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Transit Oriented Development (TOD) UTTIPEC Vision & Policy Introduction

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  • 1. Vision ofTransit Oriented Development (TOD)& Introduction to TOD PolicyTransit Oriented Development (TOD)Public and Stakeholder Consultationsconducted byUTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority21 Februrary 2013
  • 2. Our Delhi and Our Present:Typical Day in the Life of our Common Man…
  • 3. Dropping off the Kids…Dropping the kids off to school8:30 A.M.
  • 4. On Way to Office 9:30 A.M.The strenuous journey to work
  • 5. Out for Lunch 1:30 P.M.Trying to get an affordable meal from “illegal hawkers”
  • 6. Returning Back Home 7:30 P.M.The jammed journey back.
  • 7. Out on Errands for Daily NeedsEndless haggling with autowaalas….on broken footpathsOr non-existent footpaths….and broken feet!
  • 8. A Common Vision for Our Delhi:Peep Into The Future
  • 9. Imagine waking up in a new, mixed-use apartment block, and strolling tothe nearest metro station, which is a five-minute walk away. En route, you dropoff laundry at the dry cleaner, whose street-facing shop is on the ground floor ofyour apartment building. Young mothers are ferrying babies in strollers to theneighborhood public park for a morning outing. Vegetable vendors are setting uptheir produce for the day in designated spots on the pavement.Cyclists pass by in segregated cycle lanes. Buses, cars and scooters andmotorbikes keep to themselves on the roads, out of reach of pedestrians.Designated crossings allow you to access the metro station and reach theplatform safely, without any unanticipated collisions with a vehicle of any kind. Isthis New York, London or Shanghai? According to UTTIPEC, this could be NewDelhi, if it chooses to adopt transit-oriented development..- Aparna Piramal Raje,Live Mint
  • 10. On Way to Office9:30 A.M.© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 11. Out for Lunch1:30 P.M.
  • 12. 2:00 P.M.No Need to Pick Up Kids- They can Cycle Back to Home
  • 13. 7:00 P.M.Shopping on Way Back from Office by Metro or Bus© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 14. Enjoying a Weekend of Retail Therapy!
  • 15. Need for a Paradigm Shift in Planning
  • 16. People at the center stage of planning for the futureCurrent planning norms are apt for a city of Machines?© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 17. TOD planning norms are apt for People© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority/ R K LaxmanPeople at the center stage of planning for the future
  • 18. Planning for Sustainable FutureSustainableDELHIECONOMICENVIRONMENTAL• Prosperity• Affordability• Employment• Attracting investment• Flourishing entrepreneurship• Equity of access• Lifestyle ChoicesSOCIAL• Equity of access to amenities,transit, infrastructure.• Safety• Affordability• Civic Pride• Heritage• Democracy &Transparency• Air Quality• Water Quality• Water & Energy Supply• Climatic Comfort• Cleanliness & Hygiene
  • 19. Transit Oriented DevelopmentVision for Delhi
  • 20. SAFER DELHI1) Create safe „usable‟ public spaces through design.2) Bring eyes on street through Hawkers.Social Goal 1:
  • 21. “Delhi is Indias crime capital..” – TOI, June 2008“The most unsafe time out - 40% felt unsafe between 8 and 10 am and 5 and 7 pm. 31% felt unsafe in mid-afternoon.Most unsafe places - 45% identified buses as the most unsafe; 25% the roadside; 6.7% found bus stops...”– A Delhi Police survey on women’s safety, 05 March 2006.Source: http://southasia.oneworld.net/article/view/127142/1/Can a Woman Walk Alone Safely on the Streets of Delhi After 7:00 PM?Q.
  • 22. 1. Resettlement of weaker sections outside the city to unserved places like SavdaGhevra, Bhalsawa etc.2. Lack of basic facilities and sense of self-pride in life at inner city slums.3. Removal of hawkers and vendors (who are eyes on streets).Problem
  • 23. Solution1. Inclusinve planning - Integrate all income groups into community planning and design.2. Provide shared scoail amenties and physical infrastructure within inclusive communities.3. Provide designated space for hawkers and vendors (who are eyes on streets).© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 24. Deserted Wide Road© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 25. Transformation : Option 01© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 26. Transformation : Option 02Daytime© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 27. Transformation : Option 02Night-time© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 28. Q.Would you feel safer walking on streets with hugesetbacks and no people?© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 29. Eyes on the streetFor Safety: Create “Eyes on the Street” ….1)© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 30. Benefits of Hawkers:• They keep streetsclean, busy, vibrant andsafe.• They provide a variety ofcheaper food and retailoptions for the public.• They express our culture.• They generate self-employment.Hawkers are good for Safety!2)© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 31. Hawkers are good for Safety!2)Benefits of Hawkers:• They keep streets clean,busy, vibrant and SAFE.• They provide a variety ofcheaper food and retailoptions for the public.• They express our culture.• They generate self-employment.
  • 32. CLEAN, GREEN & USABLEOpen spaces play multiple functions:1) Safe „usable‟ public spaces for young, old, rich & poor.2) Working landscapes that capture, purify and treat storm water runoff.Social Goal 2:
  • 33. 34Many of Delhi’s parks areunwatched, underused, inaccessible and unsafe for women &the disabled.Example below: This beautiful park at ITO is inaccessible to the thousands ofpeople working daily in this area – due to lack of pedestrian crossings to reachthe park, lack of safety, accessibility and „eyes on the park‟.1Source: UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 34. Make Parks – NOT JUST beautiful, but Usable too.Change graphic-Meenakshi to help© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 35. Make existing Parks & Public Spaces usable & safe!Make Parks intimate and “watched” by surrounding buildingsLajpat NagarPicture Source: Mitali Ganguly
  • 36. 37Only 15% of any Typical Neighbourhood isgreen/ soft surface which allows Water Infiltration.2© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 37. So building Parking under parks would cause morelocal flooding and more water logging on roads…..382Graphic Source: Hindustan Times
  • 38. 39Picture sourced from Internet for representative purposes only.Parking should be accommodated within building projects, not under parks.All Redevelopment Projects mustinclude shared multi-use paidparking facilities for the 5-minutewalking catchment within the area.
  • 39. • Parks can be multi-use green spaces throughout the year;• In monsoons, they transform into storm water swales or detention ponds…Source: Storm Water Guidelines, OASIS Design INC.Utilize Parks as “Working Landscapes”:
  • 40. Utilize Parks as “Working Landscapes”:Source: Storm Water Guidelines, OASIS Design INC.
  • 41. Utilize Road Greens as “Working Landscapes”:Source: Storm Water Guidelines, OASIS Design INC.
  • 42. Advantages:- Reduced Flooding- Less pressure and reduced sizing for Municipal Storm Water Treatment Drains/Plants.- PREVENT POLLUTING THE YAMUNA!!A Holistic 3-Tier Approach:1: Treat at Source(streets, parks)2: Natural Conveyance(minimal piping)3: Natural Storm Water TreatmentUtilize Parks and Open Spaces for Natural Storm Water Management.
  • 43. Bio-swales in Parks in Lucknow: Sewage Treatment beds in Mumbai:Built Working Landscape - Examples:Source: UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 44. GETTING AROUND EASILY1) Make transferring between modes easy2) Design streets for ALL, not JUST cars.3) Provide high density mixed use developments (residential. office, entertainment &civic uses) with 5-min walk of Metro Stations.Social Goal 3:
  • 45. How am I commuting?
  • 46. Most People in Delhi Walk or Use Public Transport!1Walking and Bus are the dominantmodes of transport in Delhi.We need to promote Walking andNMT* to reduce Car/ 2W dependency,as people tend to use cars/ 2-wheelerseven for small trips.This would also reduce traffic jams!!*NMT = Non Motorized TransportData Source: RITES Transport Demand Forecast Study for Dept. of Transport, GNCTD, 2010BICYCLE4% CAR/TAXI9%2W14%BUS27%METRO3%TRAIN1%AUTO RICKSHAW5%CYCLE RICKSHAW2%WALK ONLY35%Modal Share Delhi 2008
  • 47. Short Trips (4-10 KM) need to moveback to Buses.So that car users can shift to Metro!!BICYCLE4% CAR/TAXI9%2W14%BUS27%METRO3%TRAIN1%AUTO RICKSHAW5%CYCLE RICKSHAW2%WALK ONLY35%Modal Share Delhi 2008 Buses stuck in congested roadsReverse Mode Shift Happening …. Bus Users shifting to Metro!1Data Source: RITES Transport Demand Forecast Study for Dept. of Transport, GNCTD, 2010
  • 48. Metro Overcrowded – Car/ 2W users unable to Use Metro or Bus!Short Trips (4-10 KM) need to moveback to Buses.So that car users can shift to Metro!!BICYCLE4% CAR/TAXI9%2W14%BUS27%METRO3%TRAIN1%AUTO RICKSHAW5%CYCLE RICKSHAW2%WALK ONLY35%Modal Share Delhi 20081Data Source: RITES Transport Demand Forecast Study for Dept. of Transport, GNCTD, 2010
  • 49. 80% of Trips in Delhi are below 10 km.Walking, Cycling & Bus are the Dominant Travel modes in Delhi.48627178839095 97 99 99 1000204060801001200-2 2-4 4-6 6-8 8-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 >35%oftripsTrip lengths Distribution in Delhi (KMs)40%;2-10 km10%;>10 km50%;0-2 kmPublic Transport Travel Modes as per Trip Length & Time:1Data Source: RITES Transport Demand Forecast Study for Dept. of Transport, GNCTD, 2010
  • 50. Planning & Design parameters that have lead toPrivate Vehicle dependency.
  • 51. Planning Level - Failure of Existing Transport NetworkDelhi Traffic dependent on major arterial roads even for short Local Trips!Image Source: Google satellite imagery2ABHow to gofrom A to B?
  • 52. Planning Failure of Existing Road NetworkEven for short Local trips, we have to get on to busy Arterial Roads..Image Source: Google satellite imagery2ABHow to gofrom A to B?
  • 53. Therefore all traffic concentrates on few Arterial Roads..Delhi: Present China: The Future we are heading to ?Image Source: internet2© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 54. To deal with heavy Arterial Traffic, we make them Signal free!This causes highly increased fatality for pedestrians and cyclists2Average Peak Hour Speed - 5-10Km/HrAverage Off-Peak Hour Speed - 100Km/HrImage Source: Internet
  • 55. Source: Delhi Traffic Police• More than 2100 accidents occurred during 2010.• Ring Road has recorded the highest fatal accidentsfollowed by Outer Ring Road, Rohtak Road, G.T.KarnalRoad.• The maximum casualty in the fatal accidents arepedestrians & 2 wheelers.• The maximum accidents have occurred during the leanhours both in the morning & night.Road Safety for Pedestrians is Compromised by „Signal-free‟.0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200Ring RoadOuter Ring RoadRohtak RoadG T K RoadMathura RoadN. H.-8Mahrauli Badarpur RoadNajafgarh RoadG. T. RoadWazirabad Road PedestriansTwo WheelersSelfFatal Accidents in 2010• The reasons for all accidents are:1. Signal free high speed corridors.2. Insufficient/ No pedestrianCrossing facilities.3. Central verge without grills.4. No speed breakers/ rumble stripson long stretches.5. Absence of dedicated lanes forslow moving vehicles.6. Heavy volume of traffic.7. Glaring during night etc.2
  • 56. Traffic diffused into new linkages reduces load on Arterial roads/ junctionsThe City needs to be retrofitted to create Networks, not flyovers.Indicative picture only.Image source: Google satellite imageryAB
  • 57. At Block/ Community Level15 min WalkBus/ MRTSStop3Current Norms encourage Large block sizes: increase walkingdistances, thus encouraging vehicle use.Image Source: InternetContext
  • 58. 2-minute walkBlock/ Community LevelFiner Street Network would increase Connectivity & provideshort-cuts by foot or cycle.Image Source: Internet
  • 59. • The supply of extra wide roads with resultant heavily encroachedfootpaths, discourages non- motorised travel modesInequitable Distribution of Road Space4 Context© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 60. • Street Design Guidelines provided for Safety and Pride of Place for All ModesEquitable Distribution of Road Space4© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 61. Example: An existing Commercial Project near a Metro Station• Current Norms cause Building interface with the adjacent Street/footpathto be unfriendly to pedestrians.Buildings Mainly Welcome Private Cars!5Image Source: DMRC website 2006Context
  • 62. • TOD norms allow the building interface with Street to be safe & comfortablefor all modes.Buildings should welcome both pedestrians & cars!5Image Source: Google Earth Imagery
  • 63. WITH CIVIC PRIDESocial Goal 4:64
  • 64. Indian style socialismAurangzeb Road…. … and GovindpuriCSE team have counted 3 persons per 10 minutes in Aurangzeb Road and 100person per five minutes in Govindpuri.TOD planning norms address real needs of real people.Source: CSEContextNear perfect wide footpaths & Trees No footpaths or Amenities1
  • 65. As per National Law, all public spaces must be Universally Accessible.Graphic Source: SamarthyamImage Source: Samarthyam
  • 66. Carter Road Promenade, MumbaiAll Public spaces should be available & usable to all income groups…Image Source: Internet
  • 67. Carter Road Promenade, MumbaiAll Public spaces should be available & usable to all income groups…Image Source: Internet
  • 68. Image Source: InternetEquitable and well designed public spaces instill Civic Pride.
  • 69. Creating shared Amenities creates inter-social tolerance, instills Civic Pride.Graphics Courtesy: OASIS Designs Inc
  • 70. INCLUSIVESocial Goal 5:71
  • 71. Where do I go to Work?
  • 72. Why are all big businesses locating to Gurgaon?4Context
  • 73. Why are most Homes & Commercial establishments in Delhi illegal?3Context
  • 74. Where do I live?
  • 75. Why are most first time home buyers preferring Noida?1Context
  • 76. Does your peon or driver travel for an hour every day to get to work?“Can the poor ever be legal?”– Housing and Land Rights Network, Habitat International Coalition, 2002 Delhi has failed to integrate the rich and poor symbiotically and „legally‟ within the city. Lack of Community Ownership between rich and poor. Failure to make the city‟s historic precincts a part of the lives of its people.2Context
  • 77. Continual banishment of Poor to Outskirts of the City needs to STOP.2Context
  • 78. Remove slums, NOT slum dwellers!Get Development (other than flyovers) back to Delhi. Integrate rich and poor symbiotically,with shared amenities, near Transit. Integrate major employment centres along Transit Nodes (nothighway arterials) as part of mixed-use communities.We need to Prepare for 55% Urbanization by 2050.Integrated Society
  • 79. Rapid Transit Station(Metro/ BRT)Low income housing(Size < 250 families)High/ Middle income housingCommercialOffices/ Light IndustrialSchools/ Libraries/ Civic usesPublic Parks500 M walkingradiusSTOP Banishing the Poor; Integrate them into mixed-income communities Give Equal access to Transit + Amenities to Rich & Poor1. Amenities and Housing forLow-income people MUST beaccommodated:• NEAR Transit Facilities andAmenities.• NEAR mid to high incomegroups.2. Low-income groups can:• work in local offices,• provide household help forricher homes• also commute to other jobseasily.• work in community gardensproducing local food, etc.Principles:
  • 80. Option 1:- Mandatory Reservation for % of low-incomehousing in private developments near publictransit.According to the Delhi Masterplan, all privatedevelopments are to provide and maintain 15% of thetotal FSI for low-income groups. Other states are likelyto adopt this mandate under the JNURM guidelines.This would be a mandatory requirement for projects toobtain planning approvals.Option 2:- FSI-density bonuses for market-ratedevelopments to pay for, or construct nearby low-income communities.- Density bonuses for providing and maintainingshared public parks, facilities and socialinfrastructure.Option 3:- Government built low income housing within 800M walking distance from a rapid transitstations, limiting the size of each community to amaximum of 250 families.Rapid Transit Station(Metro/ BRT)Low income housing(Size < 250 families)High/ Middle income housingCommercialOffices/ Light IndustrialSchools/ Libraries/ Civic usesPublic Parks500 M walkingradiusSTOP Banishing the Poor; Integrate them into mixed-income communities Give Equal access to Transit + Amenities to Rich & PoorNew development
  • 81. Rs. 30,000- 60,000/(~3.60- 7.20 Lakh p.a.)Above Rs. 60,000/-~above 7.20 Lakh p.a.)microHomeSolutionsAverage MonthlyIncomeIncome Distribution of Delhi &home product relationship to income brackets….Rs. 5,000-30,000/~60,000- 3,60,000 p.a.)Rs. 5,000/-(~60,000 p.a.)3. Housing budget is based on most common lending scenario for micro-mortgage: – 12% API on 15-year loan – and assumes a family spends 30% of incomeon housing.1. Source: Consumer Pyramids, Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy P Ltd.2. Monthly budget for Housing is equal to 30% of income, the global standard for affordability of housing. (Developing Affordable Housing, by Ben Hecht.22%55%4.5%18%Current HousingAvailabilityLIMITED FORMALSUPPLY OFOWNERSHIPHOUSINGEXISTING HOUSINGMARKETLIVING INUNAUTHORIZEDCOLONIES ORSLUMSLIVING IN SLUMS/OR, SLEEPING ONFOOTPATHS
  • 82. Rs. 30,000- 60,000/(~3.60- 7.20 Lakh p.a.)Above Rs. 60,000/-~above 7.20 Lakh p.a.)EXISTING HOUSINGMARKETINTERESTED INSTARTER HOMEOWNERSHIPNEED FORSHELTERSmicroHomeSolutionsAverage MonthlyIncomeIncome Distribution of Delhi &home product relationship to income brackets….PossibleTarget ProductRs. 5,000-30,000/~60,000- 3,60,000 p.a.)Rs. 5,000/-(~60,000 p.a.)3. Housing budget is based on most common lending scenario for micro-mortgage: – 12% API on 15-year loan – and assumes a family spends 30% of incomeon housing.1. Source: Consumer Pyramids, Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy P Ltd.2. Monthly budget for Housing is equal to 30% of income, the global standard for affordability of housing. (Developing Affordable Housing, by Ben Hecht.22%55%4.5%18%LOOKING FORRENTAL
  • 83. • Give Everyone a Home.Goals and Benefits of TOD in DelhiGraphic Source: www.housingforall.org
  • 84. Working with the market“Property prices in Delhi are toohigh today and the only way theycan come down are by increasingsupply,” - Chairman and ManagingDirector (South Asia) at propertyadvisory firm CB Richard Ellis.“Delhi has failed to give housing tothe common man due to limitationson FAR and density norms. It alsoaided in the creation of slums. IfFAR is freed, land cost fordevelopment will come down,bringing down property prices,” -President of the National RealEstate Development Council.Source: The Economic Times Delhi;Date: Sep 4, 2012;Section: Corporate; Page: 7; http://bit.ly/YC1xJU
  • 85. Housing for All- Variety in Housing Options1. Town houses2. Pent houses3. Apartments4. Studio Apartments5. Dormitories6. Hostels7. Night Shelters© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 86. Image taken by: Esben AgersnapInclusive mixed-income Communities with Shared Amenities createsintra-social tolerance, instills Civic Pride and reduces Crime in the long run.
  • 87. • Market Participates in Better City - Utilize private-sectorinvestment near MRTS nodes to fund public transportimprovements and cross-subsidize social amenitiesGOALS AND BENEFITS OF TOD TO DELHISTREETLOBBYPARKINGRESIDENTIALSERVICE CORECOMMERCIAL
  • 88. SO WHAT IS TOD?
  • 89. Transit NodeExpressBRTS/MRTSRouteMaximum people Live, Work & Playwithin 10-min walk of RAPID TRANSIT StationsHigh Density Mixed Use within 10-min walk of stations…
  • 90. DEFINITIONTransit Oriented Development (TOD) is essentially anydevelopment, macro or micro, that is focused around atransit node, and facilitates complete ease of access to thetransit facility, thereby inducing people to prefer to walk anduse public transportation over personal modes of transport.
  • 91. A new urban planning ideal• Inclusive, egalitarian andenvironmentally sustainable.• Ordinary pedestrians areplaced at its centre, ratherthan buildings, flyovers orcars, a big shift fromprevailing practice.© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 92. A new urban planning idealA variety of high-density, mixed-use, mixed-income buildings,within a short distance of a rapidpublic transport network. Higherdensity, or taller buildings, withinpre-specified zones near transitstations to encourage morepeople to use public transport,and limit urban sprawl.© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 93. Most of Delhi within 10 min walking/cycling/rickshaw distance of proposed MRTS.Therefore…
  • 94. Most of Delhi within 10 min walking/cycling/rickshaw distance of proposed MRTS.Therefore…
  • 95. Impact of TOD Policy on population holding capacity of MPD• TOD Policy puts an end to Urban Sprawl.• It encourages sustainable urban environment with low carbon footprintsSchematic representation of current MPD norms implemented in Urban ExtensionTOD policy only redistributes population within the current holdingcapacity of Zonal Plans of Delhi
  • 96. • TOD Policy brings the planned population close to the transit neighborhoods.• It does not increase migration.Impact of TOD Policy on population holding capacity of MPDSchematic representation of proposed TOD norms implemented in Urban Extension© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development AuthorityTOD policy only redistributes population within the current holdingcapacity of Zonal Plans of Delhi
  • 97. VISION TIES INTO EACH SECTION OF THETOD POLICY
  • 98. TOD PolicyandDevelopment Control Norms:
  • 99. TOD PolicyandDevelopment Control Norms:
  • 100. Norms For:2.1 Pedestrian & NMT Friendly Environment2.2. Connectivity and Network Density2.3. Multi-modal Interchange2.4. Inducing Modal Shift2.5. PlaceMaking and Ensuring Safety2.6. High Density, Mixed-use Mixed-income Development
  • 101. 2.1:106Pedestrian & NMTFriendly Environment
  • 102. 2.1. Pedestrian & NMT Friendly EnvironmentSource: SGA Architects
  • 103. http://uttipec.nic.in/StreetGuidelines-R1-Feb2011-UTTPEC-DDA.pdfSTREETS AS PER ‘Street Design Guidelines-UTTIPEC’Contents• Street hierarchy of Delhi• Minimum walking zone• Universal accessibility• Multi Functional Zone• Bicycle and NMT Infrastructure• Crossings• Medians, Refuge Islands• Street Lighting• Urban Utilities• Public Amenities• Traffic Calming Measure• Public Art, Street Furniture and EducativeSignage
  • 104. 2.2:109Norms for Connectivity
  • 105. • Interconnected Street Network• Small walkable blocks; Pedestrian cut-throughsevery ~50-100 M.• Mix of uses to provide people of varied socialgroups with options to live, work and play withineasy access to public transport and dailynecessities.Station2.2: Direct Connectivity- Finer Street Network for shortest routes to pedestrians & cyclists.- Faster to walk or cycle; than to drive.Graphic s Source: www.calthorpe.com
  • 106. Example: Dwarka - Existing Street GridUNSAFEfortheseUsers© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 107. Example: Dwarka - Proposed Retrofitted Street Grid© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 108. Incomplete Road NetworkComplete Vehicular Road Network @ 250m c/cComplete Pedestrian Network @ 50-150m c/cConnectivity NormsCreate dense networks of streets and paths for all modes.
  • 109. 2.3:114Norms for Multi-Modal Interchange
  • 110. Make transferring between modes easy, comfortable.115Pedestrian is highestpriority
  • 111. Station Area Planning to follow above StandardsSource: Storm Water Guidelines, OASIS Design INC.IPT ParkingShuttle Service Pedestrian-WalkwayPrivate CarPick Up/Drop off Bus Stop
  • 112. 2.4:117Norms for Inducing Modal Shift
  • 113. Mixed-Use : Safety, Vibrancy and Reduced Travel Demand© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 114. Location of Parking defines:TAD vs. TODTOD:• EncouragesWalkability andMixed Useeg: DadarStation, MumbaiTAD:• Separates theCommunity from theStation.• Is Auto-orienteddevelopmente.g. Janakpuri WestStation, DelhiTransit Oriented DevelopmentTransit “Adjacent” Development
  • 115. 2.5:120Norms for Placemaking & Safety
  • 116. Placemaking and its BenefitsSome of the biggest gains of TOD are the most intangible:The concept of Place-making, or designing urban neighbourhoods in sucha way that local communities can be formed. Mixed-use, mixed-incomedevelopments, where residential, commercial, civic or institutionalestablishments are located close to each other allow local communities to beformed, with sufficient shared spaces for leisure and recreation.- Aparna Parimal Raje on DDA’s TOD Policy, LiveMintA shaded plaza in an office dominated complex. Greenway passages along daily routes of people
  • 117. Building Entries/ windows onSidewalk (eyes on the street -provides safety for pedestrians)Remove Setbacks,Require Entries on sidewalksRegulateMaximum Block Widths,Minimum FrontagesDesign Street Guidelinesfor pedestrians, not just cars!Streets for Trains, Buses, carsand Pedestrians.Built-to-edge Buildings forSafety & Comfort.Sidewalks, Bio-swalesSmaller blocks, interconnectedstreets create shorter travel routesfor pedestrians.Critical Norms introduced for PlaceMaking:
  • 118. Example of Common Public Realm in Delhi:• Due to current norms, Vehicles encroach pedestrian space where its most needed
  • 119. Graphic representation of Common Public Realm in Delhi:• Due to current norms, Vehicles encroach pedestrian space where its most needed© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 120. Graphic representation of Common Public Realm in Delhi:• Due to current norms, Vehicles encroach pedestrian space where its most needed© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 121. Graphic representation of TOD Norms:• Pedestrians dominate the street frontage of buildings, parking & cars access from back© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 122. Graphic representation of TOD Norms:• Pedestrians dominate the street frontage of buildings, parking & cars access from back© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 123. An Unsafe Street in Delhi with Setbacks and Boundary Walls (ITO):• Only vehicles find it safe to use this road although its an important shortcut to Metro StationITO Delhi - Now© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 124. 1)TOD Norms Create “Eyes on the Street”:• Pedestrians dominate the street frontage of buildings, parking & cars access from backITO Delhi - Future© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 125. Inhumane single use dominated Plaza:• Only a singular type of office going crowd populates this plaza due to single use natureNehru Place Delhi - Now© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 126. Inhumane single use dominated Plaza:• Due to lack of any residential/ dorm/ hotel/ hostel type uses, the Area is dead & unsafe at night© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development AuthorityNehru Place Delhi - Now
  • 127. Mixed-Use Norms create: Safety, Vibrancy & Reduced Travel Demand© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development AuthorityMixed-use with a variety of uses in one place thus combines/ reduces multiple daily trips.
  • 128. Mixed-Use Norms create: Safety, Vibrancy & Reduced Travel Demand© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development AuthorityResidential uses in an office area creates footfalls late at night, making the area Safe !
  • 129. Minimum Frontage requirements (built-to requirement at setback line)Facing Street Right-of-Way Minimum Percent of Building Street Wall (Frontage) at Setback Line1 R/Ws of 24m and above 85%2 R/Ws below 24m 75%B(A+B) X 100 = 85%A+B+CStreet Wall Regulations
  • 130. Minimum Frontage requirements (built-to requirement at setback line)Facing Street Right-of-Way Minimum Percent of Building Street Wall (Frontage) at Setback Line1 R/Ws of 24m and above 85%2 R/Ws below 24m 75%Street Wall Regulations(A+B) X 100 = 75%A+B+C
  • 131. • The Minimum Ground Coverage requirement for all plots, blocks and projects is 40%.• Open Space requirements and Solar Access Regulations have to be met as per 2.5.6.2.Minimum Ground CoverageStreet Wall Regulations
  • 132. Minimum Mix-use Frontage CriteriaAt least 50% of total street frontage of any TOD project should have an activefrontage, i.e. a mix of at least two types of use, with different peak hours of activitystacked vertically, to provide round-the-clock eyes on the street.round the clock active streets
  • 133. 2.6:138Norms forHigh Density Mixed-Income Development
  • 134. © UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 135. NMT Zone area= 65512.95 Ha ( 44.1 % of Delhi*)TOD Standard Zone = 27369.22 Ha (18.45 % of Delhi* )Intense TOD = 10279.96 Ha (6.9% of Delhi*)* Area of Delhi = 148300.0 Ha (as per MPD)TOD Influence Zones at City level
  • 136. TOD Influence Zones at Station levelExample showing plotting of the actual 300m, 800m and 2000m catchments of aMetro StationIntense ZoneNMT ZoneStandard Zone© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 137. HIGH DENSITY- MIX OF HIGH AND LOW RISE TOD AREA© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 138. HIGH DENSITY- MIX OF MID AND LOW RISE TOD AREA© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 139. HIGH DENSITY- LOW RISE TOD AREA© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 140. Transition in Densities: Variety in Development© UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority
  • 141. Combined FAR-Density Minimums: No Universal Cap on FAR FAR shall be clubbed with Density Minimums, in order to ensure high-densitymixed-income development. Density caps per influence Zone shall be based on overall Holding Capacityas per the MPD Zones. The minimum permissible standard for gross density for any TOD project is250 du/ha.GrossFAR(site)Minimum permissible density (with ±10% variation)Residential dominated project(Residential FAR ≥ 50%)Predominantly non-residential(Residential FAR ≤ 30%)Under-utilization of FAR below 3.0not permitted for new/redevelopmentprojectsUnder-utilization of FAR below 3.0not permitted for new/redevelopmentprojectsY (2Y x100) du/ha (Y x100) du/ha
  • 142. • The proposed TOD’s planning policy seeks to be both market-friendlyand inclusive by engaging with market forces.• It sets minimum benchmarks for construction in pre-defined influencezones around transit stations, and allows the market to decide whatshould be built in each influence zone.• At least 30% residential and 20% commercial and institutional use(including minimum 5% commercial and minimum 5% institutional use)of Floor Area Ratio (FAR) is mandatory in every new or redevelopmentproject within the TOD influence zone.• So in the intense TOD zone (defined as the 300m catchment area nearall MRTS stations), a developer of a particular site can decide whetherto build apartments, shops or offices, as long as the developer adheresto these minimum development norms.Mixed-Use Norms
  • 143. At least 30% residential and 20% Commercial/ Institutional use of FAR ismandatory in every project within Intense and Standard TOD ZoneTOD Mixed Use ZoneHousing(30%)Commercial/Instituional(30%)Other(40%)30%(C+I)30%(R)40%Minimum Mixed-Use Criteria
  • 144. 30%5%10%15%Minimum Mixed-Use CriteriaWithin the 30% minimum Housing requirement, the following mix is mandatory:
  • 145. Station AreaCross-Subsidy Models to be Developed for City Uses.
  • 146. 2.7:151Norms forPhysical Infrastructure
  • 147. 2.7.1. Water
  • 148. Rainwater harvesting is mandatory, irrespective of project size. On-site and off-site(roads/public spaces) rainwater must be harvested for reuse or ground water recharge,only after primary treatment.RainwaterCurrent practice:Stormwater recharged to ground without primary treatment.Physical Infrastructure and Resource Standards
  • 149. Parking Lot SwalesLarge Canopy TreesEcoroofPervious PavingAt least 80% of the rainwater falling on Site should be treated by Natural means.Physical Infrastructure and Resource Standards
  • 150. MCDMCDSELFGENERATEDSELFGENERATEDPotable Water and Waste Water• For projects of 5000 resident population or more, on-site decentralized infrastructure systems i.e.local sewage treatment and recycling systems are mandatory, in order to meet the non-potableper capita demand (90 lpcd for domestic and 115 lpcd for non-domestic).• Potable per-capita requirement (135 lpcd for domestic and 20 lpcd for non-domestic) should beavailable from the Municipality or any other source other than ground water.Physical Infrastructure and Resource Standards
  • 151. PotableTankSewageTreatmentFacilitiesSustainable Effluentdischarge system towetland / riverFurtherTreatmentfor re-useNon-PotableTankPotable Use• Internal taps• Showers & baths• WashingNon-Potable Use• Toilet Flushing• Cleaning/ IrrigationCombined orSeparate Grey Water/ Black WaterCollectionRainfallDJB mainS l u d g e d i s p o s a lDual piping is mandatory irrespective of project size, to facilitate black/ grey separation &recycled water use.Physical Infrastructure and Resource Standards
  • 152. 2.6.2Energy
  • 153. Buildings (and preferably also streets) should be oriented such that all habitableareas of Residential buildings are oriented to face North-South (within 15 ) direction.Energy: At Site level:Physical Infrastructure and Resource Standards
  • 154. Buildings (and preferably also streets) should be oriented such that all habitable areasof Residential buildings are oriented to face North-South (within 15 ) direction.Physical Infrastructure and Resource StandardsEnergy: At Site level:
  • 155. All dwelling units should get minimum 2-hour solar access in at least onehabitable area (living room, bedroom or private open space) on the shortest winterday of Dec 21 (Winter Solstice).At Building level, the following Solar Access Regulations need to be followed:Microclimate of public streets:Narrow streets provide shading and air movement – and thereforegreater comfort for pedestrians. Spacing between buildings should beenough to allow daylight access to all homes.Physical Infrastructure and Resource StandardsEnergy: At Site level:
  • 156. All residential buildings shall be single-loaded i.e. each unit should face the exterior, in two oppositedirections. No double-loaded corridor buildings are permissible in TODs. Openings shall be locatedsuitably to allow for natural ventilation and daylighting of habitable rooms and access to open air forall rooms including toilets and kitchens.Double loaded housingMaximize Cross Ventilation for Units byappropriate design of unit plans (providewindows and openings appropriately)Single aspect housingPhysical Infrastructure and Resource StandardsEnergy: At Site level:At Building level, the following Solar Access Regulations need to be followed:
  • 157. Physical Infrastructure and Resource StandardsMaximize Cross Ventilation forUnits by appropriate design ofunit plans (provide windows andopenings appropriately)
  • 158. No building floor-plate depth it to be more than 16 mMax16mOffice buildingPhysical Infrastructure and Resource StandardsEnergy: At Site level:At Building level, the following Solar Access Regulations need to be followed:
  • 159. No “row-type” building (floor plate longer than 30 M) will be permitted to go higher than 15 metres.To utilize FAR, only towers with be permitted, in conjunction with 15m high “row-type” buildings.Physical Infrastructure and Resource StandardsEnergy:At Building level, the following Solar Access Regulations need to be followed:
  • 160. • Tower dimensions may not exceed 30 m in any direction.• Spacing between two towers should not be less than 30M.Energy:At Building level, the following Solar Access Regulations need to be followed :Physical Infrastructure and Resource Standards
  • 161. Physical Infrastructure and Resource StandardsScreenshot of existing 3D GIS model of Delhi:
  • 162. Physical Infrastructure and Resource StandardsNew buildings shall be tested for shading of surrounding residential buildings beforeApproval, in order to ensure that they do not hamper the minimum daylight accessrequirements of existing buildings.
  • 163. All TOD Documents are available on the UTTIPEC Website:
  • 164. Detailed Norms for TOD:2.1 Pedestrian & NMT Friendly Environment2.2. Connectivity and Network Density2.3. Multi-modal Interchange2.4. Inducing Modal Shift4A. Accessibility Guidelines For Social Infrastructure And Open Space4B. Minimum Mixed-use Criteria4C. Parking Policy and Norms For Travel Demand Management2.5. Placemaking and Ensuring Safety5A. Street Edge Regulations5B. Active Frontage (Mixed Use Edge Condition)5C. Minimum Ground Coverage5D. Vending Zones2.6. High Density, Mixed-use Mixed-income Development6A. FAR and Density Thresholds6B. Open Space and Social Infrastructure6C. Minimum Housing Mix Criteria (by Unit Sizes)6D. Non-Permissible Uses and Desirable Uses within the 300m Intense Zone2.7. Physical Infrastructure and Resource Standards7A. Water7B. Energy7C. Landscape7D. Solid Waste7D. Incentives for Additional Green Building Compliancehttp://www.uttipec.nic.in/
  • 165. Rail/ MetroBRTInterchangeConclusion: Change Morphology from AutoCity to a Transit City7 min walkTo reduce car-dependence & increase transit use.
  • 166. Beware of what is Not TOD !
  • 167. Not TOD !An existing Commercial Project near a Metro Station
  • 168. An planned Residential Project near a Metro StationNot TOD !
  • 169. Not TOD !An existing Commercial Project near a Metro Station
  • 170. In order to Implement the above Vision,all Agencies of the city need to have aCommon Agenda....
  • 171. • Ministry of Urban development, GOI• Delhi Development Authority• UTTIPEC, DDA• LAP Monitoring Committee• PWD, GNCTD• Transport Department, GNCTD• DJB• EDMC• SDMC• North DMC• NDMC• DMRC• Bhagidari groups• Community and RWA representatives• DUSIB• Delhi Police• Delhi Traffic Police• TCPO• NIUA• DUAC• IUDI• Intach• ASI• Transport Department, SPA• Transport Planning Experts, IIT-Delhi• EPCA• CSE• Jagori• SamarthyamPartners in Development change
  • 172. ECONOMICS1. DMRC Empanelled Consultants2. Micro Homes Solutions (mHS)GOVERNANCE1. Ministry of Urbandevelopment, GOI2. DUSIB, GNCTD3. Delhi Police4. Delhi Traffic PoliceSOCIOLOGY1. Samarthyam2. Jagori3. Itrans4. National Alliance for PeoplesMovement (NAPM )5. SEWAIntegratedPlanning &DevelopmentENVIRONMENT1. Dept. Of Environment, GNCTD.2. Environment Pollution ControlAuthority (EPCA)3. National EnvironmentalEngineering ResearchInstitute(NEERI)4. Centre for Science andEnvironment (CSE)5. OASIS Landscape Architect DesignsIncorporated6. Institute of Urban Designers ofIndia (IUDI)7. NIIPCINFRASTRUCTURE1. Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC)2. Delhi Jal Board (DJB)3. Delhi Integrated Multi-Modal Transit System(DIMTS)4. RITES Ltd.5. North Delhi Municipal Corporations (NDMC)6. East Delhi Municipal Corporation (EDMC)7. National Environmental EngineeringResearch Institute(NEERI)8. PWD, Delhi9. Transport Department, GNCTD10. Delhi Development Authority (DDA)11. SGA Architects12. Indian Institute of Technology, IIT13. School of Planning & ArchitectureWe Acknowledge……
  • 173. The TOD Phase I Pilot Projects...

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