Mary J. Dowell
References & Recommended Readings Glossary of Relevant Terms
The Wisdom Network,
by Steve Benton and Melissa Giovagnoli Web 2.0 is commonly associated with web
development and web design that facilitates
10 lessons from the future by Wolfgang Grulke
interactive information sharing, interoperability, user-
The Cluetrain Manifesto – End of business as usual centered design and collaboration on the World Wide
by Levine, Locke, Searls, Weinberg Web (WWW) and the Internet. Examples of Web 2.0
Growing up digital by Don Tapscott include web-based communities, hosted services, web
applications, social-networking sites, video-sharing
Blur by Stan Davis and Christopher Myer
sites, wikis, blogs, mashups and folksonomies.
Wikinomics by Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams
Tribes by Seth Godin Cloud Computing
Purple cow by Seth Godin Cloud computing is a paradigm of computing in which
Mastering the digital marketplace by Douglas Aldrich dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources are
provided as a service over the Internet. Users need not
The death of distance by Francis Cairncross
have knowledge of, expertise in, or control over the
Open Innovation, Henry Chesbrough, 2003 technology infrastructure in the “cloud” that supports
them. The concept generally incorporates combinations
Reference reports, articles, and speeches of the following:
Aspen Summit 2000 “Cyberspace and the > infrastructure as a service (IaaS)
American Dream VII”,”Digital Renaissance, > platform as a service (PaaS)
Medieval Policy” by Carly Fiorina
> software as a service (SaaS)
March 2009 London Times “BBC downloads Other recent (ca. 2007–09) technologies that rely on
push broadband ﬁrms to the limit”, by Ali Hussain > the Internet to satisfy the computing needs
January 2009 In-Stat “Subscribers are sending more of users.
than 2 trillion mobile messages per day”
April 2009 Forrester Research “The Future Of The Cloud computing services often provide common
Social Web”, by Jeremiah Owyang business applications online that are accessed from a
Wired magazine- the new economy June 2009 web browser, while the software and data are stored
Data passport- Comscore ﬁrst half 2009 on the servers. The term cloud is used as a metaphor
for the Internet, based on how the Internet is depicted
TNS market research - Cymfony report 2008
in computer network diagrams and is an abstraction
University of Cambridge report 2009, for the complex infrastructure it conceals.
How to implement open innovation
Social Computing Mobile Web
In the weaker sense of the term, social computing The Mobile Web refers to browser-based web services
has to do with supporting any sort of social behavior such as the World Wide Web, WAP and i-Mode (Japan)
in or through computational systems. It is based on using a mobile device such as a cell phone, PDA, or
creating or recreating social conventions and social other portable gadget connected to a public network.
contexts through the use of software and technology. Such access does not require a desktop computer, nor
Thus, blogs, email, instant messaging, social network a ﬁxed landline connection. The total number of
services, wikis, social bookmarking and other instances mobile web users grew past the total number of PC
of what is often called social software illustrate based internet users for the ﬁrst time in 2008 (source:
ideas from social computing, but also other kinds of Tomi Ahonen Almanac 2009).
software applications where people interact socially.
In the stronger sense of the term, social computing ‘Mobile Internet’ is access to the Internet using a
has to do with supporting “computations” that are mobile wireless modem, either integrated into a
carried out by groups of people, an idea that has mobile phone or in an independent device (USB
been popularized in James Surowiecki’s book, The modem, PCMCIA card).Nowadays USB modems are
Wisdom of Crowds. Examples of social computing HSPA (3.5-3.75G) modems. Many users use their
in this sense include collaborative ﬁltering, online mobile telephones as a way of connecting their
auctions, prediction markets, reputation systems, personal computer to the Internet via 3G, GPRS or CSD.
computational social choice, tagging, and veriﬁcation
games. Social computing has become more widely Mobile Web 2.0
known because of its relationship to a number of An example Web 2.0 technology used on the mobile
recent trends. These include the growing popularity web is the blog, resulting in the term moblog. Critics
of social software and Web 2.0, increased academic point to the difﬁculties of transferring Web 2.0
interest in social network analysis, the rise of open concepts such as open standards to the mobile web.
source as a viable method of production, and a On the other hand, advocates present it as a means
growing conviction that all of this can have a of pushing information up onto the web in addition
profound impact on daily life. to bringing information down to the user. This push
to allowing ofﬂine content to popular websites
Social Media empowers the user. Furthermore, many major
Social media are media designed to be disseminated companies see the rapidly growing demand for
through social interaction, created using highly advanced web access via mobile phones and
accessible and scalable publishing techniques. Social provide a mobile version of their site. This allows
media supports the human need for social interaction, users, even with newer devices, to quickly access
using Internet- and web-based technologies to transform websites and services in a view that is customized
broadcast media monologues (one to many) into social for mobile. Some examples include American Airlines
media dialogues (many to many). It supports the and Victoria’s Secret among many others.
democratization of knowledge and information,
transforming people from content consumers into
content producers. Businesses also refer to social
media as user-generated content (UGC) or
consumer-generated media (CGM).
Mary J. Dowell
Crowdsourcing is a neologism for the act of taking
tasks traditionally performed by an employee or
contractor, and outsourcing it to an undeﬁned,
generally large group of people or community in the
form of an open call. The word was coined by Jeff
Howe in a June 2006 Wired magazine article. Projects
which make use of group intelligence such as the
LazyWeb predate that word coinage by several years.
Recently, the Internet has been used to publicize and
manage crowdsourcing projects.