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LIbya and the Arab Spring

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  • 1. Libya and the Arab Spring Presentation by Ahmed Kraima forUWM School of Continuing Education Dean’s Distinguished Lecture October 12, 2011
  • 2. Tunisia December 17, 2010
  • 3. TUNISIA
  • 4. TUNISIA DEMOGRAPHICSArea 163,610Population p 10,629,186 , 9,Unemployment 13%Unemployment (15-24) p y ( 5 4) 3 30%Per capita $9,400
  • 5. TUNISIA Timeline1881 - French occupy Tunis. Tunisia is a Frenchprotectorate from 1883.1934 - Habib Bourguiba founds the pro-independence Neo-Dustour Party.1956 -Tunisia becomes independent with Bourguibaas prime minister.1957 -Tunisia becomes a republic. T i i b bli
  • 6. TUNISIA Timeline1981 - First multi-party parliamentary electionssince independence. President Bourguibas partywins by a landslide.1987 - Bloodless palace coup: Prime Minister ZineEl Abidi B Ali has P id t B Abidine Ben h President Bourguiba d l d ib declaredmentally unfit to rule and takes power himself.1988-1988 Referendum abolishing Presidency for Life. 5 Lifeyear terms, limit of 2 terms.
  • 7. TUNISIA Timeline1989- As sole candidate, Ben Ali wins first term aspresident by 99.3% of the vote. Ruling party wins all114 seats in the National Assembly.1994- Ben Ali wins second term by 99.9% of the vote1999- Ben Ali wins a third term (only 94.1%)2004- 4th term (94.5%)2009- 5th term (89.6%)
  • 8. TUNISIA Timeline2010- December 17th: Mohammed Bouazizi, a fruitseller sets himself on fire in protest.2010- D December 28th: B Ali i a national TV b 8 Ben Ali, in ti laddress blames extremists and foreign media for theunrest. Three governors from the Sidi Bouzid area gare dismissed.2011 - January 14th: Ben Ali declares EmergencyRule tl iR l outlawing gatherings of more th 3 people. th i f than lPromises to hold parliamentary elections within 6months. Flees to Saudi Arabia the same day. y
  • 9. Egypt January 25, 2011
  • 10. EGYPT
  • 11. EGYPT DEMOGRAPHICSArea 1,001,450Population p 82,079,632 , 79, 3Population below poverty line 20%(2005)Unemployment p y 94 9.4%Unemployment (15-24) 24.8Per capita p $ , $6,200
  • 12. EGYPT Timeline1956- July 23rd: Nasser ousts King Farouk.1970- September 28th: Nasser dies and Sadat 97 pbecomes president. Sadat eases some of therestrictions, imposed on political parties/groups, byNasser.1981- October 6th: Sadat assassinated. Mubarak b M b k becomes president. Declares “ national state of id t D l ti l t t f emergency”
  • 13. EGYPT Timeline1987- October: Mubarak wins a second term, by91% of the vote, in a national referendum. Nationalstate of emergency renewed in 1988.1993- October: Mubarak wins a third term with96.3% 6 %1999- Mubarak, fourth term with 93.8%1990’s - d i ’ dominated by political suppression, db li i l iespecially of the Muslim brotherhood.
  • 14. EGYPT Timeline2002- September: Mubarak’s son, Gamal, electedsecretary-general of the ruling party (NDP). A majorstep towards succeeding his father as the president.2004- Crack down on Muslim Brotherhood (54arrested i M ) Al Gh d part approved after 4th t d in May). Al-Ghad t d ftapplication. Only two parties approved since 1977.2005-2005 Mubark wins fifth term (88.6) MB’s share (88 6) MB sincreases from 17 seats to 88.
  • 15. EGYPT Timeline2008- National emergency law extended until 2010(Mubarak promised to abolish during his 2005presidential campaign.April 6, 2008- National strike dayJanuary 25, 2011- Day of revolt
  • 16. Libya: Prelude to a revolution February 17, 2011
  • 17. LIBYA
  • 18. LIBYA DEMOGRAPHICSArea 1,759,540 ,759,54Population 6,597,960Population below p p poverty line y 33 33%?Unemployment 30%Per capita p $ 4,4 $14,400
  • 19. LIBYA Timeline1911- Libya is under Italian rule.1942- Italians removed by Allies and country is 94 y ydivided between the French and the British.Libya gains independence under King Idris.1956- Oil exploration begins.1961- Libya starts exporting oil for the first time.1969- Gaddafi depose Idris in a bloodless coup.
  • 20. LIBYA Timeline1970- Closure of American airbases in Tripoli andTobruk.1971- Proposal to Federation of Arab Republic(Libya, Egypt, and Syria) fails.1972- Libya-Egypt merger fails.1973- April 16th: In the city of Zuwara, Gaddafideclares the “Cultural Rd l h “C l l Revolution” and founding of l i ” df di fthe “Revolutionary Committees.”
  • 21. LIBYA Timeline1976- April 7th: Members of the students unions, at 97 p ,the Universities of Benghazi and Tripoli clashgovernment sponsored student unions. Leaders ofthe i dth independent student union are arrested and d t t d t i t d djailed.1977-1977 Libya becomes “the Great Socialist People s the People’sLibyan Arab jamahiriyah.”19771977- April: The first anniversary of the Libyanstudents uprising. Student leaders arrested and hungin public (on national television. Gaddafi formsdeath squads to hunt down Libyan dissidents.
  • 22. Confrontation(s) with the West1981- US shoots down two Libyan airplanes over theGulf of Sirt.1984 - UK breaks diplomatic relations with Libyaover the shooting of a British police officer, outsidethe Libyan embassy in L dth Lib b i London.1988- December 21st: The Lockerbie plane bombing.1992- UN imposes sanctions against Lib i i i Libya.1996- Abu Salim massacre.
  • 23. Warming up to the West
  • 24. LIBYA Timeline2004- March: Tony Blair visits Libya (first visit fora British PM since 1943).2006- May US restores diplomatic relations withLibya.2008- Silvio Berlusconi issues an apology, to Libya,over Italian Occupation. Five billion dollarinvestment as compensation compensation. September 2008- Rice visits Libya.
  • 25. LIBYA Timeline2009- Gaddafi visits Italy, elected chairman of the 9 y,African Union, celebrates 40 years of power,Lockerbie bomber released from prison on forhumanitarian reasons?h it i ?2009/2010- Reform efforts to ease the transfer ofpower from Gaddafi to his son and to tame themassesMothers of the victims of Abu Salim massacre hire alawyer and intensify the pressure on the government
  • 26. February 15, 2011- Lawyer representing the Abu y 5, y p gSalim families is arrested for demanding that thegovernment address the massacre. A protest callingfor hif his release began in Benghazi fueled b calls f l b i B h i f l d by ll fordemonstration transmitted through the internet,signal the beginning of the revolution revolution.