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Unconventional Natural Gas
 

Unconventional Natural Gas

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Tad Patzek

Tad Patzek
Petroleum & Geosystems Engineering
The University of Texas at Austin

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    Unconventional Natural Gas Unconventional Natural Gas Presentation Transcript

    • Unconventional Natural Gas Richard Folger’s natural gas compressor, Warren Equipment Company, Midland, TX, Photo by Tad Patzek Tad Patzek, Petroleum & Geosystems Engineering, UT Austin April 08, 2010
    • U.S. Energy Independence Fossil fuels run 85 percent of U.S. economy directly, and the remainder has a variable but non-negligible fossil fuel content Electricity is produced almost entirely from domestic energy sources Natural gas is the swing fuel for electricity generation Natural gas could aid in the electrification of railroads Natural gas could supplement petroleum as an automotive fuel – p.1/1
    • Units in My Presentation. . . The fundamental unit of energy is 1 exa Joule (EJ) 1EJ = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 J is the amount of metabolized energy in food sufficient to sustain the entire U.S. population for one year @100 J/s-person = 100 W/person continuously Currently the U.S. uses 105 EJ/year; one hundred and five times more than we need to live If we were to metabolize this amount of energy, we would be 15 m long sperm whales, each weighing 40 tonnes. 1 EJ/year = 32 GW heat continuously ≈ 1 Tscf NG/year = 1/2 million BOPD – p.2/1
    • Electricity generation: 39 EJp/y Rest 350 23 Hydroelectric 72 300 Nuclear 79 Days on Electricity/year 250 Natural Gas & Other 200 176 150 100 Coal 50 0 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 That’s 37% of primary energy use in U.S. Source: DOE EIA, accessed 03/28/2010 – p.3/1
    • Transportation Fuels: 33 EJp/y Ethanol 8 18 350 38 Residual Oil 300 99 Aviation Fuels 250 Days on Fuel/year Distillate Oil 200 202 150 100 Motor Gasoline 50 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 That’s 31% of primary energy use in U.S. Source: DOE EIA, accessed 03/28/2010 – p.4/1
    • U.S. Energy Independence Natural gas, increasingly from tight sands and gas shales, is the only large-scale, clean, domestic fossil fuel in the U.S. portfolio Natural gas can easily generate an additional 1–2 EJ/yr of electricity (4–9 Tcf/y NG) and displace 2–4 EJ/year (1–2 million BOPD) in motor gasoline and diesel fuel Key to natural gas success are stable gas price over 5-10 year contracts, and environmental soundness of field operations – p.5/1
    • Natural Gas = Cleaner Air. . . Wood Peat Lignite Hard coal Fuel oil Diesel Crude oil Kerosene Gasoline Refinery gas Liquid petroleum gas Natural gas Mean Median 0 20 40 60 80 100 Kg CO2 per GJ in fuel Source: Volker Quaschning, Regenerative Energiesysteme, – p.6/1 (Renewable Energy Systems), Carl Hanser Verlag, München, 2009
    • . . . and also Cleaner Soil & Water After mercury capture, utility boilers on natural gas emit 0.44 t Hg/y, vs. coal at 48 t Hg/y (5.3 t Hg/y in TX alone) Commercial boilers emit mercury at 9.3 t Hg/y Combusting coal generates approximately 290 Mt ash/y and pollutes surface and groundwater over watershed areas across U.S. Dumping coal ash occurs at 574 large sites across U.S. Scrubbing coal flu gas moves pollution from air to surface water Mining coal destroys earth surface TVA coal ash spill 12/23/2008 – p.7/1
    • Gas Resources Gas Shales in the U.S. Source: US DOE EIA – p.8/1
    • Gas Flows Source: US DOE EIA – p.9/1
    • Unconventional Resources, 2008 . . . P95 P5−P95 Coalbed Methane Tight Gas Shale Gas 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Technically Recoverable Reserves, Prudhoe Bay Eq. Source: Navigant Consulting, Inc., 2008 – p.10/1
    • Most Important Points for UT Austin Texas produces 18% of U.S. oil, 24% of U.S. gross natural gas Texas EOR produces 12% of U.S. EOR oil Texas produces 4 times more energy as natural gas and liquids (NG&L) than as oil Texas produces 21 times more energy as NG&L than as EOR oil Texas drills about 30% of linear feet drilled in the U.S. We need a campus-wide, $100 million+ initiative to address huge challenges with UNG production – p.11/1
    • UT Austin’s Contribution? 30 Production Hubbert cycles Future UNG 25 Marketed NG Production, EJ/Year 20 15 10 5 0 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 Future Unconventional Natural Gas Cycle = 100 years of U.S. Supply – p.12/1
    • UT Austin Contribution? 3500 Fundamental Hubbert peak All peaks 3000 Cumulative Natural Gas Production, EJ 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 Extra 2,500 Tcf = $9.1 trillion at $3.6 per mcf, all from unconventional gas – p.13/1
    • Interdisciplinary Effort at UT UT does more research on UNG than any other university in the world UT’s BEG and Jackson School of Geosciences have field research capabilities comparable only to major oil companies UT’s Petroleum Engineering Department is the best in the nation UT’s Energy Institute coordinates the parallel policy- and legal issues with UNG production UT’s Business and Law Schools work on UNG-related topics There are joint projects with Chemical and Civil Engineering – p.14/1