Use of Herbicides in Sequence for Control of Weeds in Maize

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Use of Herbicides in Sequence for Control of Weeds in Maize

  1. 1. Seminar On Use of Herbicides in Sequence for Control of Weeds in Maize UMESHA, C PAL(S)2013 Sr. M.Sc.(Agri.)
  2. 2. Sequence of presentation  Introduction  Meaning and Principle for sequential application  Importance of sequential application of herbicides  Effect of Sequential application of herbicides  Conclusion  Future line of work
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION
  4. 4.  Maize (Zea mays L.) or Indian corn is one of the most important cereals of the world. Apart from direct human consumption, maize grains form an important ingredient of poultry and cattle feed.  In India, maize is grown over an area of 8.33 million ha with an annual production of 16.68 million tonnes and an average productivity of 2002 kg ha-1.  In Karnataka, maize occupies an area of 1.07 million ha with an annual production of about 3.03 million tonnes and an average productivity of 2833 kg ha-1
  5. 5. Maize has 3 major unique characteristics  Its most obviously, maize looks different to the small grain cereals like wheat, barley and rice.  Commercial varieties of maize in more technologically advanced farming systems are actually ‘hybrids’.  Maize is physiologically different to many other crops having system of photosynthesis which is called C4, this means that it uses less water for a given level of yield
  6. 6.  Among all weed control methods cultural and mechanical are tedious and time consuming besides labour intensive and costly. These operations are difficult to carryout in the field.  Use of pre and post-emergent herbicides would make the herbicidal weed control more acceptable to farmers, which will not change the existing agronomic practices but will allow for complete control of weeds.
  7. 7.  Due to continous use of preemergent herbicides in crops and cropping system, the emergence pattern of weeds has changed.  This has resulted in development of post emergent herbicides. But the efforts made to evaluate the efficacy pre and postemergent herbicides applied in sequence lacking in maize.
  8. 8.  Among all the pests(insects, animals, diseases and weeds) in India, weeds alone are responsible for about 25% loss of crop production.  weeds have been recognized as potential pests, its removed by culturally, mechanically and chemically.  Weeds reduce crop yield by 31.5% 22.7 % in winter 36.5% in summer, kharif seasons
  9. 9. Impact of weeds on different crop ecosystems  It is estimated that loss of agriculture production most developed countries- 5% less developed countries- 10% least developed countries- 25%  It is estimated that yield loss by weeds - 45% Insects - 30% Diseases - 20% other pests - 5%  The world food loss due to weeds was 287 mt of 11.5% of total food production.
  10. 10. Weed flora Crop weed competition Critical CWC
  11. 11. Weeds Common name Local name Family A. Grassy weeds Cynodon dactylon Pers. Bermuda grass Garike, doob grass Poaceae Digitaria marginata Crabgrass - Poaceae Dinebra retroflexa - Poaceae Echinochloa colonum Watergrass Jangli dan Poaceae Eleusine indica L Goosegrass - Poaceae Panicum spp. Panicum Barnyard grass Poaceae Setaria italica Banara, bani Poaceae B. Sedges Cyperus rotundus L. Nut sedge Jeku, Motha purple Cyperaceae Weed flora in maize
  12. 12. Contd….. C. Broad leaved weeds Ageratum conyzoides L Bill goat weed Mahkua Asteraceae Amaranthus viriids L Pigweed Jungli chauli Amaranthaceae Alternanthera sessilis L. - - Amaranthaceae Argemona mexicana L. Mexican poppy Barghar, satyanasi Papavaraceae Commelina benghalensis L. Dayflower, spider wort Tropical Insansia. Egali Commelinaceae Cynotis cuculata Baghmula ,jigali Commelinaceae Corchorus trilocularis Tiliaceae Digera arvensis L. Lahasua Amaranthaceae Euphorbia hirta L. Garden spurge Bari dudhi Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia prostrate - Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia geniculata Chotti dudhi Euphorbiaceae Phyllanthus niruri L. Niruri Hezar dena Euphorbiaceae Portulaca oleracea L. Purslane Kulfa Portulacaceae Parthenium hysterophorus L. Carrot weed Congress Asteraceae Physalis minima L. Ground cherry Ban makaya Solanaceae Tridax procumbens L. Tridax phulani Asteracea
  13. 13. Sl. No Herbicides Recommended dose (kg a.i/ha) Time of application Method of application Type of weed control 1 Atrazine 1-1.5 PRE (0-3DAS) Soil applied Control annual weeds 2 Simazine 1-1.5 PRE (0-3DAS) Soil applied Controls annual weeds 3 Pendimethalin 0.75-1 PRE Soil applied Late emerging annual weeds commelina sp 4 2,4-D 1.0 POST (3-4WAS) Foliage applied Control Broad leaved weeds Different herbicides used in maize
  14. 14. 5 Alachlor 1.2-2.0 PRE (0-3DAS) Soil applied Control most of the annual grasses and broad leaved weeds 6 Paraquat (Directed spray) 1.00 POST Foliage applied Control all weeds 7 Glyphosate (Directed spray) 0.1 POST Foliage All type of weed control 8 Butachlor 1.00 PRE Soil applied Control annual weeds and BLW Contd…..
  15. 15.  Preplant Soil incorporation of EPTC at 3-4 Kg/ha, mixed with about 0.5kg/ha of either Atrazine or simazine is a very effective treatment will also control sedges.  Atrazine and simazine were first highly successful pre emergence Herbicides in maize which replaced the earlier used herbicides 2,4- D and MCPA in1960.  Maize shows high tolerance to triazine group upto 5-6kg/ha in commonly 1-2 kg/ha can be used to avoid phytotoxic residue hazards of these herbicides.
  16. 16.  In dry areas atraziine and simazine should be slightly in corporated into soil to improve herbicide efficacy.  Alachlor and butachlor are most effective pre emergence herbicides against the annual grasses than simazine and atrazine but they weak against the broadleafs therefore judicious combination of two groups of herbicides should control both types of weeds effectively.  Linuron is reported effective also against c.dactylon, Pendimethalin(1kg/ha) has been newly added to the list of pre emergence herbicides in maize.
  17. 17.  For early post emergence control of young weeds in maize a very good herbicde combination is 0.5 kg alachlor +0.25 kg atrazine +5% phytobland oil emulsion spray.  Combination of propalachlor and linuron is preferred over alachlor and metalachlor. Later at 3-6 leaf of weeds cyanazine (0.75kg/ha)can be used on even still older weeds .
  18. 18. Merits and demerits of PRE emergence herbicides Merits:  Can be applied while planting /sowing  With adequate rain, provides control through first 4 weeks  Reduces late emerging weeds impact in maize  Low annual grass populations  Low to moderate population of annual BLW, Amaranths viridis. Demerits:  Dependence on adequate rain within narrow period of time  Not effective on difficult BLW, perennial and high grass populations  Moderate to high grass populations  Biennial and perennial weeds.
  19. 19. Merits and demerits of POST emergence herbicides Merits  Controls late emerging weeds.  Consistent control of low to moderate annual weed populations Demerits  Narrow window application, care should be taken applied at particular stage.  Moderate to high populations of grasses
  20. 20. It is application of herbicide one after the other i.e. pre- plant followed by pre emergence/Pre emergence followed by Post emergence application. Ex: Application of Atrazine as Pre-emergence followed by 2,4-D as Postemergence. Meaning of sequential application of herbicides
  21. 21. Importance of Sequential application  Provides enough weed control to prevent major weed problems in maize.  More consistent weed control of late emerging weeds  Greater control and biomass reductions allow greater maize yield  More consistent weed control in SEQ than PRE or Post alone
  22. 22. Principles  To control broad spectrum / late emerging weeds  To control weed flora throughout the growing season  Difficulty in inter-culture operations due to unfavorable weather  Pre emergence alone and Post emergence alone are not much effective.
  23. 23. Research studies
  24. 24. Treatments Cyperus esculentus Convolvulu s arvensis Chenopodium album Amarantus spp Foramsulfuron 26.94 71.47 91.20 100 Nicosulfuron 55.63 74.42 100 93.80 Atrazin+lasso 27.92 36.70 84.88 56.01 Weedy 0 0 0 0 Table-1- Weed control (percent) with herbicides NURAKY et al, 2011
  25. 25. Treatments Cyperus esculentus Convolvulu s arvensis Chenopodium album Amarantus spp Foramsulfuron 1.56 1.28 0 0 Nicosulfuron 1.25 0 0 0 Atrazin+lasso 3 1.41 0 0 Weedy 9.48 2.31 9.25 6.91 Table 2- weed density (number) at 26 days after sowing NURAKY et al, 2011
  26. 26. Treatment Plant height at maturity (cm) Ear height aboveground (cm) Leaf area index No. of leaves/plant (at maturity) Atrazine Trazine Callitraz 125.0 130.2 49.0 46.8 1.160 1.123 13.5 12.2 2,4-D Calliherbe Bextra 121.8 135.7 0 47.8 51.4 0.980 1.41 12.1 13.1 Glyphosate Kalach 360L Fire Weed Out 120.1 143.6 128.5 66.3 56.7 48.5 1.110 1.490 1.343 12.7 13.4 13.7 Paraquat Benaxone Gramoxone Super 140.5 126.1 59.9 48.6 1.07 1.0133 13.1 12.8 Control (No herbicide) LSD (P = 0.05) 126. 6 NS 44.8 NS 0.935 NS 13.2 NS Table 3. Maize plant heights, height of ear above ground, leaf area index number of leaves per plant measured at 10 WAP. Ghana. Larbi,2013
  27. 27. Treatments Weed index (%) WCE (%) Grain yield (kg/ha) 1.Atrazine 1.25 kg/ha +1 IC at 30DAS 24.75 75.37 5297 2.Atrazine 1.25 kg/ha fb Atrazine 0.50 kg/ha 16.53 84.85 5876 3.Atrazine 1.25 kg/ha fb Atrazine 1.00 kg/ha 10.86 88.32 6275 4.Butachlor 1.00kg/ha + 1 IC at 30DAS 30.42 74.47 4898 5.Butachlor 1.00kg/ha fb Atrazine 0.50 kg/ha 17.37 83.40 5817 6.Butachlor 1.00kg/ha fb Atrazine 0.50 kg/ha 14.84 85.18 6020 7.Atrazine 1.25 kg/ha fb 2,4-D 0.5 kg/ha 8.52 91.58 6440 8.Butachlor 1.00kg/ha fb 2,4-D 0.5 kg/ha 10.22 89.72 6320 9.Farmers practice (1 IC at 20 and at 1 HW30 DAS) 20.69 76.75 5583 10.Weed free check 0.00 94.67 7040 11.Weedy check 40.4 0.00 4195 SEm± 3.80 2.84 285 CD(0.05) 11.27 8.40 841 Table 4: WCE, WI and grain yield at different growth stages as influenced by sequential application ARS, Devihosur Mallikarjun, 2008
  28. 28. Treatments Plant height (cm) LAI Net returns (Rs ha-1) B: C ratio T1: Atrazine 1.25 kg/ha +1 IC at 30DAS 180.52 1.82 19602 2.27 T2: Atrazine 1.25 kg/ha fb Atrazine 0.50 kg/ha 185.55 2.21 22991 2.45 T3: Atrazine 1.25 kg/ha fb Atrazine 1.00 kg/ha 190.76 2.37 25130 2.55 T4: Butachlor 1.00kg/ha + 1 IC at 30DAS 179. 16 1.75 17526 2.17 T5: Butachlor 1.00kg/ha fb Atrazine 0.50 kg/ha 182.78 2.07 23005 2.48 T6: Butachlor 1.00kg/ha fb Atrazine 0.50 kg/ha 186.34 2.29 23962 2.52 T7: Atrazine 1.25 kg/ha fb 2,4-D 0.5 kg/ha 193.38 2.54 26601 2.67 T8: Butachlor 1.00kg/ha fb 2,4-D 0.5 kg/ha 191.48 2.46 26224 2.70 T9: Farmers practice (1 IC at 20 and at 1 HW30 DAS) 181.76 1.96 21082 2.33 T10: Weed free check 196.46 2.69 27821 2.50 T11: Weedy check 173.32 1.70 14046 2.01 CD at 5% 8.68 0.41 3903 0.26 Mallikarjun, 2008ARS, Devihosur Table 5 : Effect of weed control treatments on growth parameters and economics as influenced by sequential application
  29. 29. Treatment Weed count (per 0.5 m2) Weed dry weight (per 0.5 m2) Weed control index (%) TDMP at harvest of maize (g/plant) T1 : Atrazine 1.25 kg a.i./ha (PRE) fb. Atrazine 1.50 kg a.i./ha (POST) 4.43 3.87 75.9 292 T2 : Atrazine 1.25 kg a.i./ha (PRE) fb. Atrazine 1.75 kg a.i./ha (POST) 4.33 4.47 67.4 327 T3 : Atrazine 1.25 kg a.i./ha (PRE) fb. Paraquat 1.0 kg a.i./ha (POST) 3.93 3.10 84.8 304 T4 : Atrazine 1.25 kg a.i./ha (PRE) fb. Paraquat 1.5 kg a.i./ha (POST) 4.10 3.40 81.5 317 T5 : Atrazine 1.25 kg a.i./ha (PRE) fb. Glyphosate 2.5 kg a.i./ha (POST) 3.08 3.29 82.7 332 T6 : Atrazine 1.25 kg a.i./ha (PRE) fb. Glyphosate 3.0 kg a.i./ha (POST) 3.43 3.36 82.0 284 T7 : Atrazine 1.25 kg a.i./ha (PRE) fb. 2,4-D Na salt 2.0 kg a.i./ha (POST) 4.10 3.84 76.2 277 T8 : Atrazine 1.25 kg a.i./ha (PRE) fb. 2,4-D Na salt 3.0 kg a.i./ha (POST) 3.89 3.91 75.3 292 T9 : Atrazine 1.25 kg a.i./ha (PRE) fb. (2 IC @ 30 and 45 DAS) + 1 HW (between 30 and 45 DAS) 3.29 3.70 77.5 310 T10 : Weedy check 6.23 7.78 0 298 SEm+ 0.2 0.0 0.53 3.26 CD at 5% 0.6 0.1 1.56 9.68 Ishrat, 2010 Table 6 : Weed dynamics as influenced by pre and post emergence application of herbicides in maize Ramdurg
  30. 30. Treatment 100-seed weight (g) Grain yield (kg/ha) Net income (Rs./ha) B:C T1 : Atrazine 1.25 kg a.i./ha (PRE) fb. Atrazine 1.50 kg a.i./ha (POST) 36.5 4637 51802 3.48 T2 : Atrazine 1.25 kg a.i./ha (PRE) fb. Atrazine 1.75 kg a.i./ha (POST) 38.8 4534 50822 3.41 T3 : Atrazine 1.25 kg a.i./ha (PRE) fb. Paraquat 1.0 kg a.i./ha (POST) 32.8 4791 54725 3.56 T4 : Atrazine 1.25 kg a.i./ha (PRE) fb. Paraquat 1.5 kg a.i./ha (POST) 37.6 4752 52488 3.38 T5 : Atrazine 1.25 kg a.i./ha (PRE) fb. Glyphosate 2.5 kg a.i./ha (POST) 43.6 5305 59139 3.70 T6 : Atrazine 1.25 kg a.i./ha (PRE) fb. Glyphosate 3.0 kg a.i./ha (POST) 35.7 5283 60702 3.76 T7 : Atrazine 1.25 kg a.i./ha (PRE) fb. 2,4-D Na salt 2.0 kg a.i./ha (POST) 34.7 3457 39411 2.90 T8 : Atrazine 1.25 kg a.i./ha (PRE) fb. 2,4-D Na salt 3.0 kg a.i./ha (POST) 38.5 4105 41853 T9 : Atrazine 1.25 kg a.i./ha (PRE) fb. (2IC 30 and 40 DAS) + 1 HW (between 30 and 45 DAS) 40.2 4826 52375 3.25 T10 : Weedy check 30.7 2342 20727 2.23 SEm+ 0.9 1.91 2509 0.12 CD at 5% 2.67 567 7454 0.36 Ramdurg Ishrat, 2010 Table 7 : Yield attributes and economics as influenced by pre and post emergence application of herbicides in maize
  31. 31. Table 8 : weed index, WCE and Grain yield of maize as influenced by application of herbicides in maize Treatment Weed index (%) WCE (%) Grain yield (t/ha) T1: Weedy check (no weeding, no intercultivation ) 33.25 0.00 5.13 T2: Mechanical weeding( at 25 DAS and at 45 DAS and IC at 30 DAS ) 9.96 27.94 6.94 T3: Atrazine ( 1.00 kg ha—1 pre-em ) + IC at 30 DAS 18.09 16.05 6.31 T4: Atrazine ( 1.25 kg ha—1 pre-em ) + IC at 30 DAS 16.00 18.36 6.49 T5: Atrazine ( 0.75 kg ha—1 pre-em ) fb. 2,4- D ( 1.00 kg ha--1 post- em) at 30 DAS 1.78 28.58 7.57 T6: Oxyfluorfen ( 0.25 kg ha—1 post – em) at 20 DAS 29.37 24.45 5.45 T7: Weed free check ( IC at 20 DAS and 40 DAS + HW at 30 DAS and 50 DAS) 0.00 36.18 7.72 S. Em± 3.79 0.94 0.29 CD at 5% 11.26 2.79 0.87 MARS, Dharwad Shantveerayya, 2010
  32. 32. Treatments Gross returns (Rs.ha-1) Net returns (Rs.ha-1) Benefit: cost ratio T1: Weedy check ( no weeding, no intercultivation ) 69564 42670 2.59 T2: Mechanical weeding( at 25 DAS and at 45 DAS and IC at 30 DAS ) 94156 64510 3.18 T3: Atrazine ( 1.00 kg ha--1 pre-em ) + IC at 30 DAS 85562 56235 2.92 T4: Atrazine ( 1.25 kg ha--1 pre-em ) + IC at 30 DAS 88048 58371 2.97 T5: Atrazine ( 0.75 kg ha--1 pre-em ) fb. 2,4- D ( 1.00 kg ha--1 post- em) at 30 DAS 102600 72993 3.47 T6: Oxyfluorfen ( 0.25 kg ha--1 post – em) at 20 DAS 73899 44726 2.53 T7: Weed free check ( IC at 20 DAS and 40 DAS + HW at 30 DAS and 50 DAS) 104684 73785 3.39 S. Em± 3985.49 3985.49 0.14 CD at 5% 11841.49 11841.49 0.42 Table 9 : Economics of maize as influenced by application of herbicides MARS, Dharwad Shantveerayya, 2010
  33. 33. Treatments Total dry weight of weeds (g m-2) Weed index Weed control efficiency (%) 1.Atrazine 1.00 kg a.i./ha (PRE) 6.69 13.20 50.15 2.Metribuzine 0.25 kg a.i./ha (PRE) 6.71 14.91 50.00 3.Alachlor 0.50 kg a.i./ha + Atrazine 1.0 kg a.i./ha (PRE) 6.36 11.74 52.62 4.Glyphosate 1.00 kg a.i./ha (PP) fb. Atrazine 375 g a.i./ha + Alachlor 0.50 kg a.i/ha 8.55 24.01 36.33 5.Glyphosate 1.00 kg a.i./ha (PP) fb. 2, 4-D @ 2.00 kg a.i./ha (POST) 7.54 19.75 43.83 6.Glyphosate 1.00 kg a.i./ha (PP) + Castor oil 4. ltr/ha 8.18 30.83 39.05 7.Atrazine 1.25 kg a.i./ha (PRE) fb. Atrazine 1.50 kg a.i./ha (PRE) to weeds 6.03 3.80 55.07 8.Atrazine 1.00 kg a.i./ha fb. 2, 4-D @ 2.0 kg a.i./ha 6.64 12.68 50.52 9.Alachlor 1.00 kg a.i./ha (PRE) fb. Oxyfluorfen 0.20 kg a.i./ha (POSt) directed spray 5.15 12.79 61.62 10.Atrazine 1.50 kg a.i./ha 6.69 13.51 50.15 11.Oxyfluorfen 0.15 kg a.i./ha (PRE) 5.64 22.32 57.96 12.Maize + cover crop (cowpea) 5.97 31.42 55.50 13.Maize + cover cropp (mung bean) 6.55 25.39 51.19 14.Weed free check 1.25 - 90.73 15.Weedy check 13.42 49.73 - S.Em + 0.44 CD at 5% 1.27 Table10 : Total dry weight, weed control efficiency and weed index in maize as influence by weed control treatment Shailendra singh, 2011ARS, Arabhavi
  34. 34. Treatments Grain weight per plant (g) Grain yield Stover yield Atrazine 1.00 kg a.i./ha (PRE) 102.97 48.99 70.94 Metribuzine 0.25 kg a.i./ha (PRE) 106.00 47.85 72.81 Alachlor 0.50 kg a.i./ha + Atrazine 1.0 kg a.i./ha (PRE) 108.40 49.12 69.38 Glyphosate 1.00 kg a.i./ha (PP) fb. Atrazine 375 g a.i./ha + Alachlor 0.50 kg a.i/ha 96.67 42.35 57.40 Glyphosate 1.00 kg a.i./ha (PP) fb. 2, 4-D @ 2.00 kg a.i./ha (POST) 96.70 44.92 62.81 Glyphosate 1.00 kg a.i./ha (PP) + Castor oil 4. ltr/ha 85.87 38.54 58.44 Atrazine 1.25 kg a.i./ha (PRE) fb. Atrazine 1.50 kg a.i./ha (PRE) to weeds 110.17 54.02 74.06 Atrazine 1.00 kg a.i./ha fb. 2, 4-D @ 2.0 kg a.i./ha 105.20 48.91 68.13 Alachlor 1.00 kg a.i./ha (PRE) fb. Oxyfluorfen 0.20 kg a.i./ha (POSt) directed spray 106.50 48.86 68.44 Atrazine 1.50 kg a.i./ha 103.90 48.41 68.44 Oxyfluorfen 0.15 kg a.i./ha (PRE) 97.17 43.16 58.96 Maize + cover crop (cowpea) 84.63 38.34 48.75 Maize + cover cropp (mung bean) 91.80 41.59 60.63 Weed free check 117.67 56.01 76.25 Weedy check 83.67 28.11 45.31 S.Em + 5.22 3.16 2.67 CD at 5% 15.11 9.17 7.73 Table 11: Grain yield and yield components of maize as influenced by weed control treatments Shailendra singh, 2011ARS Arabhavi
  35. 35. Conclusion Sequential application of herbicides helps to control weeds on time and for longer period. Pre-emergence application of atrazine 1.50 kg ha-1/simazine 1-1.5 kg ha -1 helps to control weeds up to 30 days followed by atrazine 1.50 kg ha-1 (pre-emergence to weed and post emergence to crop)/2, 4-D @ 1 kg ha-1/ paraquat 1 kg ha-1 (Directed spray)/glyphosate 0.1 kg ha-1 (Directed spray) control after the new emerging weeds. This will help the farmer in reducing the burden of labour problem.
  36. 36. FUTURE LINE OF WORK  Continuous studies are required on the effectiveness and bio- efficacy of new generation herbicides and herbicide mixtures in maize crop.  Studies on residual effect of herbicides on crop grown in sequence and also on the environment in long-run needs to be initiated.  The studies are needed on the use of herbicide in granular form.  Use of different new methods of weed control like electromagnetic radiations.  Use of encapsulated herbicides.
  37. 37. “Knowledge is like a garden: if it is not cultivated, it cannot be harvested”

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