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    Labour Market in Pakistan Issues and Implications Labour Market in Pakistan Issues and Implications Presentation Transcript

    • Labour Market in Pakistan; Issues and Implications
    • Overview of presentation• An overview of Labour force survey of Pakistan• Review of labour market of Pakistan• Status of achieving MD goals• Some issues of labour market• Government policies/initiatives for increasing skills and employment• Binding constraints to raise skill and employment• Policy recommendations for fixing binding constraints
    • PopulationActive Population Inactive Population Employed Unemployed
    • Introduction of LFS• Federal Bureau of Statistics has been carrying out Labour Force Survey (LFS) since 1963.• The questionnaire was revised overtime.• Since 2005, the quarterly survey practice has been launched.• The sample size of 2009-10 survey is 36,400 households, enumerated in 4 quarters.
    • Information in LFS• Socio-demographic characteristics of population ;• Information on dimensions of labour force; i.e. number of persons employed, unemployed, underemployed or out of labour market;• Facts on the engagement in major occupational trades and the nature of work undertaken by the institutions/organizations;• Data on wages, mode of payment and occupations;• Assessment on occupational health and safety of employed persons by causes, type of treatment, conditions that caused the accident/injury and time of recovery; and• Data on the characteristics of unemployed persons including previous job, waiting time invested in the quest for work, their availability for work and expectations for future employment.
    • Introduction• The sixth most populous country in the world.• 180 million population with 2.05% growth rate.• 54.92 million labour force (42.44 million male and 12.48 million female) with an annual growth rate of 3.7 percent.• Rural areas have almost more than double share in the total employment .
    • Sex-ratio of population ofPakistan (male/female) Census LFS 2007- LFS 2009- 1998 08 10 Pakistan 108 106 106 Rural 106 105 105 Urban 112 108 108 Punjab 115 103 104 Sindh 104 115 114 KPK 107 101 100 Balochistan 112 113 113
    • Literacy rate of populationPakistan Census 1998 LFS 2009-10 Total Male Female Total Male FemalePakistan 45 56.5 32.6 57.7 69.5 45.2Rural 34.4 47.4 20.8 49.2 63.6 34.2Urban 64.7 72.6 55.6 73.2 80.2 65.5Punjab 47.4 58.7 35.3 59.6 69.1 49.8Rural 38.5 51.3 25.1 52.5 64.0 40.7Urban 65.8 73.4 57.2 73.5 78.9 67.8Sindh 46.7 56.6 35.4 58.2 70.2 44.3Rural 27 39.5 13.1 41.0 58.2 20.3Urban 65.2 72.1 57.1 74.9 82.2 66.8KPK 37.3 52.8 21.1 50.9 70.1 32.3Rural 32.5 48.2 16.7 48.4 68.3 29.1Urban 58.7 72.4 42.7 62.7 77.8 47.4Balochistan 26.6 36.5 15 51.5 69.2 29.3Rural 18.9 27.8 8.8 45.7 64.2 22.5Urban 50.3 62.4 35.3 69.6 85.0 50.6
    • Level of education- distribution of population 10+ years of age by sex (%) LFS 1999-2000 LFS 2009-10Level of education Total male female Total male femaleA. Literate 46.5 59 33.3 57.7 69.5 45.2No formal education 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.5Below matric 31.3 39.2 23 37.5 44.9 29.5Matric but below inter 8.7 11.2 6 10.7 13.1 8Inter but below degree 3.3 4.2 2.4 4.7 5.6 3.8Degree and above 2.7 3.8 1.5 4.3 5.3 3.4B. Illiterate 53.5 41 66.7 42.3 30.5 54.8
    • Labour force participation rates• Crude activity rate (CAR)• Refined activity rate (RAR)• Specific Activity Rates (inverted U-shape in nature
    • 2000/0 2001/0 2005/0 2006/0 2007/0 2008/0 1 2 6 7 8 9Crude participation ratesOverall - 29.6 - - - 32.8Male - 48 - - - 49.6Female - 9.9 - - - 14.9Refined participation Rate (overall 10+)Overall 50.4 50.5 53 52.5 52.5 -Male 83.2 82.7 84 83.1 82.4 -Female 16.3 16.2 21.1 21.3 21.8 -Refined Participation Rate for Youth (15-24)Overall 40.5 43.4 45.9 44.2 - -Male 69.3 70.2 72.2 69.2 - -Female 10.2 14.8 18.6 18.4 - -Source: various editions of LFS
    • Demographic dividend inPakistan• Situation of moving from high fertility and high mortality to low fertility and mortality….• This transition has brought sizeable changes in the age distribution of population.• Is a “demographic gift” to the economy
    • Age composition of Pakistan, 1998-20308070 67 61 63.660 5350 4340 35 31.830 272010 4 4 6 60 1998 (TFR 4.8) 2010 (TFR 3.49) 2020 (TFR 2.8) 2030 (TFR 2.1) below 15 15-64 65 and above
    • Unemployment rates for Adult and for Youth (%) FY01 FY02 FY04 FY06 FY07 FY08 FY09 Change b/w 2000 & finalUnemployment rates for overall (%)Overall 6 7.8 8.3 7.6 6.2 5.2 5.2 -0.8Male 5.5 6.2 6.2 5.2 4.2 4.3 - -1.1Female 15.8 16.4 12.9 9.6 8.6 8.5 - -7.3Rural 6.9 7.5 6.7 5.3 4.7 4.7 4.7 -2.2Urban 9.9 9.8 9.7 8 6.6 8.3 7.1 -2.8Unemployment Rate for Youth (15-24)Overall 13.3 13.4 11.7 8.6 7.5 - - -5.9Male 11.1 12 11 8.4 7.1 - - -4.0Female 29.3 20.5 14.9 9.6 8.9 - - -20.4Urban 16.8 16.1 15 11.8 10.5 - - -6.3Rural 11.7 12.1 10.1 7.2 6.1 - - -5.6
    • Unemployment rate (%) in Pakistan and 16 China, 1980-2010 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1994 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 China PakistanSource: International Financial Statistics (1980-2003); www.indexmundi.com (2004-2010)
    • Employment –to-Population Ratio among Adults and Youth inPakistan Chang 2000/ 2001/ 2003/ 2005/ 2006/ 2007/ e 2000 01 02 04 06 07 08 and 2008Employment-to-population ratio in Pakistan for AdultOverall 46.8 46.5 47.0 49.7 49.8 49.9 + 3.1Male 78.6 77.6 77.6 79.6 79.6 79.1 + 0.5Femal 13.7 13.6 15.6 19.0 19.4 19.9 + 6.2eEmployment-to-population ratio in South Asia for AdultOverall 58 57.3 56.7 56.7 - -Male 80 78.8 78.4 78.2 - -Femal 34 34.4 33.8 34.0 - -eYouth Employment-to-population ratioOverall 35.1 37.6 38.5 42.0 40.9 - + 5.8Male 61.6 61.8 62.7 66.1 64.2 - + 2.6
    • Distribution of employed Labour force by major industry 1999-2000 2009-10Major industry divisions Overall Male Female Overall Male FemaleAgriculture, forestry, 48.4 44.4 72.9 45.0 36.6 74.9hunting and fishingManufacturing and mining 11.6 12.1 8.4 13.2 13.9 11.0Construction 5.8 6.6 0.5 6.7 8.5 0.3Wholesale and retail trade 13.5 15.3 2.6 16.3 20.2 2.1Transport, storage and 5 5.8 0.2 5.2 6.6 0.3communicationCommunity services and 14.2 14.1 15.1 11.2 11.2 11.2personal servicesOthers* 1.5 1.7 0.3 2.4 3.0 0.2*Others (includes mining & quarrying, electricity, gas & water, financing, insurance, real estate &business services and extraterritorial organizations and bodies)
    • Trends in % distribution of employed persons by major industry in Pakistan75 1270 10 865 660 455 250 0 1974-75 1982-83 1990-91 2001-02 2007-08 Agriculture social and personal services Wholesale and retail
    • Employed: Major Occupational Groups LFS 1999-2000 LFS 2009-10Occupations Overall Male Female Overall Male FemaleManagers 11 12.4 2.3 12 14.8 1.8Professionals 2.2 2.2 2.4 1.8 2.0 1.4associate professionals 4.2 3.8 6.4 5.1 4.8 6.2Clerical workers 1.6 1.8 0.2 1.3 1.7 0.1Service and sales workers 4.6 5.3 0.4 4.9 6.1 0.8Skilled agricultural, workers 40 37.4 56.4 37.9 31 62.7Craft and related trades workers 15.1 15.9 9.6 14.6 15.6 10.9Machine operators, and assemblers 3.3 3.8 0.2 3.9 4.9 0.1Elementary occupations 18.1 17.5 22.1 18.5 19.1 16
    • Distribution of employed by employment status LFS 1999-2000 LFS 2009-10Employment status Overall Male Female Overall Male FemaleEmployers 0.8 0.9 0.1 1.3 1.6 0.1Self-employed 42.2 46.4 16.7 34.2 40 13.6Unpaid family helpers 21.4 16.7 50.1 29.1 18.7 66.3Employees 35.6 36 33.1 35.4 39.7 20
    • Status of Achieving Labourmarket Related MD Goals
    • MDG goals• Regarding education, MD goal was to achieve universal primary education.• Regarding the labour market, the initial MDGs only covered the gender equality by promoting share in non-agriculture jobs. It were revised in 2007 and the employment efficiency has also been included.i. Growth rate of labour productivity (GDP per person employed);ii. Employment-to-population ratio;iii. Proportion of employed people living below the poverty line; andiv. vulnerable employment rate.
    • Education related MDGs MTDF MDG 2001- 2005- 2008- Target 1990-91 Target 02 06 09 2009/1 2015 0Net primary enrolment ratio (%) 46 42 53 57 77 100Completion/survival rate 1 50 57.3 72.1 54.6 80 100grade to 5 (%)Literacy rate overall 35 45 54 57 77 88Male 48 55 65 69 85 89Female 21 35 42 45 66 87
    • MDG indicator of women share in non-agricultureemployment MTDF MDG TargetIndicator 1990 2001 2006 2008 Target 2009/1 2015 0Share ofwomen inwageemployment 8.07 9.65 10.53 10.64 12 14in the non-agriculturalsectorSource: MDG Country Report, 2010
    • Vulnerable employment• Vulnerable employment is the proportion of own- account and contributing family workers in total employment
    • Vulnerable Employment in Adults and Youth Change FY00 FY02 FY04 FY07 FY00 to FY07Adult (15+)Both 63.1 58.7 60.6 60.6 -2.5SexesMales 62.5 58.1 59.0 57.3 -5.2Females 66.7 62.6 68.4 74.6 +7.9Youth (15-24)Both 60.0 55.8 59.1 58.1 -1.9SexesMales 60.1 55.5 57.5 54.9 -5.3Females 59.1 57.3 66.2 71.1 +12.0
    • Working Poor (%) 1996 2006PakistanUS$ 1 day 13.4 8.7US$ 2 day 71.4 58.8South AsiaUS$ 1 day 55.9 34.6US$ 2 day 91.7 80.7Source: ILO, Working Poverty Model, October 2007, GenevaPakistan has a lower percentage of working poorcompared to overall south Asia.
    • Labour productivity “per hours” worked, by sector (constant factor cost in PKR)(15+) FY00 FY04 FY06 FY07National 44.3 45.9 48.0 50.3Agriculture 24.8 26.6 28.1 28.9Mining 1389.3 1855.0 1129.6 1084.1Manufacturing 56.5 56.8 63.4 67.1Electricity, gas 250.7 249.6 155.8 140.1and waterConstruction 19.5 15.7 17.2 18.4Wholesale and 50.1 48.0 47.2 49.1retail tradeTransport and 84.9 73.7 68.3 75.2communicationFinance 360.2 248.7 317.7 337.3Social Services 49.6 50.1 53.5 55.7
    • SBP HR Policy
    • Key HR Policies of SBP• Training to younger officers by foreign experts• Overseas training• Recruitment of highly qualified people• Performance measurement and improvement system (PMIS)
    • Male 92%, female 8% SBP HR Profile FY06 FY07 FY08 SG-1 3 3 3 OG-8 - 8 8 OG-7 8 20 30 OG-6 39 27 40 OG-5 108 100 104 OG-4 120 143 171 OG-3 302 469 417 OG-2 234 171 206 OG-1 213 195 191 Support staff 208 182 175 Contract 54 22 59 staff Total 1,339 1,340 1,404
    • HR policy for recruitment• NTS provide services for bulk recruitment• For limited recruitment, SBP has been adopting ‘Employer of Choice’ policy. During 2007-08, about 166 graduates and professionals have been recruited by this policy.• Online recruitment
    • Employee TurnoverYear Involuntary Voluntary Total turnover Turnover2002-03 24 54 782003-04 21 37 582004-05 17 59 762005-06 19 73 922006-07 30 87 1172007-08 13 75 88
    • Performance Measurement andImprovement System (PMIS)• Online system was introduced in 2002 which enable each employee to submit his/her planning, performance/achievements and appeal. Employees can also see their performance rankings on their own from ‘level 1’ (excellent) to ‘level 5’.• The promotion policy was also linked with this performance.• Appreciation letter were given by departmental heads to ‘level 1’ performers
    • Performance Bonus Bonus Amount (one time payment)Grade For A rated For B+ rated performers performersOG-6 to 25,000 12,500OG-8OG-5 22,000 11,000OG-4 17,500 8,750OG-3 12,500 6,250OG-2 10,000 5,000
    • Training and development Local Training (participant in numbers) Training FY06 FY07 FY08 areas Central 822 226 772 Banking Management 809 356 579 Total Local 1,631 582 1,351 Total foreign Training - 118 124Internship/visit for local and foreign students
    • Some issues of labour market
    • Background• The recent global financial crisis soared the global unemployment rates all around the globe.• Within Asia, East-Asia was heavily effected, while South-Asia was less effected.• Labor markets must have the flexibility to shift workers from one economic activity to another rapidly at low cost. Efficient labor markets must also ensure relationship between worker incentives and their efforts, as well as equity in the business environment between women and men.
    • Growth-poverty, employmentnexus
    • Ranking of Labour Market Efficiency in Selective Countries in 2010 (out of 139 countries)Efficiency Indicators Pakistan China India Indonesia Malaysia ThailandCooperation in labor- 104 58 49 47 16 34employer relationsFlexibility of wage 104 56 61 98 44 90determinationRigidity of 110 78 77 100 18 25employmentHiring and firing 51 62 89 38 50 31practicesPay and productivity 93 15 61 20 6 29Brain drain 68 37 34 27 28 38Female participation 137 23 128 109 111 57in labor forceSecondary education 125 92 108 95 99 96enrollment rateSource: Global Competitive Index Report, 2010
    • Demographic Trends and Decent Work Issues in Selective Countries Dependency Ratio Formal Employment Vulnerable Employment (per 100 people (2000-2008) (2000-2008)Country ages 15–64) 1990 2010 % of total Ratio of % of total Ratio of Employment female employment female to male rates to male ratesPakistan 89.2 68.6 38.2 0.59 61.8 1.29China 51.2 39.1 - - - -India 71.5 55.6 - - - -Indonesia 65.6 48.7 36.9 0.81 63.1 1.13Malaysia 69.7 51.3 77.6 1.02 22.3 0.93Thailand 53.0 41.2 46.6 0.90 53.3 -Source: Human Development Report, 2010
    • Issues of Job mismatch• Poor educational and labour policies lead to issues of job mismatch.• A variety of socio-demographic characteristics, customs and barriers are causing the job mismatch especially for women in Pakistan .• Educational system is not coping with the right demands of labour market and following a variety of tiers.• The employment is not keeping pace with labour force participation.• Imperfections are rising including rising job search periods, rising share of informal economy, rising risks of vulnerability and educated unemployment especially for female and youth.• Job mismatch has three dimensions.
    • Distribution of the sampled graduates by occupation (%) Manager Professional Ass. Clerical Elementary Total professional support occupationsLFS (2006-07)Female 10.1 21.0 64.6 1.1 3.3 100Male 27.3 19.0 27.5 10.4 15.8 100Total 24.6 19.3 33.5 8.9 13.8 100LFS (2008-09)Female 8.5 22.7 64.6 1.4 2.8 100Male 25.6 18.7 31.7 10.3 13.7 100Total 23.1 19.3 36.6 9.0 12.1 100SEG (2010)Female 12.4 40.7 27.2 18.5 1.2 100Male 20.6 29.0 33.7 12.9 3.7 100Total 17.7 32.6 32.7 13.8 3.3 100
    • Distribution of sampled graduates by monthly Income incategoriesMonthly SEG, 2010 LFS, 2008-09Earning Fem Female Male Total Male Total(Rs) aleup to min. 11.1 3.7 4.9 21.4 9.4 11.3wage*Min. wage- 24.7 13.4 15.2 33.2 28.6 29.41200012001-15000 19.8 10.2 11.7 12.7 15.4 14.915001-20000 14.8 18.2 17.7 14.9 17.4 17.020001-30000 12.4 24.5 22.6 11.8 15.2 14.630001-50000 16.1 20.3 19.7 4.7 11.9 10.850001 and 1.2 9.7 8.4 1.3 2.1 2.0aboveTotal 100 100 100 100 100 100*minimum wage is 6,000 for LFS, 2008-09 For SEG, 2010 is 7,000
    • The Employed Workers by Academic Qualification and Occupation in Pakistan Attained Education (in years)Occupations up to 5 6 to 10 12 14 16 M.Phill/Ph.DManager 3,705 3,541 976 1,137 492 23Professional 194 203 89 572 333 33Technicians, assoc. 323 1,183 1,037 1,253 540 4Clerical support 39 382 355 299 71 2Service and sales 1,711 1,376 332 172 21 0Skilled agricultural, 19,952 4,022 474 189 32 0forestry and fisheryCraft and related trades 6,128 3,037 350 136 18 4Machine operators, and 1,781 1,190 126 44 9 1assemblersElementary occupations10,297 2,086 154 48 2 0Source: Estimated from the Labour Force Survey, 2008-09
    • Federal Government Civil Servants by BPS and Academic Qualification Academic Qualification (in years)BPS Grades Doctorate Master Bachelor Intermediate Matric Others1-2 140 572 1,951 6,601 7143-10 3,669 1,2625 18,296 31,786 66211-15 6,927 1,2601 7,616 6,467 26216 3,309 3,921 1,564 1,128 12317 102 3,324 2,355 307 141 6618 138 2,010 1,308 104 29 2519 72 1,149 438 8 1 1820 47 544 144 621 10 167 31 322 5 52 10Source: Thirteen Census of Federal Government Civil Servants, 2003
    • The level of education-job mismatch by various approaches (%)Datasets Matched Under-educated Over-educated(LFS 2006-07) Female 65.7 4.4 30.0 Male 69.4 9.7 20.9 Total 68.8 8.9 22.3(LFS 2008-09) Female 60.5 4.2 35.4 Male 71.2 2.3 26.6 Total 69.6 2.5 27.9SEG, 2010 WSA 65.4 9.9 24.7 JA 69.5 4.5 26.1 RM 63.4 21.6 15.0
    • Distribution of respondents by the level ofqualification mismatch (%) Under- Over- Matched qualified qualifiedFemale 66.7 11.1 22.2Male 72.8 13.9 13.4Total 71.8 13.4 14.8*based on the weights estimated by PCA approach
    • Marginal and joint distribution of education andqualification match (%) Under- Over- Matched qualified qualifiedJob Analyst Method (JA)Matched 52.0 10.3 7.2Under- 3.5 0.4 0.6educatedOver- 16.3 2.7 7.0educatedWorker Self Assessment Method (WSA)Matched 48.8 9.0 7.6Under- 6.8 2.1 1.0educatedOver- 16.2 2.3 6.2educated
    • The % Distribution of the Respondents by Reported Field ofStudy and Job MismatchLevel of Mismatch Female Male TotalIrrelevant 14.8 10.6 11.3Slightly relevant 18.5 12.9 13.8Moderately 33.3 39.3 38.3relevantCompletely 33.3 37.2 36.6relevant
    • Government Policies andProgrammes • Pakistan has so far launched six labour polices in 1955, 1959, 1969, 1972, 2002 and 2010. • During FY02-FY10 period, around 70-80 percent of the PRSP budget has been spent on only three sectors: human development, rural development and safety nets. • Various micro-finance rozgar schemes are also assisting the poor. • Labour Market Information and Analysis (LMIA) Unit was established in 2006. • National Internship Program (NIP) was launched in 2007 to provide internship to educated youth. • To develop skilled labour force, the government has established five Skill Development Councils (SDCs) one each at Islamabad, Lahore, Karachi, Peshawar and Quetta. • National Migration Policy 2008 to promote overseas migration
    • Silent features of LabourPolicy 2010 • The Government will insure full adherence of labour laws and workers with friendly environment in all establishments to promote decent work in the country. • Raising the minimum wages by 16 percent from Rs. 6,000 to Rs. 7,000 per month. All industrial, commercial and other establishments registered under any law shall pay wages to the employees through Cheque/Bank transfer. • In order the monitor the implementation of labour laws pertaining to wage, working environment and time, a Tripartite Monitoring Committees will be set up at district, province and federal level. • LIMA will be established through the creation of Human Resource Centers at various cities. • Contract employees within the public sector will be regularized. • A comprehensive Social Insurance for old-age benefits and health services will be introduced on self-registration/voluntary basis to allow all workers in formal and informal sector of economy, including self employed persons, to benefit from it. • In cases where the social security hospital has no facilities for treatment, the worker shall be referred to any public/private hospital and the respective Social Security Institution will bear all costs of treatment.
    • Key objectives of NAVTEC Skillstrategy 2009-13• Providing relevant skills for industrial & economic development through introducing competency based training, increasing the role of the private sector and encouraging entrepreneurship.• Improving access, equity and employability by focusing on skills for women, disadvantaged groups, providing career guidance to youth and vocational education in schools• Assuring quality by streamlining policymaking, establishing a national qualifications framework, research and training of trainers
    • Diagnostic Analysis of BindingConstraintsPolicy gaps and poor implementation and lack of targeting policies• Pakistan has long history of social action programs i.e. land reforms, Village Aid program (1952–1961), Rural Works Programme (1963–1972), People’s Works Programme (1972–1982), the Integrated Rural Development Programme (1972–1980), the Five- Point Programme (1985–1988), the Tameer-e-Watan Programme (1991), Social Action Programme I & II (1985–2002) and PRSP (2001-onward).• SAP, a targeted program also remained fail because of underutilization of funds (less than 60 percent budget was consumed out of allocated Rs. 600 billion), lack of awareness, absence of people’s participation, and centralized decision-making.
    • Saving Investment as percentage of GDP (Current prices)252015105 1978 1972 1974 1976 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 Saving Investment Education and Health Expenditure (% of GNP) 3.5 3 3 2.7 2.5 2 1.6 1.5 1 1980s 1990s 2000s
    • Weak institution, poor governance anddeteriorated law & order situation Governance Indicators Indicators Index Judicial independence 74/139 Irregular payments and bribes 117/139 Property rights 107/139 Favoritism in decisions of 87/139 government officials Business cost of terrorism 138/139 Organized crime 127/139 corruption 139/180 Source: Global Competitiveness report: 2010-11; Transparency international, 2009 • Rising expenditure on ‘war on terror’; $68 billion during 2002-10 period
    • Regional Inequality in Public Provision and InfrastructureRural Infrastructure by Provinces Balochista Punjab Sindh KPK n Distance to Metal road<1 80 67 38 20 kmPhysical Electricity 47 10 34 12Infrastructure Soling street 66 30 29 8 Drain 58 23 19 7 Piped water 9 7 20 9Soft Edu. Institute 34 37.5 33.3 22.3Infrastructure Health Institute 30.5 27.3 24.5 11.3Source: MOUZA statistics, 2008
    • Macroeconomic instability Development budget (% of GDP)8 7.36 4.7 4.84 3.5 2.2 3.420 Overall macro environment 133/139 Index Inflation 137/139 Country credit rating 125/139 Quality of electricity Supply 128/139 Source: Global Competitiveness report: 2010-11
    • Poverty levels in China andPakistan, 1978-2005• In 1978, rural poverty in both China and Pakistan was around 33 percent. In 2005, it was 28 percent in Pakistan and only 2.5 percent in China.• Fluctuations in Poverty in Pakistan during last three decades (1960s, 1980s, 2007/08)• Urban poverty in Pakistan has also been higher than China.
    • Rural Population living below the poverty line (in millions) 40 38250 35 32 30 29 29 25 24 20 19 18 15 14 10 5 25 0 1978 1985 1990 1995 1997 2000 2002 2005 China Pakistan
    • Policy implications andrecommendations• Create socio-economic assets for the poor• Ensure macroeconomic and political stability• Integration of markets - development of non-farm sector to generate employment opportunities• Remove regional socio-economic disparities• Need massive public investment on education and health, particularly the technical education• Planned urbanization is engine of employment generation• Include the role of private sector• Coordination among various demand and supply side stakeholders of labour market is prerequisite• Ensure equality and quality of education across the regions and institutes with dynamic education policy• Tracer type studies should be conducted to understand the employment patterns and skills demanded by economy• Knowledge based policies for youth and for female• Improve the labour market information system
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