Cyber Space• the electronic medium of computer networks, in which online communication takes place.• the dynamic realization of electromagnetic energy through the application of communication and control technology.• a global domain that allows an interdependent network of information technology infrastructures (ITI), telecommunications networks, computer processing systems, integrated sensors, system control networks, embedded processors and controllers common to global control and communications across the electro- magnetic environment.• a social experience, individuals can interact, exchange ideas, share information, provide social support, conduct business, direct actions, create artistic media, play games, engage in political discussion, and so on … (Wikipedia)
Understanding the Environment1.97 Billion Users – more than 1/3 of global pop Internet Continues to Develop Content (Web Pages, Email etc) • Social Networking – Facebook, Myspace, Applets & Objects (Java Code, Images etc) Bebo, LinkedIn etc Plugins (Java, Active X, Flash, Viewers) • New Media - uTube, Blogs, Twitter, Wiki Application (Explorer, Word, Excel) • Real Worlds – Google Streetview/Earth Operating System (Windows, MacOS) • Virtual Worlds – 2nd Life, WoWarcraft Firmware (Microcode, BIOS) • Communications – Skype, Bittorrent Hardware (PC, Laptop, Server) • Mobile Devices – Blackberry, iPhone Impact on almost every facet of modern life – with growing in importance!
Actors Cyber War Agencies/Commands Law Enforcement Industry Agencies Hacker Community IntelligenceCriminals (Individuals / Groups) Research AgenciesTerrorists Labs
Cyber Threat Threat is a function of intent (will) to act, High understanding of the situation, and capabilities to Governmental enforce will. 2010 CriticalPossible Infrastructure 2005Damage Terrorists 2000 Industrial Espionage Criminals Insider Low Low Probability of an event High
Current threats - TTP• Caused by increased access• Disclosure of information• Corruption of information• Denial of service• Theft of resources• Loss of credit or reputation• Cyber Crime• Spam• Bulletproof Hosting• Malware• …?
Increased access Social Engineering War DrivingTapping Fibre Optical Cable Scanning and Sniffing
Disclosure of informationKeylogging Printer - Copying Spying „Liechtensteining“
Denial of Service DDoSBounce Mail Buffer Overflow Cable separation
Cyber & Social Media• Social activity vs. Cyber Ops / CNO – Observe, monitor – Act – Attribution• Cyber mobbing / bullying – Use connectivity to blame your colleague / boss … a government – Submit exposing photos, videos – Promulgate private information – Isolate … “De-friend”
Cyber & Military• Ops affecting INFOSEC – Availability, confidentiality, integrity of information• IKM – Information gathering, processing, managing, sharing• NNEC – Information sharing, exchanging – Data links, sensors, effectors – COP – Enabling rather than Cyber Ops weapon system
NATO & Cyber Ops• Policy & Doctrine – Neither NATO Policy or Doctrine on CNO, nor allied “body” to deal with the issue – CNO = CNE x CND x CAN – COMSEC, INFOSEC, X-SEC – Cyber Crime … Law Enforcement Task / legal concerns• Common Defence – NCIRC – CCOE for Cyber Defence – Protection of EEFI and critical infrastructures• Capability Development – Some nations have… national caveats – Undesired effects, BDA, loosing control – Cyber INTEL needed!
SummaryCNO affecting people’s perception, attitude, or behaviour f• Perception of the threat = (W, U, C)• Attitude to be connected• Continue to use cyber• Virtual Battlefield in Cyber War• Cyber Attack against Estonia• Cyber Activities in RUS ./. GEO Conflict 2008• Conclusion
Cyber and Influence Computer Network Operations (CNO)affecting people‘s perception, attitude, or behaviour (C) 2010-11 by LTC U.M. Janßen, NSO/ISTAR