Outline What Does Leadership Involve? Trait and Behavioral Theories of Leadership Situational Theories From Transactional to Charismatic Leadership Additional Perspectives on Leadership - The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Model - Substitutes for Leadership - Servant-Leadership - Superleadership
What is Leadership?• Definition: A social influence process in which a person seeks the voluntary participation of subordinates in an effort to achieve organizational goals
A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Leadership Leader Managerial Desired EndCharacteristics/Traits Behavior/Roles Results• Need for achievement • Interpersonal roles • Unit performance• Need for power • Informational roles • Profitability• Cognitive ability • Decisional roles • Goal attainment• Interpersonal skills • Job satisfaction• Self-confidence • Learning• Ethics organization
A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Leadership (continued) Leader Managerial Desired EndCharacteristics/Traits Behavior/Roles Results Situational Variables Individual level • Leader’s position power • Follower motivation • Follower role clarity • Follower ability Organizational level • Resource adequacy • Task/technology • Organization structure • External enviornment
The leader(trait, style, behavior, The taskvision, charisma) (from holistic to reductionism, needing discretion orThe led (follower) direction)(motivations, readiness,attitudes) The organization (structural, political, moral purpose)
Contingency Theory of Leadership• Contingency theory of leadership assumes that there is no one best way to lead.• Effective leadership depends on the leader’s and follower’s characteristics as well as other factors in the leadership situation.
Central Features of the Contingency Theory of LeadershipBest way: there is no one best way to lead.Leadership style: Different leadership styles are appropriate for different situations.Middle ground: The contingency theory stresses the views that (a) there is some middle ground between the existence of universal principles of leadership that fit all situations and (b) each situation is unique and therefore must be studied and treated as unique.
Central Features of the Contingency Theory of Leadership (Cont.)Focus: The contingency theories of leadership we studied focus on three variables: (a) leader’s style; (b) follower’s motivation and skill; and (c) the nature of the task.Adaptability of leadership style: For an individual leader, this theory assumes that leadership is changeable and should be variable for different situations.
Differences between Leaders and ManagersLEADERS MANAGERSInnovate AdministerDevelop MaintainInspire ControlLong-term view Short-term viewAsk what and why Ask how and whenOriginate InitiateChallenge the status quo Accept the status quoDo the right things Do things right
Trait Theory Leadership Traits: represent the personal characteristics that differentiate leaders from followers. Historic findings reveal that leaders and followers vary by - intelligence - dominance - self-confidence - level of energy and activity - task-relevant knowledge Contemporary findings show that - people tend to perceive that someone is a leader when he or she exhibits traits associated with intelligence, masculinity, and dominance - people want their leaders to be credible - credible leaders are honest, forward-looking, inspiring, and competent
Trait Theory (continued)Gender and leadership men and women differ in the type of leadership roles they assume in work groups: men display more task leadership and women exhibit more social leadership leadership styles vary by gender: women are more democratic and men are more autocratic and directive female and male leaders are equally effective
Trait Theory (continued)Gender and leadership (continued) men are perceived as more effective than women when the job is defined in masculine terms, and women are more effective than men in roles defined in less masculine terms male leaders are perceived as more effective than females when there are a greater percentage of male leaders and male direct reports; the same positive bias is not true for women leaders
Four Leadership Styles Derived from the Ohio State Studies Low structure, High structure, high consideration high consideration Less emphasis is placed on The leader provides a lot of guidance High structuring employee tasks while the about how tasks can be completedConsideration leader concentrates on satisfying while being highly considerate of employee needs and wants. employee needs and wants. Low structure, High structure, low consideration low consideration The leader fails to provide necessary Primary emphasis is placed on Low structure and demonstrates little structuring employee tasks while consideration for employee needs the leader demonstrates little and wants. consideration for employee needs and wants. Low High Initiating Structure
The Leadership Grid High 1,9 9,9 Country Club Management Team Management 8 Thoughtful attention to the needs Work accomplishment is from of the people for satisfying committed people; 7 relationships leads to a interdependence through a comfortable, friendly organization “common stake” in organization 6 atmosphere and work tempo purpose leads to relationships of trust and respectConcern for People Middle-of-the-road Management 5 5,5 Adequate organization performance is possible through 4 balancing the necessity to get work out while maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level. 3 Impoverished Management Authority-Compliance Management Exertion of minimum effort to get required Efficiency in operations results from arranging 2 work done is appropriate to sustain conditions of work in such a way that human organization membership. elements interfere to a minimum degree 1 1,1 9,1 Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Low Concern for Results High
Tannenbaum-Schmidt’s Continuum of Leader Behavior(Democratic) (Authoritarian)]Relationships Oriented Task Oriented Source of Authority Area of Freedom for Subordinates Leader Leader Leader Leader permits presents presents makes subordinates problem, idea decision to function gets and and within limits Leader suggestions, Leader invites Leader announce defined defines and makes presents questions “sells” it by superior limits; decision tentative decision asks group decision to make subject decision to change
Behavioral Styles Theory Ohio State Studies identified two critical dimensions of leader behavior. 1. Consideration: creating mutual respect and trust with followers 2. Initiating Structure: organizing and defining what group members should be doing University of Michigan Studies identified two leadership styles that were similar to the Ohio State studies - one style was employee centered and the other was job centered Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid represents four leadership styles found by crossing concern for production and concern for people Research shows that there is not one best style of leadership. The effectiveness of a particular leadership style depends on the situation at hand.
17-9 Ethics at Work Key Issue: Can a leader display too much consideration?
Representation of Fiedler’s Contingency ModelSituational High Control Moderate Low Control Control Situations Control Situations SituationsLeader-member Good Good Good Good Poor Poor Poor PoorrelationsTask Structure High High Low Low High High Low LowPosition Power Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak Situation I II III IV V VI VII VIII Optimal Task Motivated Relationship Task MotivatedLeadership Leadership Motivated Leadership Leadership Style
House’s Path-Goal Theory Employee Characteristics - Locus of control - Task ability - Need for achievement - Experience - Need for clarity Leadership Styles Employee Attitudes- Directive and Behavior- Supportive - Job satisfaction- Participative - Acceptance of leader- Achievement oriented - Motivation Environmental Factors - Employee’s task - Authority system - Work group
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory Leader BehaviorHigh Participating Selling S3 S2Relationship Behavior Share ideas and Explain decisions and(supportive behavior) facilitate in provide opportunity for decision making clarification Delegating Telling S4 S1 Turn over Provide specific responsibility for instructions and closely decisions and supervise performance implementation Low Low Task Behavior High Follower Readiness High Moderate Low R4 R3 R2 R1 Follower-Directed Leader-Directed
Vroom-Yetten’s Contingency Model Figure 5-5 Schematic representation of variables used in leadership research Reprinted from Leadership and Decision-Making by Victor H. Vroom and Philip W. Yetton by permission of the University of Pittsburgh Press. 1973 by University of Pittsburgh PressSituational variables (1) Organizational (4) effectiveness Leader behavior(3)Personal attributes(2) Situational variables(1a)Is there a Do I have Is the Is acceptance Do subordinates Is conflictquality re- sufficient problem of decision share the organ- among subor-quirement such information structured? by subordinates izational goal dinates likelythat one solu- to make a critical to to be obtained in preferred tion is likely high quality effective im- in solving this solutions?to be more decision? plementation? problem?rational thananother? A B C D E F
House-Mitchell’s Path-Goal Theory Causal Variables Moderator Variables Outcome Variables Leader Behavior Subordinate Characteristics Satisfaction Directive Ability Motivation supportive Locus of Control Effort participative Needs and Motives PerformanceRelationship of Achievement-Oriented Environmental ForcesVariables in the The taskPath-Goal Theory Work Group Authority System
House-Mitchell’s Path-Goal Theory House’s Path-Goal Theory Situations Leadership Leadership style Actions Ambiguous Directive Guidance Roles Procedures Stressful Welfare, Boring Tasks Supportive Supportive ClimateLeaders Goal Accomplishment Competent Achievement Challenging Subordinates Oriented Goals and Standards Unstructured Participation Tasks Participative in Decision Making Path Goal
Blanchard and Hersey’s Theory of Situational LeadershipTask Behavior---The extent to which the leader engages in defining roles is telling what, how, when, where, and if more than one person who is to do what in:• Goal-setting• Organizing• Establishing time lines• Directing• ControllingRelationship Behavior—The extent to which a leader engages in two- way (multi-way) communication, listening, facilitating behaviors, and providing socioemotional support• Giving support• Communicating• Facilitating interactions• Active listening• Providing feedback
Blanchard and Hersey’s Theory of Situational Leadership (Cont.)Decision Styles1. Leader-made decision2. Leader-made decision with Dialogue and/or Explanation3. Leader/follower made decision or follower-made decision with encouragement from leader4. Follower-made decision
Blanchard and Hersey’s Theory of Situational Leadership (Cont.) Ability: has the necessary knowledge, experience, and skill Willingness: has the necessary confidence, commitment, motivation Follower Readiness High Moderate Low R4 R3 R2 R1 Able and Able but Unable but Unable and Willing Unwilling Willing Unwilling or Confident or Insecure or Confident or Insecure Follower Directed Leader Directed When a leader behavior is used appropriately with its corresponding level of readiness, it is termed a High Probability Match. The following are descriptors that can be useful when using situational leadership for specific applications. S1 S2 S3 S4 Telling Selling Participating Delegati ng Guiding Explaining Encouraging Observing Directing Clarifying Collaborating Monitoring Establishing Persuading Committing Fulfilling
Transactional versus Charismatic LeadershipTransactional Leadership: focuses on the interpersonal interactions between managers and employeesTransactional Leaders - use contingent rewards to motivate employees - exert corrective action only when employees fail to obtain performance goals
Transactional versus Charismatic Leadership (continued)Charismatic Leadership: emphasizes symbolic leader behavior that transforms employees to pursue organizational goals over self- interests Charismatic Leaders - use visionary and inspirational messages - rely on non-verbal communication - appeal to ideological values - attempt to intellectually stimulate employees - display confidence in self and followers - set high performance expectations For class discussion: Should a leader be both transactional and charismatic? Is charismatic leadership only critical for senior executives and not for entry level supervisors or managers?
Charismatic Model of Leadership Effects onOrganizational Leader followers and Outcomes culture behavior work groups• Adaptive • Leader • Increased • Personal establishes a intrinsic commitment vision motivation, to leader • Leader achievement and vision establishes high orientation, and • Self- performance goal pursuit sacrificial expectations and • Increased behavior displays identification • Organiza- confidence in with the leader tional him/herself and and the commitment the collective collective • Task ability to interests of meaningful- realize the vision organizational ness and members satisfaction
Charismatic Model of Leadership (continued) Effects onOrganizational Leader followers and Outcomes culture behavior work groups • Leader models • Increased • Increased the desired cohesion individual, values, traits, among work- group, and beliefs, and group members organiza- behaviors • Increased tional needed to self-esteem, performance realize the self-efficacy, vision and intrinsic interests in goal accomplishment • Increased role modeling of charismatic leadership
The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX Model)This model is based on the idea that one of two distinct types of leader-member exchange relationships evolve, and these exchanges are related to important work outcomes. - in-group exchange: a partnership characterized by mutual trust, respect and liking - out-group exchange: a partnership characterized by a lack of mutual trust, respect and likingResearch supports this model
Substitutes for LeadershipSubstitutes for leadership represent situational variables that can substitute for, neutralize, or enhance the effects of leadership.Research shows that substitutes for leadership directly influence employee attitudes and performance.
Servant and Super leadership Represents a philosophy of leadership in which leaders focus on increased service to others rather than to oneself. A super leader is someone who leads others to lead themselves by developing employees’ self- management skills. Super leaders attempt to increase employees’ feelings of personal control and intrinsic motivation.
Characteristics of the Servant-Leader1. Listening Servant-leaders focus on listening to identify and clarify the needs and desires of a group.2. Empathy Servant-leaders try to empathize with others’ feelings and emotion. An individual’s good intentions are assumed even when he or she performs poorly.3. Healing Servant-leaders strive to make themselves and others whole in the face of failure or suffering.4. Awareness Servant-leaders are very self-aware or their strengths and limitations.
Characteristics of the Servant-Leader (continued)5. Persuasion Servant-leaders rely more on persuasion than positional authority when making decisions and trying to influence others.6. Conceptualization Servant-leaders take the time and effort to develop broader based conceptual thinking. Servant-leaders seek an appropriate balance between a short-term, day-to-day focus and a long-term, conceptual orientation.7. Foresight Servant-leaders have the ability to foresee future outcomes associated with a current course of action or situation.
Characteristics of the Servant-Leader (continued)8. Stewardship Servant-leaders assume that they are stewards of the people and resources they manage.9. Commitment to Servant-leaders are committed to people the growth of beyond their immediate work role. They people commit to fostering an environment that encourages personal, professional, and spiritual growth.10. Building Servant-leaders strive to create a sense of Community both within and outside the work organization.
THE NEW PUBLIC SECTOR LEADER The Importance of Leadership“Leadership is the art of accomplishing more than the science of management says is possible.” - Colin Powell, U.S. Secretary of State
THE NEW PUBLIC SECTOR LEADER The Importance of Leadership“Leadership, then, is not mobilizing others to solve problems we already know how to solve, but to help them confront problems that have never yet been successfully addressed.” - Michael Fullan from Leading in a Culture of Change
THE NEW PUBLIC SECTOR LEADER Management Strengths vs. Leadership StrengthsManagement Leadership•Doing things right •Doing the right thing•Rules •Values•Goals •Vision•Processes •People•Facts •Feelings•Reactive •Proactive•Control •Commitment•Position Power •Persuasion power•Standardization •Innovation•Light a fire under people •Stoke the fire within people
THE NEW PUBLIC SECTOR LEADER Public Sector Leadership Challenges•Achieving personal balance•Shaping organizational dynamics•Political reality•Unionization•Demographic changes•Public Involvement•Accountability•Transparency•Recruitment, retention & development of staff
THE NEW PUBLIC SECTOR LEADER Critical Skills for the new Public Sector Leader•Self-defined personal Leadership & Values•Adaptability•Innovation & Flexibility•Understanding Others•Coaching & Developing Others•Collaboration•Communication•Service Orientation•Planning & Organizing•Decision Making & Accountability
THE NEW PUBLIC SECTOR LEADER OLD & NEW GOVERNMENT WORKPLACE MODELS Declining Emerging The Bureaucratic workplace The Flexible workplaceImplemented in the early 20th century to International research shows thatEradicate patronage and create a career when “bundled”, these practices cancivil service improve performance and the quality of work life:-Multi-layered, rigid hierarchical structure - Flatter, more fluid organizational form- Top-down chain of command - Employee participation in decisions, shared information- Specialized division of labour, narrow job - Extensive use of work teams descriptions-Majority of workers performed routine - More skilled & knowledge- administrativetasks intensive jobs-Driven by rules and regulations - Delegated responsibility-Training - Learning-Vertical career mobility for a minority - Horizontal and spiral career paths- Work environment issues not important - Healthy, supportive work environment
THE NEW PUBLIC SECTOR LEADER“Leadership is about coping with change. Part of the reasonit has become so important in recent years is that the worldhas become more competitive and volatile…doing what wasdone yesterday, or doing it 5% better, is no longer a formulafor success. Major changes are more and more necessary tosurvive and compete effectively in this new environment.More change always demands more leadership.” - John Kotter, Harvard Business Review
THE NEW PUBLIC SECTOR LEADER•Identification of Leaders•The needs of a leader•Politician’s vs. bureaucrats•The new public sector leader •E Government •Performance Management •Citizens’ Charter •Community partnership
THE NEW PUBLIC SECTOR LEADERLeader Identification: •Why is this important?
THE NEW PUBLIC SECTOR LEADER90% of politicians are… MANAGERS!!
THE NEW PUBLIC SECTOR LEADER Good Management = Personal LongevityGood Leadership = Organizational Longevity
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