What is Communication
Communication
SUCCESS IN COMMUNICATION <ul><li>WHAT  TO SAY </li></ul><ul><li>HOW  TO SAY IT </li></ul>“ WORDS ARE THE MOST POWERFUL DRU...
<ul><li>“ TO LISTEN CLOSELY AND REPLY WELL IS THE HIGHEST PERFECTION WE ARE ABLE TO ATTAIN IN THE ART OF CONVERSATION”. </...
WHAT IS COMMUNICATION ? <ul><li>COMMUNICATION IS THE PROCESS OF SENDING AND RECIEVING VERBAL AND NON VERBAL MESSAGES FROM ...
WHAT IS COMMUNICATION ? <ul><li>MESSAGES THAT ARE DISTORTED BY </li></ul><ul><li>NOISE,  </li></ul><ul><li>OCCUR  WITHIN  ...
<ul><li>COMMUNICATION  </li></ul><ul><li>IS A SOCIAL PROCESS. </li></ul><ul><li>IT IS A CHAIN PROCESS, MADE UP OF IDENTIFI...
Effective Communications <ul><li>Communication  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is the process of sending and receiving symbols with...
COMPONENTS OF COMMUNICATION STIMULUS DESTINATION MESSAGE F I LTER MEDIUM FEEDBACK Based on – Shannon & Weaver model
COMPONENTS OF COMMUNICATION INTERNAL ORAL MESSAGES TELEPHONE INTERCOM MEETINGS / CONFERENCES PRESENTATIONS FACE TO FACE DI...
COMPONENTS OF COMMUNICATION EXTERNAL ORAL MEETINGS CONFERENCES SEMINARS CONVERSATION TELEPHONE TELE CONFERENCE VIDEO CONFE...
CONVERSATION SKILLS <ul><li>WHEN TO SPEAK AND WHEN TO LISTEN </li></ul><ul><li>HOW TO MOVE A CONVERSATION FROM THE PAST TO...
COMMUNICATION CAN BE DIVIDED INTO : 10% WORDS – WHAT WE SAY 30% SOUNDS – TONE 60% BODY LANGUAGE – HOW WE SAY IT WHAT IS CO...
EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION <ul><li>EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION OCCURS WHEN THE </li></ul><ul><li>MESSAGE RECEIVED IS AS CLOSE AS ...
WHY TO COMMUNICATE? <ul><li>COMMUNICATION  SATISFACTION  FACILITATES  JOB SATISFACTION  AND JOB PERFORMANCE. </li></ul><ul...
SEVEN “C’s” OF COMMUNICATION <ul><li>COMPLETENESS   –   CONTAINS ALL FACTS THE READER OR LISTENER NEEDS  FOR DESIRED ACTIO...
SEVEN “C’s” OF COMMUNICATION <ul><li>CLARITY –  IT IS VERY IMPORTANT TO BE CLEAR IN YOUR MESSAGE. USE FAMILIAR WORDS AND E...
Rule of Five Keith Davis <ul><li>The role of the RECIEVER is as important as the Sender. </li></ul><ul><li>Five receiver s...
HOW COMMUNICATION HAPPENS
PURPOSES OF COMMUNICATION HUMANS COMMUNICATE TO DISCOVER TO RELATE TO HELP TO PERSUADE TO PLAY
AREAS OF COMMUNICATION AREAS  OF COMMUNICATION INTERPERSONAL INTRAPERSONAL SMALL GROUP ORGANIZATIONAL PUBLIC MASS THINK RE...
PROCESS AND CONTEXT OF COMMUNICATION
FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION <ul><li>CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>MOTIVATION </li></ul><ul><li>EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION </li></ul><...
BASIC COMMUNICATION PROCESS SENDER ---------- PERCEPTION --------- IDEA ENCODE MEDIUM DECODE UNDERSTANDING ---------- PERC...
ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION <ul><li>SENDER / ENCODER </li></ul><ul><li>MESSAGE </li></ul><ul><li>MEDIUM </li></ul><ul><li>RE...
COMMUNICATION FUNDAMENTALS <ul><li>Direction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Downward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upward </li></ul><...
COMMUNICATION NETWORKS Chain Wheel All Channels
COMMUNICATION CONTEXT <ul><li>PHYSICAL CONTEXT </li></ul><ul><li>CULTURAL CONTEXT </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL C...
PHYSICAL CONTEXT <ul><li>TANGIBLE OR CONCRETE ENVIRONMENT E.I. ROOM OR HALLWAY OR PARK. </li></ul><ul><li>EXERT INFLUENCE ...
CULTURAL CONTEXT <ul><li>REFERS TO THE COMMUNICATORS’ RULES AND NORMS, BELIEFS AND ATTITUDES THAT ARE TRANSMITTED FROM ONE...
SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTEXT <ul><li>INCLUDES: </li></ul><ul><li>STATUS  </li></ul><ul><li>RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE PARTICI...
TEMPORAL CONTEXT <ul><li>TIME OF DAY AND PERIOD OF HISTORY </li></ul><ul><li>FOR MANY PEOPLE MORNING IS NOT A TIME FOR COM...
TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
TYPES OF COMMUNICATION <ul><li>INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>CORPORATE COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>FOR...
INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION <ul><li>ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>NON-ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><l...
ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION <ul><li>CONFIDENCE IN  EXPRESSING WHAT YOU THINK, FEEL AND BELIEVE IN </li></ul><ul><li>STANDING U...
NON-ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION <ul><li>RELUCTANT OR UNABLE TO EXPRESS CONSISTENTLY WHAT YOU THINK, FEEL AND BELIEVE IN </li><...
AGGRESSIVE COMMUNICATION <ul><li>EXPRESSING  ONESELF IN WAYS THAT INTIMIDATE, DEMEAN, OR DEGRADE THE OTHER PERSON. </li></...
DISTORTION  IN  COMMUNICATION <ul><li>IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT  – THE PROCESS BY WHICH A SENDER CONSCIOUSLY ATTEMPTS TO INFLU...
CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION
COMMUNICATION CHANNELS <ul><li>A COMMUNICATION CHANNEL IS THE MEDIUM THROUGH WHICH THE MESSAGE PASSES </li></ul><ul><li>CO...
MESSAGE TYPES <ul><li>FEEDBACK MESSAGES </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>POSITIVE ----- NEGATIVE </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul...
CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK <ul><li>BASED UPON TRUST BETWEEN SENDER AND RECEIVER </li></ul><ul><li>SPECIFIC RATHER THAN GENERAL ...
FEEDBACK SKILLS <ul><li>EMPHASIZE WHAT YOU SEE AND HEAR  –  DESCRIPTIVE RATHER EVALUATIVE FEEDBACK </li></ul><ul><li>CONCE...
<ul><li>QUESTIONS </li></ul>
COMMUNICATION BARRIERS
INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION BARRIERS Defensiveness National Culture Emotions Information  Overload Interpersonal Communica...
BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION <ul><li>PROCESS BARRIERS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SENDER BARRIER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ENCODIN...
NOISE <ul><li>PHYSICAL  –  ECOLOGICAL NOISE </li></ul><ul><li>PSYCHOLOGICAL  –  COGNITIVE  INTERFERENCE I.E. </li></ul><ul...
COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION <ul><li>1.  SEMANTICS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition of words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
COMMON  BARRIERS  TO COMMUNICATION <ul><li>2. POOR CHOICE, USE OF CHANNELS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When to use certain chann...
COMMON  BARRIERS  TO  COMMUNICATION <ul><li>2. USE OF CHANNELS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both channels: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
COMMON  BARRIERS  TO COMMUNICATION <ul><li>3.  PHYSICAL  DISTRACTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>4.  NOISE, PHYSICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL...
COMMON  BARRIERS  TO COMMUNICATION <ul><li>7 .  PERCEPTIONS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stereotypes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H...
COMMON  BARRIERS  TO COMMUNICATION <ul><li>FILTERING,  SCREENING NEGATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>INFORMTAION </li></ul><ul><li>...
COMMON  BARRIERS  TO COMMUNICATION <ul><li>11.  INFORMATION, DATA  OVERLOAD </li></ul><ul><li>12.  POOR LISTENING </li></u...
HOW  TO  BE  A  BETTER  COMMUNICATOR <ul><li>EFFECTIVE LISTENING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TOLERATE SILENCE </li></ul></ul><ul...
<ul><li>EFFECTIVE  WRITING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KEEP WORD SIMPLE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DON’T SACRIFICE COMMUNICATION...
ACTIVE LISTENING BEHAVIOURS Don't overtalk Ask questions Be empathetic Exhibit affirmative head nods and appropriate facia...
Interpersonal Skills Writing Oral Presentation Simulations/Role plays Self Awareness Inventories Readings HOW  MANAGERIAL ...
CHANGE AND COMMUNICATION <ul><li>UNSUCCESSFUL CHANGE IS MOSTLY MISSING OR POOR COMMUNICATION. </li></ul><ul><li>THE LINEAR...
EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION <ul><li>WATCH THE LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>FOLLOW THROUGH </li></ul><ul><li>DEAL WITH UNCERTAINI...
PROBLEMS / CHALLENGES <ul><li>TECHNOLOGY SHRINKS INTERACTION AND DIALOGUE. </li></ul><ul><li>TOO MUCH INFORMATION. </li></...
Thank you
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Communication skills csa 1

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  • This definition of communication is in your text. It is a correct definition. However, I would add “and understanding them”.
  • In addition to the general distortions identified in the communication process, managers face other barriers to effective communication as this diagram illustrates.
  • Active listening is enhanced by developing empathy with the sender—that is, by placing yourself in the sender’s position. Specific behaviours that active listeners demonstrate are listed in Exhibit 10.3 .
  • Transcript of "Communication skills csa 1"

    1. 2. What is Communication
    2. 3. Communication
    3. 4. SUCCESS IN COMMUNICATION <ul><li>WHAT TO SAY </li></ul><ul><li>HOW TO SAY IT </li></ul>“ WORDS ARE THE MOST POWERFUL DRUG USED BY MANKIND”. ( RUDYARD KIPLING)
    4. 5. <ul><li>“ TO LISTEN CLOSELY AND REPLY WELL IS THE HIGHEST PERFECTION WE ARE ABLE TO ATTAIN IN THE ART OF CONVERSATION”. </li></ul>“ LA ROCHE FOUCAULD”
    5. 6. WHAT IS COMMUNICATION ? <ul><li>COMMUNICATION IS THE PROCESS OF SENDING AND RECIEVING VERBAL AND NON VERBAL MESSAGES FROM ONE PERSON TO ANOTHER TO FACILITATE THE EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION. </li></ul><ul><li>THE TRANSFER OF INFORMATION MUST ALSO FACILITATE UNDERSTANDING AND TRANSPORT WHAT IS IN THE HEAD OF THE SENDER TO THE HEAD OF THE RECIEVER </li></ul>CONTED
    6. 7. WHAT IS COMMUNICATION ? <ul><li>MESSAGES THAT ARE DISTORTED BY </li></ul><ul><li>NOISE, </li></ul><ul><li>OCCUR WITHIN A CONTEXT, </li></ul><ul><li>HAVE SOME EFFECT AND </li></ul><ul><li>PROVIDE SOME OPPORTUNITY FOR FEEDBACK </li></ul>
    7. 8. <ul><li>COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>IS A SOCIAL PROCESS. </li></ul><ul><li>IT IS A CHAIN PROCESS, MADE UP OF IDENTIFIABLE LINKS. </li></ul><ul><li>A PROCESS OF TRANSMITTING AND RECEIVING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VERBAL AND </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NON-VERBAL MESSAGES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THAT PRODUCE A RESPONSE” </li></ul></ul>WHAT IS COMMUNICATION ?
    8. 9. Effective Communications <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is the process of sending and receiving symbols with meanings attached. </li></ul></ul>
    9. 10. COMPONENTS OF COMMUNICATION STIMULUS DESTINATION MESSAGE F I LTER MEDIUM FEEDBACK Based on – Shannon & Weaver model
    10. 11. COMPONENTS OF COMMUNICATION INTERNAL ORAL MESSAGES TELEPHONE INTERCOM MEETINGS / CONFERENCES PRESENTATIONS FACE TO FACE DISCUSSIONS WRITTEN REPORT GRAPHS / CHARTS E-MAIL FAX NOTICE MEMO NEWS LETTERS MINUTES FORMS / QUESTIONNAIRES INTRANET INTERNAL COMMUNICATION
    11. 12. COMPONENTS OF COMMUNICATION EXTERNAL ORAL MEETINGS CONFERENCES SEMINARS CONVERSATION TELEPHONE TELE CONFERENCE VIDEO CONFERENCE PRESENTATION WRITTEN BROCHURE INVITATION FORMS QUESTIONNAIRES PRESS RELEASE NEWS LETTER ADVERTISEMENT NOTICE GRAPH / CHART REPORT E-MAIL / FAX LETTERS INTERNET EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION
    12. 13. CONVERSATION SKILLS <ul><li>WHEN TO SPEAK AND WHEN TO LISTEN </li></ul><ul><li>HOW TO MOVE A CONVERSATION FROM THE PAST TO THE PRESENT AND TO THE FUTURE </li></ul><ul><li>WHY CONVERSATIONAL LINKING IS NECESSARY </li></ul><ul><li>HOW TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN PARALLEL AND SEQUENTIAL CONVERSATION </li></ul><ul><li>HOW TO RAISE ENERGY LEVELS IN DISCUSSIONS </li></ul><ul><li>HOW TO MOVE BETWEEN PROBLEM-CENTRED CONVERSATION AND SOLUTION-CENTRED CONVERSATION </li></ul>
    13. 14. COMMUNICATION CAN BE DIVIDED INTO : 10% WORDS – WHAT WE SAY 30% SOUNDS – TONE 60% BODY LANGUAGE – HOW WE SAY IT WHAT IS COMMUNICATION ?
    14. 15. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION <ul><li>EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION OCCURS WHEN THE </li></ul><ul><li>MESSAGE RECEIVED IS AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE AS </li></ul><ul><li>THE MESSAGE INTENDED TO BE SENT – MUTUAL </li></ul><ul><li>UNDERSTANDING. </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATION IS EFFECTIVE ONLY IF PEOPLE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- UNDERSTAND EACH OTHER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- STIMULATE OTHERS TO TAKE ACTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- ENCOURAGE OTHERS TO THINK IN NEW WAYS . </li></ul></ul>
    15. 16. WHY TO COMMUNICATE? <ul><li>COMMUNICATION SATISFACTION FACILITATES JOB SATISFACTION AND JOB PERFORMANCE. </li></ul><ul><li>COMMITMENT ENCOURAGES JOB SATISFACTION AND CREATES GOOD ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE . </li></ul>
    16. 17. SEVEN “C’s” OF COMMUNICATION <ul><li>COMPLETENESS – CONTAINS ALL FACTS THE READER OR LISTENER NEEDS FOR DESIRED ACTION. </li></ul><ul><li>CONCISENESS – BRIEF AND TO THE POINT AND PACKAGE THE MESSAGE IN MINIMUM WORDS . </li></ul><ul><li>CONSIDERATION/ CANDIDNESS – PRESENT A VIEW THAT IS HONEST, SINCERE AND GUILELESS. </li></ul><ul><li>CONCRETENESS – Specific, definite in describing events. A vivid description of an event or state. </li></ul>
    17. 18. SEVEN “C’s” OF COMMUNICATION <ul><li>CLARITY – IT IS VERY IMPORTANT TO BE CLEAR IN YOUR MESSAGE. USE FAMILIAR WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS TO ENHANCE UNDERSTANDING. </li></ul><ul><li>COURTESY – MAINTAIN A PROPER DECORUM OF SPEAKING. </li></ul><ul><li>CORRECTNESS – AVOID GRAMMATICAL ERRORS IN SPOKEN CONVERSATION. </li></ul>
    18. 19. Rule of Five Keith Davis <ul><li>The role of the RECIEVER is as important as the Sender. </li></ul><ul><li>Five receiver steps in the process of communication: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receive </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understand </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accept </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use, & </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Give Feedback ( Respond) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 20. HOW COMMUNICATION HAPPENS
    20. 21. PURPOSES OF COMMUNICATION HUMANS COMMUNICATE TO DISCOVER TO RELATE TO HELP TO PERSUADE TO PLAY
    21. 22. AREAS OF COMMUNICATION AREAS OF COMMUNICATION INTERPERSONAL INTRAPERSONAL SMALL GROUP ORGANIZATIONAL PUBLIC MASS THINK REASON ANALYZE REFLECT DISCOVER RELATE INFLUENCE PLAY HELP SHARE INFORMATION GENERATE IDEAS SOLVE PROBLEMS HELP INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY RAIS MORALE INFORM PERSUADE INFORM PERSUADE ENTERTAIN INFORM PERSUADE ENTERTAIN
    22. 23. PROCESS AND CONTEXT OF COMMUNICATION
    23. 24. FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION <ul><li>CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>MOTIVATION </li></ul><ul><li>EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION </li></ul><ul><li>INFORMATION </li></ul>
    24. 25. BASIC COMMUNICATION PROCESS SENDER ---------- PERCEPTION --------- IDEA ENCODE MEDIUM DECODE UNDERSTANDING ---------- PERCEPTION --------- RECEIVER FEEDBACK NOISE NOISE NOISE NOISE
    25. 26. ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION <ul><li>SENDER / ENCODER </li></ul><ul><li>MESSAGE </li></ul><ul><li>MEDIUM </li></ul><ul><li>RECEIVER / DECODER </li></ul><ul><li>FEEDBACK </li></ul>
    26. 27. COMMUNICATION FUNDAMENTALS <ul><li>Direction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Downward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crosswise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Networks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal vs. Informal </li></ul></ul>
    27. 28. COMMUNICATION NETWORKS Chain Wheel All Channels
    28. 29. COMMUNICATION CONTEXT <ul><li>PHYSICAL CONTEXT </li></ul><ul><li>CULTURAL CONTEXT </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTEXT </li></ul><ul><li>TEMPORAL (TIME) CONTEXT </li></ul>
    29. 30. PHYSICAL CONTEXT <ul><li>TANGIBLE OR CONCRETE ENVIRONMENT E.I. ROOM OR HALLWAY OR PARK. </li></ul><ul><li>EXERT INFLUENCE ON </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>THE CONTENT (WHAT WE SAY) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>THE FORM (HOW WE SAY IT) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 31. CULTURAL CONTEXT <ul><li>REFERS TO THE COMMUNICATORS’ RULES AND NORMS, BELIEFS AND ATTITUDES THAT ARE TRANSMITTED FROM ONE GENERATION TO ANOTHER. </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECT EYE CONTECT BETWEEN CHILD AND ADULT SIGNIFIES : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DIRECTNESS AND HONESTY IN ONE CULTURE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DEFIANCE AND LACK OF RESPECT IN OTHER. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 32. SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTEXT <ul><li>INCLUDES: </li></ul><ul><li>STATUS </li></ul><ul><li>RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE PARTICIPANTS </li></ul><ul><li>THE ROLES AND GAMES PEOPLE PLAY </li></ul><ul><li>CULTURAL ROLE OF THE SOCIETY IN WHICH PEOPLE COMMUNICATE . </li></ul><ul><li>INCLUDES </li></ul><ul><li>FRIENDLINESS OR UNFRIENDLINESS </li></ul><ul><li>FORMALITY OR INFORMALITY </li></ul><ul><li>SERIOUSNESS OR HUMOUR </li></ul>
    32. 33. TEMPORAL CONTEXT <ul><li>TIME OF DAY AND PERIOD OF HISTORY </li></ul><ul><li>FOR MANY PEOPLE MORNING IS NOT A TIME FOR COMMUNICATION - FOR OTHERS IT IS IDEAL </li></ul><ul><li>APPROPRIATENESS AND IMPACT OF MESSAGE DEPENDS, PARTLY, ON THE TIME PERIOD IN WHICH THEY ARE UTTERED. </li></ul>
    33. 34. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
    34. 35. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION <ul><li>INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>CORPORATE COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>FORMAL COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>NON-FORMAL COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>ORAL COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>WRITTEN COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>NON-VERBAL COMUNICATION </li></ul>
    35. 36. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION <ul><li>ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>NON-ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>AGGRESSIVE COMMUNICATION </li></ul>
    36. 37. ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION <ul><li>CONFIDENCE IN EXPRESSING WHAT YOU THINK, FEEL AND BELIEVE IN </li></ul><ul><li>STANDING UP FOR YOUR RIGHTS WHILE RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF OTHERS </li></ul><ul><li>CONVEYING MEANING AND EXPECTATIONS WITHOUT HUMILATING OR DEGRADING OTHERS </li></ul><ul><li>ESPOUSING RESPECT FOR YOURSELF AND RESPECT FOR OTHERS </li></ul><ul><li>PROTECTING YOUR AND PEOPLE’S NEEDS AND RIGHTS </li></ul>
    37. 38. NON-ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION <ul><li>RELUCTANT OR UNABLE TO EXPRESS CONSISTENTLY WHAT YOU THINK, FEEL AND BELIEVE IN </li></ul><ul><li>ALLOWING OTHERS TO VIOLATE OWN RIGHTS WITHOUT CHALLENGE </li></ul><ul><li>RATIONALISES LACK OF RESPECT FOR OWN PREFERENCES. </li></ul><ul><li>OTHERS CAN EASILY DISREGARD YOUR THOUGHTS, FEELINGS, AND BELIEFS </li></ul>
    38. 39. AGGRESSIVE COMMUNICATION <ul><li>EXPRESSING ONESELF IN WAYS THAT INTIMIDATE, DEMEAN, OR DEGRADE THE OTHER PERSON. </li></ul><ul><li>PURSUE WHAT ONE WANTS IN WAYS THAT VIOLATE THE RIGHTS OF THE OTHER PERSON. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ THIS IS WHAT I THINK. YOU ARE DUMB FOR THINKING DIFERENTLY”. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    39. 40. DISTORTION IN COMMUNICATION <ul><li>IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT – THE PROCESS BY WHICH A SENDER CONSCIOUSLY ATTEMPTS TO INFLUENCE THE PERCEPTIONS THAT THE RECEIVERS FORM. COMMONLY USED IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT STATEGIES ARE: - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>INGRATIATION: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>USING FLATTERY, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SUPPORTING THE OPINIONS OF THE OTHER PERSON, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DOING FAVOURS, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SMILING EXPRESSIVELY IN SUPPORT OF THE PERSON ETC. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SELF-PROMOTION: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATING ONE’S PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES IN A HIGHLY POSITIVE AND EXAGGERATED WAY. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FACE SAVING: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATING APOLOGIES, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MAKING EXCUSES, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PRODUCING JUSTIFICATIONS ETC. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    40. 41. CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION
    41. 42. COMMUNICATION CHANNELS <ul><li>A COMMUNICATION CHANNEL IS THE MEDIUM THROUGH WHICH THE MESSAGE PASSES </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATION TAKES PLACE THROUGH A NUMBER OF CHANNELS </li></ul><ul><li>MAY USE: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TWO, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>THREE, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FOUR DIFFERENT CHANNELS SIMULTANEOUSLY . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VOCAL CHANNEL : SPEAK & LISTEN </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VISUAL CHANNEL : GESTURE </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OLFACTORY CHANNEL : EMITING OR DETECTING ODORS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TECTILE CHANNEL : TOUCHING ANOTHER PERSON </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    42. 43. MESSAGE TYPES <ul><li>FEEDBACK MESSAGES </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>POSITIVE ----- NEGATIVE </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PERSON-FOCUSED ----- MESSAGE FOCUSED </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IMMEDIATE ----- DELAYED </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LOW MONITORING ----- HIGH MONITORING </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SUPPORTIVE ----- CRITICAL </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>FEEDFORWARD MESSAGES </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OPEN THE CHANNELS OF COMM. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PREVIEW FUTURE MESSAGES </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ALTERCAST (PLACE THE RECIVER IN A SPECIFIC ROLE AND REQUESTHIM TO RESPOND IN TERMS OF ASSUMED ROLE) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DISCLAIM </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    43. 44. CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK <ul><li>BASED UPON TRUST BETWEEN SENDER AND RECEIVER </li></ul><ul><li>SPECIFIC RATHER THAN GENERAL </li></ul><ul><li>GIVEN AT A TIME WHEN THE RECEIVER APPEARS TO BE READY TO ACCEPT IT </li></ul><ul><li>CHECKED WITH THE RECEIVER TO DETERMINE WHETHER IT SEEMS VALID </li></ul><ul><li>INCLUDES BEHAVIOURS THE RECEIVER MAY BE CAPABLE OF EXHIBITING </li></ul><ul><li>DOES NOT INCLUDE MORE THAN THE RECEIVER CAN HANDLE AT ANY PARTICULAR TIME </li></ul>
    44. 45. FEEDBACK SKILLS <ul><li>EMPHASIZE WHAT YOU SEE AND HEAR – DESCRIPTIVE RATHER EVALUATIVE FEEDBACK </li></ul><ul><li>CONCENTRATE ON PARTICULAR POINTS </li></ul><ul><li>OUTLINE THE POSITIVE POINTS . </li></ul><ul><li>INDICATE WHAT CAN AND SHOULD BE DONE </li></ul><ul><li>BUILD ON WHAT PEOPLE WANT </li></ul><ul><li>CHOOSE YOUR TIME </li></ul><ul><li>REACH AN AGREEMENT </li></ul>
    45. 46. <ul><li>QUESTIONS </li></ul>
    46. 47. COMMUNICATION BARRIERS
    47. 48. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION BARRIERS Defensiveness National Culture Emotions Information Overload Interpersonal Communication Language Filtering Selective Perception
    48. 49. BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION <ul><li>PROCESS BARRIERS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SENDER BARRIER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ENCODING BARRIER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MEDIUM BARRIER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DECODING BARRIER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FEEDBACK BARRIER </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL BARRIERS </li></ul><ul><li>SEMANTIC BARRIERS </li></ul><ul><li>PSYCHOLOGICAL BARRIERS </li></ul>
    49. 50. NOISE <ul><li>PHYSICAL – ECOLOGICAL NOISE </li></ul><ul><li>PSYCHOLOGICAL – COGNITIVE INTERFERENCE I.E. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BIASES </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PREJUDICES OF SENDER AND RECEIVERS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CLOSED-MINDEDNESS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>SEMANTIC </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DIFERENT LANGUAGES, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>USE OF JARGON OR OVERLY COMPLEX TERMS. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>CULTURAL </li></ul><ul><li>POLITICAL </li></ul><ul><li>EMOTIONAL </li></ul><ul><li>ECONOMIC </li></ul>
    50. 51. COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION <ul><li>1. SEMANTICS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition of words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choice of words </li></ul></ul>
    51. 52. COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION <ul><li>2. POOR CHOICE, USE OF CHANNELS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When to use certain channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral alone: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simple reprimand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Settle simple dispute </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written alone: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t need immediate feedback </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need record </li></ul></ul></ul>
    52. 53. COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION <ul><li>2. USE OF CHANNELS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both channels: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commendation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serious reprimand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Important policy change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of it. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    53. 54. COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION <ul><li>3. PHYSICAL DISTRACTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>4. NOISE, PHYSICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL </li></ul><ul><li>5. STATUS DIFFERENCE </li></ul><ul><li>6. EFFECTS OF EMOTIONS </li></ul>
    54. 55. COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION <ul><li>7 . PERCEPTIONS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stereotypes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Halo effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective perception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See and hear what we expect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ignore if conflicts with “what we know.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projection </li></ul></ul>
    55. 56. COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION <ul><li>FILTERING, SCREENING NEGATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>INFORMTAION </li></ul><ul><li>9. EVALUATING THE SOURCE </li></ul><ul><li>10. ABSENCE OF FEEDBACK, POOR </li></ul><ul><li> FEEDBACK </li></ul>
    56. 57. COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION <ul><li>11. INFORMATION, DATA OVERLOAD </li></ul><ul><li>12. POOR LISTENING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LISTEN TO RESPOND </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND </li></ul></ul>
    57. 58. HOW TO BE A BETTER COMMUNICATOR <ul><li>EFFECTIVE LISTENING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TOLERATE SILENCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASK STIMULATING OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ATENTIVE EYE CONTACT, ALERT POSTURE AND VERBAL ENCOURAGERS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PARAPHRASE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SHOW EMOTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KNOW YOUR BAISES AND PREJUDICES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AVOID PREMATURE JUDGEMENT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SUMMERISE </li></ul></ul>
    58. 59. <ul><li>EFFECTIVE WRITING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KEEP WORD SIMPLE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DON’T SACRIFICE COMMUNICATION FOR RULES OF COMPOSITION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WRITE CONCISELY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BE SPECIFIC </li></ul></ul>
    59. 60. ACTIVE LISTENING BEHAVIOURS Don't overtalk Ask questions Be empathetic Exhibit affirmative head nods and appropriate facial expressions Avoid distracting actions or gestures Make eye contact Paraphrase Avoid interrupting speaker Active Listening
    60. 61. Interpersonal Skills Writing Oral Presentation Simulations/Role plays Self Awareness Inventories Readings HOW MANAGERIAL SKILLS ARE TAUGHT
    61. 62. CHANGE AND COMMUNICATION <ul><li>UNSUCCESSFUL CHANGE IS MOSTLY MISSING OR POOR COMMUNICATION. </li></ul><ul><li>THE LINEAR (ONE-WAY, TOP-DOWN) MODEL DOES NOT WORK ANY MORE. </li></ul>
    62. 63. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION <ul><li>WATCH THE LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>FOLLOW THROUGH </li></ul><ul><li>DEAL WITH UNCERTAINITY </li></ul><ul><li>BE AN ACTIVE LISTENER </li></ul><ul><li>MANAGE CONFLICT </li></ul><ul><li>RESPOND, DON’T “RE-ACT” </li></ul><ul><li>GIVE FEEDBACK </li></ul><ul><li>INVITE PARTICIPATION </li></ul><ul><li>KEEP YOUR TEAM UP-TO-DATE </li></ul><ul><li>CONNECT PERSONALLY WITH EMPLOYEES </li></ul><ul><li>TAKE ADVANTAGE OF COMMUNICATION RESOURCES </li></ul>
    63. 64. PROBLEMS / CHALLENGES <ul><li>TECHNOLOGY SHRINKS INTERACTION AND DIALOGUE. </li></ul><ul><li>TOO MUCH INFORMATION. </li></ul><ul><li>TOO COMPLEX ISSUES. </li></ul><ul><li>SHORTAGE OF COMMON MEANINGS AND INTERPRETATIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>EVERYONE MUST BE RESPONSIBLE FOR HIS / HER INFORMATION PURCHASE. </li></ul>
    64. 65. Thank you
    65. 66. ULTRASPECTRA OPEN Academy Facebook.com/Ultraspectra Facebook.com/openacademy.isb Twitter.com/Ultraspectra Twitter.com/openacademyisb YouTube.com/user/ultraspectra YouTube.com/user/openacademy LinkedIn.com/in/Ultraspectra LinkedIn.com/in/openacademy Forum.ultraspectra.com

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