Turning vision into impact June 2013

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  • At least within the Military instrument of power due to hierarchical organization we know and accept who’s on top and who has to follow.This is what the M did so far to ensure message consistency.Explain!
  • Now “clear” guidnace from political level, namly Public diplomacy division.But still confusion on military level.Note military puplic affairs, what did not excist before the policyI don’t have much hope that this solves the problems, especially, because in current practice they added an additional layer

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  • 1. GEORGE C. MARSHALL CENTER College of International Security Studies Garmisch – Partenkirchen, Germany LTC ULRICH M. JANSSEN Email: ulrich.janssen@marshallcenter.org LinkedIn: Ulrich Janßen Twitter: @UliJanOgau Phone: +49-8821-750-2658
  • 2. Lieutenant Colonel Ulrich (“Uli”) M. JANSSEN (DEU Army) 1-Jul-13 2 Operating Environment  53 winters  1 daughter (23)  Engaged  Rhineland  Oberammergau Education  Hamburg University, Masters in Economics  Graduate of George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies, PASS 08-7  Information Operations Post-Graduate Course in GBR  Strategic Communications Master Class, University of Cambridge > 32 years of military service  Command functions  Staff functions  Training & Education Next to Military  Sports  Reading  Good food, red wine Last appointments:  5 years Arms Control & Verification  CFE-Treaty, Vienna Document, Dayton Peace Agreement  4 years JFC Brunssum  J5/9 Joint Plans - Force Planning  J2/CI - INFOSEC  2 years structure / PE review  4 years Joint Info Ops Branch  Concept Development, Plans, Requirements, Education, Training & Exercise  1993-2007 supporting speaker  various courses  2008-2013 Course Director / Instructor  CD EW, INFO OPS, PSYOPS, STRATCOM  Instructor OPC, EW, PAO, CIMIC, CM, Orientation Courses  Lecturer BDCOL, DEU General Staff College, UK NDA / Cranfield University, AUT NDA, SWE NDC, BGR NDA, George C. Marshall Center  International conferences  June 2013  George C. Marshall Center
  • 3. Applied Strategic Communications and Military Information Operations Introduction to Senior NCO Orientation Course M5-33-C Oberammergau, 1-5 Jul 2013 TURNING VISION INTO IMPACT
  • 4. Turning Vision Into Impact What Vision? Challenges in Behavioural Conflict Strategic Communications – the proposed solution NATO‟s StratCom Framework The desired effect … impact Conclusion 1-Jul-13 4
  • 5. NATO‟s Vision The Washington Treaty “Keep the Germans down, the Americans in, and the Russians out.” (Lord Ismay, 4 Apr 1949)  Collective Defence  Shared responsibility for security  Burden sharing  Strengthen the transatlantic link Strategic Concept 2010  Active Engagement, Modern Defence NATO Summit, Chicago, May 2012 5 declarations  Partnership  Smart Defence & Defence Capabilities  Countering Terrorism  Commitment in AFG post 2014 Mission specific 1-Jul-13 5
  • 6. C2W “Military Facts” Peace Crisis/Conflict War Transition Post War Peace “War is merely the continuation of politics by other means.” Center of Gravity: enemy / enemy capabilities Human Assistance Civil Engagement Reconstruction (Marshall Plan) IW(1970) IO(1990) Military Intervention in the Clausewitz‟ian sense 1-Jul-13 6
  • 7. The Problem 1-Jul-13 7
  • 8. Revolution in Technology and Enhanced Connectivity 1-Jul-13 8 "The extent, depth, and speed of the new global media have created a new species of effects... The military must understand, anticipate, and plan for this new dynamic." (Margaret H. Belknap, 2001)
  • 9. The challenge with new dynamics 1-Jul-13 9
  • 10. “Military Facts” Media Social structures Political / Civil structures Key Players/ Actors Economy Transportation Finance Culture Communication Grids Peace Crisis/Conflict War Transition Post War Peace People Tradition ReligionLaw Emotions Education “War is merely the failure of communications by other means.” (Clausewitz adapted by UJ) Center of Gravity: people‟s perception Info Ops(2000) StratCom(2009) Military Intervention in Operations other than War 1-Jul-13 10
  • 11. People in the Focus 1-Jul-13 11 "An endless struggle will be pursued between violence and friendly persuasion... And henceforth, the only honourable course will be to stake everything on a formidable gamble - that WORDS are more powerful than MUNITIONS." Albert Camus (1913-1960)
  • 12. 1-Jul-13 12 Alvin Toffler US Author and Futurologist
  • 13. 1-Jul-13 13 Nature of Conflict 1-Jul-13 13
  • 14. The Challenge 1-Jul-13 14 Deterrence in the Social Age Deterrence in the Information Age Deterrence in the Nuclear Age
  • 15. Deterrence in the Social Age 1-Jul-13 15 UNCLASSIFIED “For to win one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the acme of skill. To subdue the enemy without fighting is the acme of skill.”
  • 16. Messaging and understanding right 1-Jul-13 16 …is all about getting out right messages right, listen carefully and learn … understand! – What’s a message? – What’s a right message? – What’s getting them out (and in) right ? • Exchange of information by any format and means • One cannot NOT communicate! • Translation: Whatever you do, and how you do sends out messages. • Understanding  Perception of your messages. • Legality • Legitimacy • People’s perception of us performing a legitimate mission.• Right actor (sender / receiver) • Right time • Right place • Right route / channel of communication • Right means to communicate • Right purpose Analysis (Knowledge Development) Planning Execution Assessment Comprehensive Operations Cycle
  • 17. The Challenge  Did you ever try to explain to your best friend how to play chess on your behalf?  We must replace the delusion of control by reality of influence. (Mark Laity, CSC ACO)  Commanders, Planners, Units crash too often. 1-Jul-13 17 UNCLASSIFIED
  • 18. The brutal simplicity of thought  Six fundamental principles for SUCCESs-ful Communications  Simple  Unexpected  Concrete  Credible  Emotional  Stories  Building a better NATO School, not just a bigger one.  Communication demands 1-Jul-13 18  Fit the purpose (vision / end-state)  Help … to crash less often  By better considering people‟s perceptions, motivations and behaviour They’ve got the watches, we’ve got the time! You’re out – we’re in!
  • 19. 1-Jul-13 19
  • 20. Perception 1-Jul-13 20
  • 21. Managing Perception 1-Jul-13 21
  • 22. Managing Perception 1-Jul-13 22 Influencing (deceiving) the perception of information by all senses …by better considering people’s perceptions, motivations and behaviour in planning.
  • 23. Communication by “other” means SUCCESs  f (getting out right messages right, listen carefully and learn)  f(Ensuring Consistency and Credibility of Communications by ALL means through Comprehensive Coordination)  f(Ensuring C powered by 5) Military Actions speak louder than words. … by other - potentially lethal - arguments. Greater impact on people‟s perceptions, attitudes, behaviour. 1-Jul-13 23 23232323
  • 24. Talking to Audiences (and Listening?) Enemy, Conflicting Parties Own Population, International Community Population Theatre of Operations PSYOPS Corporate Communication Public Affairs Information & Persuasion Own Troops New Media New Media
  • 25. Communications activities and capabilities … by other means 1-Jul-13 25
  • 26. Transformation of C2 … doing our homework Command & Control Consult & Correct 1-Jul-13 26
  • 27. Transformation of C.. continuous improvement 1-Jul-13 27 Command & Control Command, Control & Communications Command, Control, Communications, Computers & Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance Consistency and Credibility of Communications by ALL means through Comprehensive Coordination
  • 28. Redefine planning and decision-making 1-Jul-13 28
  • 29. Instruments of Power (Strategic Lines of Engagement) 1-Jul-13 29 P Political C Civil M Military E Economic
  • 30. NATO UNCLASSIFIED The Product powered by the Power of Information 1-Jul-13 30 P Political C Civil M Military E Economic UNCLASSIFIED i = 0  1 i = 1  MPEC i > 1  exponentially adding value
  • 31. The Theory … and the Challenge 1-Jul-13 31
  • 32. Strategic Communications Reference Documentation NATO Strategic Communications Policy (Sep 09) Military Concept for Strategic Communications (Aug 10) Military Capabilities Implementation Plan (Jun 11) Directive 95-1 on Public Affairs (May 08) Directive 95-2 on Strategic Communications (May 12) Directive 95-3 on Social Media (Dec 09) ACO Comprehensive Operations Planning Directive (Dec 10) MC 133 NATO‟s Operations Planning Policy (Jan 11) MC 402 Military Policy on Psychological Operations (Sep 12)  AJP 3.10.1 Joint Doctrine for Psychological Operations (under review) MC 422 Military Policy on Information Operations (MD Jul 12)  AJP 3.10 Joint Doctrine for Information Operations (under review) MC 457 Military Policy on Public Affairs (Jan 11) 1-Jul-13 32
  • 33. Strategic Communications Definition The coordinated and appropriate use of NATO communications activities and capabilities • Public Diplomacy, • Public Affairs, • Military Public Affairs, • Information Operations and • Psychological Operations, as appropriate in support of Alliance policies, operations and activities, and in order to advance NATO‟s aims. PO(2009)0141, dated 29 Sep „09 1-Jul-13 33
  • 34. The Vision – the Challenge 1-Jul-13 34 Public Affairs Media Ops Consistency and Credibility of Communications by ALL means through Comprehensive Coordination.
  • 35. Military Public Affairs Political Public Diplomacy Public Affairs PSYOPS EW Operation Security Military Deception CIMIC Computer Network Operations Military Key Leader Engagement Military Information Operations Other military activities Coordinated and appropriate use of NATO„s communications activities and capabilities 1-Jul-13 35 EconomicCivil StratCom Framework All communication (activities) affecting people‘s perceptions, motivations, behavior. Physical Destruction
  • 36. Two names, same aim Information Operations A staff function to  analyze,  plan,  assess and  integrate Information Activities to create desired effects on will, understanding and capability of adversaries, potential adversaries and NAC approved audiences in support of Alliance mission objectives. MC 422/4 (MD, Jun 2012) 1-Jul-13 40 M P E C Strategic Communications The coordinated and appropriate use of NATO communications activities and capabilities  Public Diplomacy,  Public Affairs,  Military Public Affairs,  Information Operations and  Psychological Operations, as appropriate in support of Alliance policies, operations and activities, and in order to advance NATO‟s aims. PO(2009)0141, dated 29 Sep „09
  • 37. Strategic Communications Aims  Implementation as a process  To ensure Consistency and Credibility of Communications by ALL means through Comprehensive Coordination  Linking policy with action  Avoid “Say-Do-Gap”  Perception Management at its best! 1-Jul-13 41 .gnikniht fo yaw tnereffid A
  • 38. Mission specific strategic political guidance on information activities NATO‟s Military Approach to C5 … in just 1 graph 1-Jul-13 42 StratCom Guidance
  • 39. Implementation and Integration 1-Jul-13 43 Analysis (Knowledge Development) Planning Execution Assessment
  • 40. Analysis of the Information Environment 1-Jul-13 44 US Army FM 3-13 Inform and Influence Operations, Jan 2013, Figure 2.2
  • 41. Human Terrain Assessment System Status, System Behavior, System Dynamics 1-Jul-13 45 NATO UNCLASSIFIED
  • 42. Influence Diagrams Examples from Public and Economic Sector 1-Jul-13 46
  • 43. 1-Jul-13 47 Influence Diagrams Civil and Economic Sector
  • 44. Summary C5 in all phases of comprehensive operations  Analysis first … action last!  Understanding the Environment is a MUST!  Human Terrain Analysis and Assessment  Language of engagement  Planning for effects  Speed up own planning and decision-making  CoG is people‟s perception of the legitimacy of our mission  Synchronization of effects  Execution - making the difference  Greater impact of military communications by ALL means  Target vulnerable relationships (+/-)  Assessment – are we doing right things … right?  Did actors change undesired behavior?  … because we did right things right?  Do we better understand unknown unknowns? 1-Jul-13 48
  • 45. Applied Strategic Communications and Military Information Operations TURNING VISION INTO IMPACT