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Curriculum & components of curriculum (by umair ahraf)
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Curriculum & components of curriculum (by umair ahraf)

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curriculum & Components of Curriculum (by umair ahraf)

curriculum & Components of Curriculum (by umair ahraf)

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  • 1.  
  • 2. Old Concept of Curriculum
    • A list of books provided to the student in the class room.
    • Limited to the class room and content.
  • 3. Modern Concept of Curriculum
    • Curriculum is interpreted to mean all the organized activities, courses and experiences which a student have under the direction of the school whether in the classroom or not.
    • By Stephen Romine (Building the high school curriculum)
  • 4. Modern Concept of Curriculum (Cont..)
    • Oliver (1965) :-
    • Oliver is of the opinion that curriculum is something felt rather than some thing to be seen.
    • Saylor & Alexander :-
    • The curriculum is the sum of the school efforts to influence learning whether in the class room, on the playground or out of school.
  • 5. Modern Concept of Curriculum (Cont..)
    • Tyler :-
    • “ All of the learning of students which are planned by and directed by the school to attain its educational objectives”
  • 6. Two Conditions of Curriculum
    • To implement / organize by an educational institution or school.
    • To achieve the educational objectives.
  • 7. Role of Curriculum in National Development
    • Curriculum role as observed in educational policy 1979 should aim at enabling the learners to acquire knowledge, develop concept, skills, attitudes and values.
    • Knowledge 33% (Cognitive domain)
    • Concept 33% (Effective domain)
    • Skills 33% (Psycho motor domain)
    • The role of curriculum further includes:
  • 8. Role of Curriculum in National Development (Cont..)
    • Curriculum and Developing Democratic Life: -
    • The four most demands of present society on our education is the development of a vital democracy.
    • The development of every individual according to his capacities.
    • The development of faith in democratic principals and process,
    • The development of enlighten and responsible citizens.
    • The encouragement of leadership at all levels.
  • 9. Role of Curriculum in National Development (Cont..)
    • Raising Standards of Living:-
    • The nation's economic growth would be able to ensure minimum standard of living of all the citizens through.
    • The improvement of productive efficiency
    • The full use of man power and natural recourses.
    • Stemming the fast growth of population
    • Helping in obtaining self-sufficiency in food and technology.
    • Opening up more channels of employment
  • 10.
    • Curriculum & National Integration:-
    • Today the promotion of national integration has paramount importance to Pakistan, our citizens must therefore : -
    • Be imbued with love of motherland.
    • Appreciate the richness of culture.
    • Learn the respect of every faith.
    Role of Curriculum in National Development (Cont..)
  • 11.
    • Curriculum & Modernizing the Society : -
    • Pakistan’s image should be tied up with advancement in science & Technology.
    • If we want to modernize the social order and keep pace (speed of progress) with the fast changing world.
    • This should have to be reflected in our curriculum.
    Role of Curriculum in National Development (Cont..)
  • 12. Culture and Curriculum
    • Culture is dominant on curriculum
    • Two major parts of culture are:-
        • Language
        • Religion
    Values Transfer Transmit (as Such / with No Change) School follows Society Static Transform (With Some Change) School will Lead the Society Dynamic
  • 13. Culture and Curriculum
    • Cultural Lag :-
    • The curriculum is
    • always in every society a
    • reflection of what people
    • think, feel, believe and do. To understand the structure and function of the curriculum it is necessary to understand, What is Culture?
    Cultural Lag Technology. Development Values Development
  • 14. The Meaning of Culture
    • A culture is the fabric of ideas, ideals, believes, skills, method of thinking, customs and institution into which each member of society is born.
    • The culture is that part of environment that man himself made. A culture will vary from society to society and within the same society over a period of time.
  • 15. The Elements of Culture
    • Universals
    • Specialties
    • Alternatives
  • 16. The Elements of Culture (cont.)
    • Universals : -
    • These are the elements that are
    • universally distributed among the population.
    • Individuals through out the society eat the
    • same food, wear the same style of cloths, use the
    • same language etc.
    • All such things are generally accepted by the
    • member of the society are called universals.
    • It is possible that a universal element in one
    • society would not appear in another society.
  • 17. The Elements of Culture (cont.)
    • Specialties :-
    • Some elements of culture are
    • found among only a portion of population. In
    • every society there are something that only a part of people know about or can do.
    • All these are called Specialties.
    • All professions can be categorize as specialties.
  • 18. The Elements of Culture (cont.)
    • Alternatives : -
    • There are certain that belong
    • neither the universal nor specialties.
    • Alternatives may enter in a culture by way
    • of invention within the society or from an
    • other culture.
    • As new ways of doing things emerge & come
    • to be accepted, they are absorbed by the
    • universals or specialties.
    • For example a new way of teaching, a new
    • way of cooking food, use of computer etc.
  • 19. Cultural Change and Curriculum
    • When alternative elements appear in
    • culture, they disturb the culture pattern.
    • When the number of alternatives is low
    • as compared with universals, the culture will
    • have a high degree of stability.
    • As alternatives increase, social change
    • also increase.
    • The curriculum development will be in
    • such a way that cultural elements both new
    • and old are mutually adjusted.
  • 20. Characteristics of Curriculum
    • Totality of Activities
    • A mean to an end
    • Mirror of curricular and co-curricular activities / trends
    • Development of balanced personality
    • Dynamic
    • Achievements of goals
  • 21. Characteristics of Curriculum (cont.)
    • 1. Totality of Activities : -
    • It refers to the totality of
    • subject matter, activities and experiences.
    • 2. A mean to an end : -
    • Curriculum is not an end
    • itself but a means to an end. It is created to
    • acquire the aim of education
    • 3. Mirror of curricular and co-curricular activities / trends : -
  • 22. Characteristics of Curriculum (cont.)
    • 4. Development of balanced personality : -
    • The activities in curriculum
    • Concerning physical, intellectual, emotional,
    • social, economics, aesthetic & cultural
    • development play their role for developing
    • balance personality.
    • 5. Dynamic : -
    • A good curriculum is dynamic. It has to be
    • kept dynamic in order to keep with the needs, interest,
    • abilities, attitudes and life of pupils.
    • 6. Achievements of goals : -
  • 23. Components of Curriculum
    • Objectives
    • Content
    • Method
    • Evaluation
    Objectives Evaluation Content Method Feed Back
  • 24. School of Thought of Philosophy
    • Progressivism
    • Traditionalism
    • Islamic Philosophy
    • Eclecticism (Collection of good concepts of different philosophies)
  • 25. Effect of Philosophy on Curriculum Development
    • There may be a gap between four components of curriculum.
    • For curriculum development first of all we see the philosophy/ ideology of that society for which we want to develop the curriculum.
    • Now we find out what is the view point of different philosophies about the components of curriculum.
  • 26. 1. Objectives
    • Progressivism : -
    • They do not believe in Pre-determination of objectives, So there would not be a pre-determined set of objectives.
    • They believe that change is reality.
    • Accept change so did not set objectives first.
  • 27. 1. Objectives (Cont.)
    • Traditionalism : -
    • They emphasis to have a permanent set of objectives. Because they believe that values are Cosmic and permanent.
    • Objectives are based on values. So they also remained unchanged.
    • They believe that permanence is reality.
  • 28. 1. Objectives (Cont.)
    • Islamic Philosophy : -
    • According to Islam, basic values are permanent. So will be the educational objectives.
    • In traditionalism, sources of values are traditions of their forefathers, While is Islam, pleasure of ALLAH is the source of Value.
  • 29. 2. Content
    • Content depends on the concept of knowledge.
    • Progressivism : -
    • They accept sense perception as only reliable source of knowledge.
    • So, content consist of science and technology.
  • 30. 2. Content (Cont.)
    • Traditionalism : -
    • They consider authoritative knowledge, only to be reliable. So, the knowledge shall consist of knowledge bearing the stamp of the approval of their forefathers.
  • 31. 2. Content (Cont.)
    • Islamic Philosophy : -
    • According to Islam only the prophetic knowledge is absolutely reliable. So content will essentially consist of the knowledge, contained in the Quran and Sunnah.
    • Knowledge gained through other sources will also be tested on this criteria (Quran & Sunnah) and may conditionally made a part of curriculum.
  • 32. 3. Method
    • Mostly, it deals with psychology but overall teaching style is determined on the base of philosophy.
    • Progressivism : -
    • It gives rise to Academic Freedom Style (AFS) in teaching.
    • Traditionalism : -
    • It leads to development of indoctrination approach in teaching.
    • (Imposition of Ideas)
  • 33. 3. Method (Cont.)
    • Islamic Philosophy : -
    • Islam encourage eclectic approach.
    • Both the style may be applied according to teaching learning situation.
    • AFS + Indoctrination
    • AFS (Academic Freedom Style)
  • 34. 4. Evaluation
    • Its details are determined according to psychological principals. However philosophy also influence the testing techniques.
    • Progressivism : -
    • They are more inclined to practical or observational technique.
  • 35. 4. Evaluation (Cont.)
    • Traditionalism : -
    • They are more inclined to written test.
    • Islamic Philosophy : -
    • Believes on both styles. Both styles may be applied according to Islamic philosophy.
  • 36. Role of Curriculum
    • Conservative Role
    • Critical Role
    • Creative Role
  • 37. Functions of Conservative Role
    • Adjective Function
    • Adoptive Function
    • Integrative Function
  • 38. Function of Critical Role
    • Distinctive Function
  • 39. Functions of Creative Role
    • Selective Function
    • Progressive Function