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KVM presentation - Save Ecology - Save Punjab

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What are the issues for ecological activism in Punjab

What are the issues for ecological activism in Punjab

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  • Very Good Umendra ji,
    Dr. Prem Khosla
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  • 1. Ecological Crisis in Punjab Umendra Dutt Kheti Virasat Mission VATAVARAN PANCHAYAT Jaitu, Faridkot, Punjab, India
  • 2. The Context: Violence Against Nature: Destruction of Lives and Livelihoods
    • Punjab (India): A Symbol?
  • 3.
    • I. WATER
    The Land of Five Rivers Becoming a Dry Desert ? What is the Future in next 50 years ?
  • 4. The Ecocide of Punjab Turning PUNJAAB into BE-AAB Highest % of DARK ZONES in country
    • TOTAL DEVELOPMENTAL BLOCKS-- 138
    • DARK ZONES- 108
    • GREY ZONES- 4
    • WHITE ZONES- 26
  • 5. Land of five Waters becomes land of highly contaminated water
    • The deadly Contaminators
    • Chloride
    • Selenium
    • Nitrates
    • Arsenic
    • Cadmium
    • Zinc
    • Lead
    • Mercury
    • Sulphate
    • Organochlorines
    • Sodium & Magnesium
  • 6. Contaminated Rivers
    • Satluj
    • Beas
    • Kali Bein
    • East Bein
    • Buddha Dariya
    • Gagghar
  • 7.
    • Pesticides, POPs and other hazardous chemicals in ground water, surface water, rivers, rivulets, wetlands and ponds
  • 8. Water Crisis in Punjab Death of Wetlands
    • Bhupindra Sagar -1280 Hectares - Sangrur district
    • Chhangli Chhamb – 1000 Ha - Ferozpur district
    • Chhangli Tabo-140 Ha
    • Rababsar – 100 Ha - Tarantaran
    • Chhamb Gurditwala -100 Ha.
    • Sangeri 41 Ha - Mansa,
    • Sharmkot -12 Ha - Gurdaspur,
    • Gaunspur Chhamb -100 HaHoshiarpur
    • Jandwal Chhamb -100 Ha
    • Narayanpur Terkiana
    • Rahon Chhamb 300 Ha – Nawanshahar.
    • Jasterwal, Khanuwan, Lobana , Mand Bharthala, Bareta
  • 9. Punjab : Fact File – 3 Punjab : Heading towards desertification
    • Highest water exploitation rate in the country
    • Highest % of dark zones in country
    • All most entire wetland area destroyed in last two decades
    • One of the highest rate of fall in ground water level
  • 10. Water Extraction Unsustainable
    • Increase in the Number of Tube wells in Punjab
    • 1970-71 - 1.92 lakh
    • 1980-81 - 6 lakh
    • 1990-91 - 8 lakh
    • 2000-01 - 10 lakh and
    • now - 14 lakh Approx .
    In 2004 90% area of Punjab is drawing water from the depth of more then 10 meters. 30% area of Punjab has depth of 20 meters or even more.
  • 11. Water Crisis in Punjab Drinking water problem villages
    • 1980 - 3712
    • 1990 - 6287
    • 2000 - 8518
    • 2004 - 11849
    • villages or habitations out of total 12423 in Punjab are facing drinking water problems
  • 12.  
  • 13. School going children taking water from canal – A scene of Mansa district
  • 14. Punjab Remote Sensing Centre at Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana and National Bureau of Soil Survey and use planning survey says:
    • Very high concentration of sodium carbonate and salinity in tube well water
    • 57% of ground water is unfit for irrigation
    • More over some districts of Malwa region are in deep crisis
    • Muktsar- 38% quality water ,Faridkot – 33%
    • Mansa -35%, Sangrur-34%, Bathinda -19.77% Moga - 14.98% of ground water fit for irrigation.
    • 7.7% ground water in Punjab is totally unfit, 5.3% has high salt contents and 42.1% contains sodium bicarbonate
  • 15. Punjab The land of dark zones
    • In 1984 there were 53 blocks as dark zones, in 1995 they were 84 and in 2005 the figure went up to 108 out of total 138 development blocks in Punjab.
  • 16.
    • Area
    • 1.5 % of total geographical area of the country.
    • 2.5 % agriculture land of country
    • 4.2 % of total cropped area of country
    • Contribution in Central Pool of food grains
    • 60% Wheat
    • 40% Rice
    II.AGRICULTURE
  • 17.
    • The cost of contribution
    • Highest Cropping intensity – 188 %
    • Using Highest % of Pesticides – 18 %
    • Highest % of Chemical Fertilizers -10 %
    • Highest Tractor population – 24 %
    • Highest tube well density in country
    • Highest rate of ground water exploitation
    • Lowest forest cover
    • Thinnest wetland cover
  • 18. Punjab’s Heavy Pesticide Use : The poisoned paradise
    • Facing worst Environmental Health Crisis in country
    • Contaminated and degraded eco system.
    • Large population exposed to pesticides – acute and chronicle
    • Highest loss of bio-diversity in country
    • High residues of pesticides found in food, fodder, Water, Milk, fruit and vegetables
    • Socio-economic implications
  • 19. The Myth called Punjab Pesticides also kills economy
    • 43% farmers of India still dependent on money lenders for loans- 52% in Punjab
    • More then 10,000 crores debt on Punjab farmers
    • 65% Punjab farmers facing average debt of Rs 41,576 each – National average 12,585
  • 20. Mechanization of Agriculture
    • Implements 1950-51 2004-05
    • Tractors 4200 4,07,000
    • Tillers 3100 3,00,000
    • Disc harrow 3000 3,15,000
    • Spray Pumps 2000 6,00,000
    • Reapers - 5,000
    • Combine TD - 3,50,000
  • 21. Punjab : Consumption of Pesticides
    • Year Total Consumption
    • (in 000 tones)
    • 1960-61 624
    • 1970-71 2215
    • 1980-81 3200
    • 1990-91 6500
    • 2000-01 7005
    • 2001-02 7200
    • 2002-03 6400
    • 2003-04 6900
    • 2004-05 6490
  • 22. The Impact: Environmental Health Catastrophe
    • Abnormally high incidences of Cancer
    • Severe Reproductive health crisis
    • High number of Children with Neural Tube Defects
    • High number of Congenital abnormalities
    • Even banned pesticides like DDT and BHC have been found in all breast milk samples
    Contd…
  • 23.
    • Enhanced losses of female fetuses
    • Large-scale Infertility cases
    • Premature Graying
    • Abnormally high number of Kidney failure cases
    • Enhanced cases of Respiratory disease
    The Impact: Environmental Health Catastrophe
  • 24.
    • BATHINDA
    • MANSA
    • MUKTSAR
    • FARIDKOT
    • ABOHAR –FAZILKA area of Ferozepur
    III.CANCER IN MALWA (COTTON BELT)
  • 25. Cotton belt of MALWA : Cancer, death, debt and suicides
    • Government says cancer deaths 2472 in last ten years
    • But, public estimates more then 10,000
    • Cancer engulfs entire cotton belt.
    • Worst effected districts Muktsar and Bathinda.
  • 26. Cancer : The new tragedy of Punjab
    • Most common sites of cancer among deaths and confirmed cases- Esophagus, Lymphoma, Uterus / cervix, Breast, liver, Skin and Ovary
    • Punjab Pollution Control Board sponsored epidemiological study by PGIMER, Chandigarh in 2005 confirms the Pesticide link
  • 27.  
  • 28. Results of CSE Study in Punjab
    • Found 15 different types of pesticides in 20 blood samples tested.
    • Each blood sample contains a cocktail of 6-13 different pesticides.
    • Level of certain organo-chlorine pesticides (OCs) were found to be 15-605 times higher than those found in blood samples of US population.
    • Found residues of the newer and so-called ‘non-persistent’ pesticides – organophosphates.
  • 29. Cancers in Punjab
    • Source of data and information
    • National Cancer Registry Program (ICMR)
    • Hospital Based Registry
    • Population Based Registry
    • Districts surveyed in population based registry: Bhatinda, Faridkot, Muktsar, Patiala, Rupnagar
  • 30. Cancers in Punjab – 2002
    • Source Bhatinda Patiala Chandigarh
    • Acharya Tulsi RCC, Bikaner 328 33
    • Govt.Med.Col., Patiala 29 327
    • PGIMR (Histo.), Chandigarh 22 147 237
    • PGIMR (Cyto) , Chadigarh 18 105 389
    • MDOCT, Ludhiana 17 21
    • HBCR, Mumbai 1 5 9
    • PBCR, Delhi 7
    • All others 2 3 11
    • …………………………………………… .………………………………………..
    • Total 424 641 646
    • Mohan Dai Oswal Cancer Treatment & Res Foundation
    • PBCR=Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital AIIMS Delhi
  • 31. Minimum Crude incidence of cancer per 100,000 population 82.5 59.6 Chandigarh 32.1 17.2 Muktsar 32.3 19.8 Faridkot 33.6 33.5 Patiala 40.9 27.4 Rupnagar 43.2 28.4 Bhatinda Female Male District
  • 32. Leading 10 cancers (In both sexes)
    • Oesophagus
    • Gall bladder
    • Lymhoma Leukaemia
    • Urinary Bladder
    • Liver
    • Distinctly High
    • In women Breast Cancer highest in all places
  • 33. Present scenario
    • Cancer spreading/detecting in new areas.
    • No government initiative for cancer cure
    • Cancer deaths toll rising every week
    • It is epidemic like situation
    • Pesticide companies started campaign citing – No link between pesticide and cancer
    • Pesticide companies [UPL] sued KVM in Bombay High Court for loss of business due to KVM campaign
  • 34. Pesticide exposure and Cancer morbidity and mortality
    • PGI Chandigarh and Punjab Pollution Control Board study.
    • Unequivocal association demonstrated between high exposure to pesticides/heavy metals and cancer morbidity and mortality in pesticide intensive cotton cultivation area as compared to matched population low exposure area.
  • 35. INSECTICIDES RESIDUE IN DIFERENT FOOD AND FEED COMMODITIES IN Punjab during 1976-1996 18.5 NIL 100.0 86.0 DDT HCH/ BHC 54 Infant formula 35.0 32.0 100.0 100.0 DDT HCH/ BHC 228 ANIMAL FEED 71.0 NIL 100.0 100.0 DDT HCH/ BHC 283 Butter 41.0 40.0 97.7 100.0 DDT HCH/ BHC 1110 Milk NIL NIL 38.3 43.7 DDT HCH /BHC 189 Fruits 15.8 1.9 87.4 67.6 DDT HCH/ BHC 1088 Cereals ABOVE TOLERANCE LIMITS (%) CONTAMINATED (%) INSECTICIDES DETECTED ANALYSED Commodities
  • 36. INSECTICIDES RESIDUE IN DIFERENT FOOD AND FEED COMMODITIES IN Punjab 1976-1996 NIL NIL 75.0 31.0 DDT LINDANE /HCH 16 BUTTER 10.0 NIL NIL 22.5 77.5 38.5 DDT HCH/ BHC MALATHION 31 ANIMAL FEED NIL 53.3 2.2 53.2 DDT HCH/ BHC 92 MILK 18.0 71.0 ENDOSULFAN,QUINALPHOS CHLOFPHYRISPHOS,MALATHION, PARATHION,MONOCROTOPHOS 147 VEGETABLES 11.0 85.0 PHOSPHAMIDON QUINALPHOS 27 FRUITS 9.0 97.0 HCH/ BHC 99 RICE ABOVE TOLERANCE LIMITS (%) CONTAMINATED (%) INSECTICIDES (S) DETECTED ANALYSED Commodities
  • 37. IV. The Ecocide of Punjab : Pushing Punjab out of life
    • Animal and plant diversity wiped out.
    • Almost entire peacock population, common sparrow, firefly, butterflies and earthworms lost.
    • Large number of medicinal plants and herbs vanished.
    • Pesticide contamination at alarming level in Ramsar site Harike wetland endangering aquatic life.

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