Leadership and Organisation


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Leadership and Organisation

  1. 1. 1.0 INTRODUCTIONIn the study of leadership, the influence of leadership is crucial in determining successful ofthe organization. Leaders can influence and efficiency leads an organization towardsexcellence. Therefore, an organization such as schools, the influence of principal leadershipand efficiency is important in determining a school’s success under his leadership. A leaderswho have different personalities and various honor usually lead effectively. (Kirkpatrick andLocke, 1991). The role of principals in dealing with various problems involving eitheremployees under his leadership, the community in or walk around the school, or business atthe top affect school performance. Therefore the school is said to be the institution where the level of implementationpolicies, education and innovation policies play an important role. Any policy or educationalinnovation implemented at the school level effects on teachers behavior. Such circumstancesand constraints put pressure on the job determinant of teacher effectiveness. Despite allthis tension is said to occur in many commercial and industrial areas but other areas suchas education could not escape from it. Leadership processes in schools today requires aparadigm shift from principals to teachers even it cannot be implemented in a short time.(Nathan, 2001). Almost the same principals position with middle managers under pressure frommany parties. They also act as shock absorbers in the system education requirements as aresult of opposition from all levels (Moser 1974). Principals considered as the heart of aschool where the event leadership patterns can give satisfaction to all its employeesconsisting of teachers and non teachers will be creating a work environment fun andindirectly the performance of teachers and staff will be increased. 1
  2. 2. 2.0 DEFINITION AND CONCEPTLeadership has some of definition that can be used to describe this words based on someone’sunderstanding. According to Kamus Dewan (1989), leaderships can be defined as someone’sability in order to being a leader. While, Certo (1997) had described leadership as one processof directing someone’s behavior to ensure the main objective has fulfill completely. Directingmeans individual will take some action according to certain way or something like policy,organization and work’s description. Kamus Dewan (2004), mention that leadership is theability to lead. As there are so many definitions of leaderships that can be acceptable, so in generallythere is one definition that easy to understand by anyone. Leadership referred to the processof influence people or some organization to achieve one same goal that had been decided.Leaderships were connected to the leaders. Leaders can be differentiate by the type theirbelongings. Based on Haris and Muijs (2005), there are two concept that build up thecharacteristic of teacher leadership which is roles and responsibilities and cooperation. Thereare many types of leaders which is democracy, Laissez-faire, and autocratic. These 3 types ofleaders always had been practice by individual to manage their organization (Abdul GhaniAbdullah, 2009). In addition, there are some leaders that manage organization by followingthe orientation of work or orientation of people. These types of leaders usually practice by bigorganization. The different types of leader bring to the different results. A leader’s personality isone of the important factors in leadership. (Stodgill, 1948) People or leaders that chooseautocratic leadership will force their followers to do something that they want withoutconsider their follower’s needed. This autocratic leader does not concern to the follower’sfeeling, so all the leaders that using this type of leadership will be hated by their workers.Many of workers will doing their work based on motivation of fear. They were doing theirwork just because the feeling of fear to their leaders. They does not want to be punished orfired by their employer if they doing something wrong. This situation will gives thempressure to work and there are no friendly environments in this workplace. If the workers arefeeling bad and tension with this situation, it will effect to their performance of works and itwill caused to the unproductive result. While democratic leaders referred to employer that taking decision or some actionafter he or she had been discussed with their workers. That means, all of them are playing theimportant function and doing some work together without any different between the 2
  3. 3. employer and workers. The workers will be motivated to do their work as they feel that thecompany had given appreciation to them. The Laissez-faire leaders will give freedoms orpower to the workers so that they can take any actions or decision as they want. This type ofleaders will cause many problems as the employers did not participate to handle their workers.This will bring a big trouble in the workplace. In conclusion, the best type of leader isdemocratic and it should be practice by all leaders or employer so that the goal can beachieved. Meanwhile, organization had been defined as one group of people ( two or more ),which formally joined in a partnership to achieve the purpose that already set. Organizationshave a connected to the leadership as both will decide the achievement they want. If theorganizations want to fulfill their objective, they must have a good leadership to conduct thispart of organization. Example of organization is education system in Malaysia. We willdescribe the organization of the school to give more understanding. Organizations of school includes all aspects like the ideals of the school, standard ofeducation, social usefulness of the school, discipline and control and the system of work inthe office. Almost all of the school had been practiced the types of democracy leadership. In ademocratic system, the school organization serves as a means of achieving the ideals ofdemocratic thought. In this system, each individual is taught that he has to develop himselfand do his duty to the society. There are 3 elements that have been regarded as an importance in the organization ofthe school. First, organization must have the planning and outlining of each activity in theschool. Second, the organization should implement the plan on the basic of the outline thathad been given. Lastly, an assessment of the results of the implemented plan. These elementswill determine either the organization had achieved their objectives or not. This is alsoregarding to the problems that may occurred to the organization. The problem likes the number of children in schools that has been increased alsogives many works to the school organization. The school needs to arrange the numerous co-curricular activities and new subjects in the syllabus. At this time, the good organization willtake effort. In an ideal school organization, the child should be provided with an environmentwhich is in accordance with his abilities. It is necessary to have a good organization andleadership to encourage the success. In a democracy school in Malaysia, management is notcontrolled by one person or a chosen few. It requires the co-operation of teachers and thepublic. This co-operation is the basis of school management. 3
  4. 4. In conclusion, the organization and leadership has relationship between each other.Without effective leadership, the organization will not come out with the success.3.0 LEADERSHIP STYLELeadership style can be the best way in creating an excellent student, both in curriculum andcurriculum. The methods how a leader is going to lead also known as leadershipstyle. (Smith, 1989 in Mahawa binti Pilus’s article). The selection of the leadership styles byprincipals and teachers need to be match with their personalities and situationnowadays. Leadership style should be selected base on strengths in certain aspects. It isimportant so that the governance and organization of a school can be implementedsmoothly. Way of thinking, attitudes and behaviour of a person is defined as a style ofleadership. (Ainon, 2005 in Tinah Bt Naim’s thesis). A leader must also set a good exampleto those who led. According to Leithwood, Tomlinson and Genge (1997), in Abdul Ghani Abdullah’sarticle, transformational leadership style give a positive impact on job satisfaction,commitment to the organization and performance of teachers. Diversity of leadership styleson display will be able to produce different school organizations. Leaders wisdom inchoosing the leadership of the relevant rules will established a close relationship with thecommunity led. This thing will be able to create a good learning environment and organizedin the school. Through the leadership styles shown, we will be able to recognize the character ofthe person. As a leader, he should be practicing wise leadership style chosen. It is importantto maintain a good relationship between subordinates. In one class, the teacher should wiselychoose the appropriate leadership style to adopt. This is so because each student has adifferent character, by the leadership style should be shown also different. Generally, thereare various types of leadership styles that can be practiced. However, typically only threetype of leadership that always has been used which is autocratic, democratic and laisser-faire.These three styles of leadership have different advantages and disadvantages. Any mistakenin choosing leadership style will give a bad impact on school organization and the student. 3.1 Autocratic leadershipAccording to the Kamus Dewan (2005), the word autocracy itself bring the meaning ofconstitutes the rule by the person or persons with full powers. This means the leader has full 4
  5. 5. authority in determining the organizational of a school. All orders made by teachers whoadopt this style should be implemented without the need reason. Not only that, students alsowill not have any freedom to decide a matter. This will create a passive interaction betweenthe school, teachers and students. This leadership style will also lead to a tense school climate.Community led will start thinking negatively of the individual who led the event of a decisionin the context of school organization that is made is not accurate. This situation can cause anadverse impact on the reputation and performance of the school. In addition, if a teachers use this kind of leadership style, it will cause students tolose interest and enthusiasm for learning. However, from the other aspects, it will be able tocontrol the situation within a class. For example, when the teachers give punishment tostudents who come late to school, then it will influence other students to not repeat the samething. This situation would also establish discipline among students. Therefore, it can beregarded as something positive. Not only that, it is also suitable leadership style practiced infacing critical situations. In the face of this situation, the decision must be done with a shorttime. Therefore, the consent of the other person is not required. For example, in solvingcertain cases like criminal case, a quickly action should be taken immediately. However, thisstyle is not usually liked by everyone and it is also deemed to be dangerous in an organizationthat is led. 3.2 Democratic leadershipThis type of leadership style shows the attitude of teachers as leaders who encourage theirstudents to involve actively in the learning process. Students will be given the opportunity tovoice their ideas or suggestions during the process of teaching and learning. In addition,teachers who adopt this leadership will be more open and the view conveyed by the studentsreceived positively. This style of practicing teachers will lead students to feel that they arevalued and trusted. Therefore, the governance of the organization of schools will be able torun smoothly. In addition, teachers also play an active role in giving their views and ideaswhen planning an activity. Leadership also requires that the leaders which is principal to share power with otherteachers. This mean that all teachers have their right to give any opinion before a decision isreached. Such attitude of teachers was also very conscious of common interest instead of selfinterest. Problem that exists in the school organization be resolved with cooperation of allteachers. This situation can create a conducive learning environment where students will feel 5
  6. 6. comfortable and satisfied with the leadership shown by the leaders. In addition, the closerelationship between teacher and student can also be created through this kind of leadershipstyle. When a love feeling occur for a job, he or she will feel satisfied when doing that job.(Razali Mat Zin, 1999). This mean that, when a student love their teacher, they will show apositive attitude. In facing student behavior issues such as involved in gangsters, drugs, etc., actionfrom all teachers is needed to resolve this matter. A leader which is principals would have tospeak with other teachers to find effective solutions to overcome this situation. Therefore,any mistaken in making decision can be avoided. Teachers can also let their students toactively participate during the learning process is conducted through question and answersession. This thing not only will make students to understand in a topic but it also willimprove their performance in academics. According to Marzono (2003) in Kirsten Miller’sarticle, the actions of a person in the classroom will bring multiple outcomes in studentachievement than school regulations on curriculum, assessment of cooperation betweenteachers and the involvement of many communities. Democratic leadership styles can alsoproduce students who are patient and tolerant. Therefore, students behaviour can becontrolled and discipline problem can be decreased. 3.3 Laissez-fairThe next style is the style of leadership is Laissez-fair style. In this style, the nature of onesleadership will not be noticed. In class, the students were given full freedom to makedecisions. This kind of teacher does not take any part in the planning of an activity. A teacherwho practices this kind of leadership is said that they give a little contribution and did notshow any initiative to the activities in class. (Abdul Ghani Abdullah and Abdul. RahmanAbd. Aziz, 2009). Behaviors exhibited by the student will not be evaluated by teachers whoadopt this style. This style will give a poor impact toward student’s academic performance. Amongthem is that it limits the communication between students and teachers. Sometimes, thingswill cause students to be afraid and no interest to ask teacher any problems. As such, theywill choose to remain silent. Therefore, a free communication such as gossiping and talkingnuisance which is out of the learning contexts will happen because of lack of regulation. Thisthing would create problems related to discipline problem. This situation will definitely affectthe teaching and learning process. Academic climate in the classroom and effective teaching 6
  7. 7. is a discipline in classroom because it can prevent students from involve with disciplineproblem. (Burden, 2003). This style will certainly give negatively impact the learning process. In some cases, this kind of leadership style that applied in students is said can buildup their creativity especially in academic aspect. However, this type of leadership style is notappropriate for students in primary and secondary schools. This is so because the thinkinglevel of student is still low and requires a lot of guidance and support from teachers in thelearning process. At the university level, this leadership style may be trying to use toencourage student to think creatively in all aspect. 3.4 The differences of three leadership styleThe three styles of leadership exhibited by the teacher will produce students who aredifferent. In autocratic leadership, the students will tend to show two types of response whichis to be aggressive and attitude why not. Students will work hard in front of autocraticteacher, although this job rate will decline rapidly after the teacher out of class. Thesestudents are also highly dependent on the teacher and always want attention. This is contrary to the instruction given by the teacher of democracy. Attitude shownby the students is that they will continue to work even if the teacher was out of class. Attitudeof cooperation and tolerance practices are observed among these students. For students whoreceive a teacher with laissez-faire leadership, they will ask questions and seek moreinformation from the teacher. After the teacher out of class, students found that the work hardrate is high, compared with autocratic and democratic leadership. Overall, the leadership style played by teachers significantly influences the learningprocess. As a competent teacher, they must be smart and creative in choose the style to beadopted. Ubben and Hughes (1992) in Ariffin Bin Che Yahya’s thesis said that effective andexcellent schools have a creative leader .The environment and character of students is animportant element in determining the selection of the ideal leadership style. So that, studentwill be able to adopt with the leadership style shown by teacher. After that, their studyperformance will become better.4.0 SCHOOL ORGANIZATIONSchool is social organizations which have common features as a social organization. As asocial organization, the school has specific goals to be achieved, the structure of the task and 7
  8. 8. interpersonal interaction between members of the organization. In Malaysia, the schools aimsare to promote, improve, enhance and ensure teaching and learning activities of students inthe smooth running and able to meet the needs of the community. The goal was to ensurestudents acquire the knowledge and all the necessary skills to enable them to face thechallenges of life after school. In addition, the school also aims to create unity amongstudents of various ethnic groups in Malaysian society to ensure the existence of a united,democratic, liberal and dynamic. Task structure refers to the various levels of the organization of the upper level,intermediate level and lower level. Upper level consists of a row of administrators who workin directing the organization through planned management strategy plan. Intermediate levelrefers to those who monitor the implementation of management strategies, while the lowerlevel is the implementation of the strategy set. At school level, the administrative structure consists of a principal, three SeniorAssistant Teacher, four senior subject teachers, subject teachers, some support staff, generalstaff and pupils. Principals are at the highest level and have full or absolute power to direct allteachers, support staff and pupils. Position of other members including teachers, support staffand general workers are based on the responsibilities distributed according to thequalifications, experience and specialization, respectively. Outline the rights and position oftheir power, thus determining the duties and responsibilities that must be implemented. In addition, there are other elements that affect interpersonal interaction, behaviorand the role of principals as school managers. Among the elements are like skills, knowledgeand experience. The principals who have the knowledge and experience will be moreconfident in managing the school. The experiences that they get will make them to be morecreative in solving any kind of problem. The new principals are feeling less confident andmay make mistakes in dealing with the same crisis. Personality differences influence thecreativity of the principal as a manager. In addition, it can also affect the behavior of theprincipal as a manager. High expectations of teachers and students the ability to giveconfidence and motivation to the entire school community to achieve something better, whilethe low expectations which in turn will produce the output. The structure of an important task is to ensure that all school staff knows the duties,responsibilities and authorities respectively. The structure also facilitates the principal task ofmoving the organization to achieve its goals and objectives of the school management. Figure1 shows the structure of a schools organization management in Malaysia 8
  9. 9. Figure 1: The Structure of an Organizations Management in Schools Source: Obtained from http://images.vertex42.com/ExcelTemplates/orgcharts/school- organizational-chart.gif at 9 March 2012 There are two existing interpersonal interaction in school organizations. There aretwo dimensions that influence the interaction and behavior of individuals in an organization.Dimension and the dimension are called namotetik idiographic. Namotetik dimensionsdetermine the roles and expectations that enable organizational goals achieved, whileidiographic is determined by the individual in the organization, such as personality and itsown needs (Chaube, S.P. et al., 1995). Trust and understanding of the principals of the task also determine the behavior andtheir role in discharging their duties. Principals believe that school is an educationalinstitution and understand her duty is to enhance students learning process will serve asinstructional managers. School today is a shrinking organization in a larger organization, butat the same time educational organizations play a more important role to ensure that he is notleft out of mainstream or, more precisely at the global level. Thus the school has no choicebut to make itself a learning organization if it does not want to vanish the passage of time. 9
  10. 10. School as an organization full of confusion should be led by a principal who isvisionary and willing to take risks. Among the features that need to be owned by a principalof this millennium are intelligent forecasting, power mapping, as well as patient and calm. Itcannot simply assume that it will be able to get things done and achieve what is desired. Thiscan only be done when they were ready with the knowledge and skills principals hip.Principal actually lead an organization in which consists of a wide variety of humanappearance, behavior, and will do something that is sometimes beyond expectations.5.0 SCHOOL LEADERSHIPIn the era of liberalization, the school plays an important role in shaping the direction ofeducating the young of our country such as Malaysia. Quality educations a benchmark fornational development in order to produce heirs rule the country in the future. School-level leadership must act in the form of so-called instructional leader who hasa specific role in the level and their position to implement an education program based inschools. In addition, school leaders also need to have a sense of the transformational leader asan agent of transformation towards the changes in school administration. At the school level, school leadership is inclusive of principal, senior assistantteachers, parents, inspectors of the Ministry of Education and representatives from the localcommunity have duties and responsibilities of each. Leadership needs to be done withconfidence by working in groups. This is because they belief that a person will start toincrease that a difficult and hard work will become more difficult and hard if implementedlonely (Muhammad al-Sayyed al-Representative, 1986:27) 5.1 Role of the PrincipalPrincipal is the main pillar of leadership in schools. We need to know the school leadershipdiffers from one place to another, which may also differ from one state to another statedepends on who is leading the school. This is because; every principal who led the planningof a school has a different agenda for their respective school carried out. Principals play arole as head of administration, other managers of school leaders. Tasks that need to be tooversee the implementation of the school curriculum in line with the National Philosophy ofEducation Policy, member of professional leadership to all staff who are in school, and 10
  11. 11. strengthen cooperation between the school and community through an organization called theAssociation of Parents and teacher of the PTA. In addition, principals will also serve as instructors at the school leader to set thedirection for the school. This is because; leadership will be the image of the pattern of schoolto drive towards achieving the schools vision. They also serve as a reference point, the expertconsultation, and the place to discuss and talk of a problem and where to seek advice as aleader. It is possible principals as role models for teachers working with full commitment tothe mission of the school vision to work together as a cohesive team. In addition, principalsneed to make a SWOT analysis and analysis of the school environment to identifyweaknesses and strengths and opportunities in the school. (Chaube, S.P. et al., 1995). This isto ensure that any shortcomings could be overcome to ensure the implementation of itsstrategic planning of effective schools. 5.2 Senior Assistant of Student AffairIn addition to the principal, the leadership at the school level also led by senior assistantteachers. Senior assistant teachers are as teachers Student Affairs and Co-curriculum teachers.Senior assistant teachers role is to assist the principal in his absence at the school in terms ofbusiness. For example, to check the presence of staff, managing data and information, controland discipline which represents principals to attend the briefing or official functions. In termsof teaching, the role of senior assistant teacher is that it needs to understand and practice thesyllabus requirements and demands outlined by the ministry to teaching in schools. Inaddition, the conduct of teaching and learning (P & P) effectively in the class being taughtthat all knowledge can be understood by students easily and effectively. This is because,effective teaching and learning can positively impact both to the students in the near future byusing the knowledge given to them properly (Al. Ramaiah, 1992). In curriculum management, senior assistant teacher will be responsible in assistingprincipals to distribute academic tasks to staff in schools, to coordinate the conduct ofcommittee meetings subjects such as Malay Language, Mathematics, Science and English aswell as overseeing and updating the schools annual schedule and timetable class of students.In addition, senior assistant teachers role is to assist the principal tasks such as guiding theteacher trainees, new teachers and teachers back in the conduct of their duties at the school bygiving some advice and guidance to them about ways of teaching and learning in theclassroom teacher as well as the duties of other duties outside the classroom. Assist principals 11
  12. 12. in planning the schools annual academic calendar is to be made throughout the year, helpingto prepare the annual school budget, and implementing instructions or task, other tasks asassigned by the Ministry on Education or other higher authority from time to time. 5.3 NazirNazir is the officer appointed under subsection role to carry out inspections of schools maybe directed to them from time to time in researching all aspect in terms of their curriculum,instruction and training, conducting examinations, use of textbooks by the education andteachers in schools and the qualifications and performance of a school whether there is anyincrease or decrease in academic performance and curriculum. In addition, inspectors areassigned to determine whether the requirements of Enactment method as well as guidelinesset by the Council and the Registrar fully complied with by the school (Hussein Mohmood,2008). Nazir also plays a role in reviewing and checking account money to ensure it isproperly maintained and all receipts of money and the expenditure incurred must beaccounted for properly and attached once all the details of receipts and expenditure waningwas made in accordance with the requirements of this Act on direction of the Registrar. If theschool commits an offense who contravenes Enactment done then the inspector must submita report to the Registrar of the schools that have been inspected by him and can make anycomments which it considers it appropriate that the report be written on. Inspectors play an important role in school leadership as it helps school administrators,especially principals to plan and administer the school the right way outlined by the Ministryof Education. It is important that all facilities and the needs of students can be given a fairand effective without any deviation.6.0 TEACHER LEADERSHIPAll of us can be “teachers” but not all of us are “school teachers” and even fewer are“effective teachers”. All teachers share common characteristics. All have certain knowledgeand skills, make a variety of decisions, posse’s personal qualities and transmit that knowledgeand skills to more than one person. Barth (2001), mentions that teacher is a leader who acts asan agent of changes in schools and classrooms. 12
  13. 13. Music teachers, coaches, private tutors, performer, religious teachers, animal trainers,parents and grandparents are “all teacher”. But school teachers have official assessments andformal teacher and pedagogical training. Pedagogical training has command of subject matter,general pedagogical knowledge and curriculum. The effective teachers are teachers whopromote student learning that enhances their cognitive, social, affective and personaldevelopment in accordance with a reported of teaching modes and principle. Danielson (2006) saw leadership as a teacher at a teacher’s repertoire of skills thatbesides teaching also have an influence which extends beyond the classroom, whether withinor outside school. Teacher’s leadership is moving the other teachers to improve schoolperformance, particularly in teaching and learning. This situation exists not because theteachers is the head of organization, but because the teachers has expertise and capabilitiesand be able to influence other colleagues. School improvement process often involves the implementation of activities andprograms that different materially from those made in the past. Katzenmeyer and Moller(2001), states that teacher leadership often face problems and obstacles that areinevitable such as lack of interaction with other teachers, cannot accept the leadership ofothers and so on. Therefore, the role of the teacher is faced with change management.Teacher leadership needed to manage the change process and motivating colleagues to createinnovative learning and performance of duties by way of better and more effective. Teachers also formed collaborative relationship with other teachers and see theproblem as an opportunity to make a change in the problem. The teacher’s leaders in schoolusually longer (about 20 – 30 years) when compared with the principal (about 3 – 5 years).When the principal changes, the policies and school programs also will be changed. Then, forthe sake of continuity and stability program of excellence, leadership, teachers need to befostered and encouraged. For the time being, the efforts of teachers should be madecollectively and collaboratively to achieve better results. This involves the teacher leaders indecision making process and the run program initiative. 6.1 Styles Leadership Teacher 6.1.1 Efficient of Use ResourcesLeadership styles of the new millennium must have an efficiency of use of all availableresources to the optimum. Therefore, teachers need to have leadership skills and ability toaccess information, perform analysis, skills in planning and organizing programs and 13
  14. 14. expenditure and financial management to avoid wastage. Stolp (1995), states that leadershipof teacher can influence students toward a good learning concept and will build up a suitablestudy culture also a visionary ideas. In fact, the use of ICT, which provides a seamlessconcept to enable mobile access to information, should be a catalyst for teaching methods assuch the leadership of teacher should take this opportunity to harness him to be an efficientuse of ICT facilities provided. Teachers help their colleagues by sharing instructional resources. These mightinclude Web sites, instructional materials, readings, or other resources to use with students.They might also share such professional resources as articles, books, lesson or unit plans, andassessment tools. Tinisha becomes a resource provider when she offers to help Carissa, a new staffmember in her second career, set up her classroom. Tinisha gives Carissa extra copies of anumber line for her students to use, signs to post on the wall that explain to students how toget help when the teacher is busy, and the grade-level language arts pacing guide. (CatherineGaymor, 1997). 6.1.2 Ability to Communicate EffectivelyEffective communication skills are very useful in the conversation and transfer of informationto increase understanding of teacher leadership to improve communication challengesincludes formal and informal communication. In the context of education, communicationcan be expressed as the delivery or exchange of information between two person which isteacher and students. (Lewin and Nolan, 2000). Communication can be divided into twotypes which verbal and non-verbal communication. Verbal communication refers to thedelivery of information through oral while non verbal communication is our body languages.Through communication, teachers will be able to interact with all students. This situation willnot only strengthen the relationship between teachers and students, but can make the learningprocess to be smooth. In connection with this teachers must not only have the communication skills butskills in using various mediums of communication skills in using tools are new challenges toteachers changes such as the communications medium is essential especially in an era ofglobal. When teacher start to communicate with student, they can sharing any idea andproblem about learning process. Through communication process, it can build up a studentwith a good discipline. A good discipline in the classroom requires a proper management tominimize any disruption and to facilitate the learning process to occur. (Charles, 2002). Goh 14
  15. 15. Swee Chiew (2002), mentions that classroom discipline is the key to refrain from bad actionand if it happen, immediate action should be taken to prevent it from continue spread. Teacher leaders can also be catalysts for change, visionaries who are “never contentwith the status quo but rather always looking for a better way” (Larner, 2004, p. 32).Teachers who take on the catalyst role feel secure in their own work and have a strongcommitment to continual improvement. They pose questions to generate analysis of studentlearning. There are the example situation whereas in a faculty meeting, Larry expresses aconcern that teachers may be treating some students differently from others. Students whocome to him for extra assistance have shared their perspectives, and Larry wants teachers toknow what students are saying. As his colleagues discuss reasons for low studentachievement, Larry challenges them to explore data about the relationship between race anddiscipline referrals in the school. When teachers begin to point fingers at students, heencourages them to examine how they can change their instructional practices to improvestudent engagement and achievement. Although teachers have access to a great deal of data,they do not often use that data to drive classroom instruction. Teacher leaders can leadconversations that engage their peers in analyzing and using this information to strengtheninstruction. (Catherine Gaymor, 1997). Carol, the 10th grade language arts team leader, facilitates a team of her colleagues asthey look at the results of the most recent writing sample, a teacher-designed assessmentgiven to all incoming 10th grade students. Carol guides teachers as they discuss strengths andweaknesses of students writing performance as a group, as individuals, by classrooms, and indisaggregated clusters by race, gender, and previous school. They then plan instruction on thebasis of this data. (Aziah Ismail, et al., 2006). This is show that communication have so many way can use. A creative teachers willuse various style to attract and treated their student. For student, the new style and enjoyablelearning will improve their achievement. They also will feel comfortable to learning andsharing everything with us. So, the relationship a teacher and student will become closer thenit will help each other. 6.1.3 Constantly Monitor and Assess the Progress of Each Program andOrganizationNathan (2001) in Abdul Ghani Abdullah et al. (2007), states that school leadership isprogressively changing from the traditional leadership model to a model bary, which also 15
  16. 16. gives you more control to the teacher. The emergence of the new millennium is alsodemanding that teachers have the skills to monitor and evaluate the progress of each programand organization. In other words, teachers should have an understanding and appreciation ofthe overall mission and values of the organization and ensure that all actions taken by thestudents under surveillance. There are need a comprehensive understanding of theorganization he represents. Teachers also need to have the ability to do strategic action for the survival, expansionand growth programs and organization. For example, the head of the English committeeshould also go into the field to ensure the English Week activities run smoothly. Serving as amentor for novice teachers is a common role for teacher leaders. Mentors serve as rolemodels; acclimate new teachers to a new school; and advise new teachers about instruction,curriculum, procedure, practices, and politics. Being a mentor takes a great deal of time andexpertise and makes a significant contribution to the development of a new professional. For the example, Ming is a successful teacher in her own 1st grade classroom, but shehas not assumed a leadership role in the school. The principal asks her to mentor her newteammate, a brand-new teacher and a recent immigrant from the Philippines. Ming preparesby participating in the districts three-day training on mentoring. Her role as a mentor will notonly include helping her teammate negotiate the district, school, and classroom, but will alsoinclude acclimating her colleague to the community. Ming feels proud as she watches herteammate develop into an accomplished teacher. (Aziah Ismail, et al., 2006). 16
  17. 17. 7.0 CONCLUSIONLeadership role in implementing the program in school is important. Principal’s act asmoderating the job such stress teachers. Appropriate leadership pattern can improve theperformance of teachers’ further increase effectiveness. Instead the pattern leadership whoare not will be to develop a relationship that less well with the teachers. This is a sourceof stress to teachers. Although teachers are the most important human resources in education,if the resource is not managed wisely, many problems will arise. The teacher ability to giveattention on leadership, encouragement and support to solve problems, improve and enhanceteaching and learning process is also known as instructional leadership. (Murphy andHallinger, 1987). Principals can increase the effectiveness of the organization if dimensions of jobstress leadership organizations such as discipline problems control and lackof school principals on the aspects of concern task can be reduced with this teachereffectiveness can be enhanced. Organizational effectiveness can also be enhanced ifprincipal emphases on tasks involving increase the quality of teaching and learning becausemost of school output is producing quality students. 17
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