a loss for the bank. At the same time a promotion to Vijaycould mean the loss of 8 employees, who are as good as Vijay, but have beensuperseded.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 70 -FACTS: 1. Gautam Mukharjee, General Manager (HR) of ANZee bank, recruited bright MBA’s from leading management institutes every year to work for the bank. 2. Every year, since 1998, 5 to 6 MBAs were recruited. 3. Gautam’s selection was undoubtful as none of the employees he selected left the bank and they all were doing exceptionally well. 4. Vijay Basudev one such MBA recruited in 1999, designated in Consumer Services division, was good at his work as his product was a grand success. 5. Vijay gets few offers from the competitors’ one of them being Case Tanhattan which offered him attractive salary and perks. 6. Vijay, identified as potential employee, leaving the bank would mean losing good clients which would be considerable lose to the bank. 7. If Gautam makes Counter offer to Vijay it would disturb the internal environmentANALYSISThe case holds three dimensions to judge the solution. The bank must do Costbenefit analysis to ascertain the value. 1. If the bank lets Vijay go: • The clients that Vijay has made probably would discontinue their relationship with the bank.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 71 -• Gautam’s reputation would be at stake.• The cost in recruiting new employee, immediately, would be high.• The cost of training the employee to take up Vijay’s job will too increase.• In future, such incidence would possibly repeat and the bank would lose its competent employees.• The confidentiality of the bank would be affected.2. If the bank gives Vijay promotion:• No loss of clients and reputation.• 3 promotions over 8 senior employees would create disturbance in the bank environment.• The demand of other employees would also increase.• Other employees would be insecure and demotivated as they will feel invaluable and less important than Vijay.3. Negotiation between Vijay and bank• The bank agrees to work out the matter on negotiation.• It negotiates on the incentives that Vijay would get on the expected level of performance exhibited.• The bank does job enrichment.• The bank keeps a condition to provide all the benefits and extra incentives to Vijay if he gives assurance of not leaving in future.• If does so he will have to compensate the bank for the lose.• The negotiation will prove beneficial to the bank and Vijay without creating any imbalance in the internal working environment.
H R Forecasting and Planning - 72 -BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. HR FORECASTING AND PLANNING by PAUL TURNER (HR Business Director for LLOYDS TSB and VICE PRESIDENT of the CHARTERED INSTITUTE OF PERSONNEL AND DEVELOPMENT) Published by Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. 2. HUMAN RESOURCE AND PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT by K ASWATHAPPA (Director of CANARA BANK SCHOOL of MANAGEMENT STUDIES, Bangalore University) Published by Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Limited. 3. WWW.GOOGLE.COM