AND RESIN
COMBINATIONS
BY

DR.U.SRINIVASA, M.PHARMA,
PH.D
RESINS AND RESINS
COMBINATION
The term ‘resin’ is applied to more or less
solid, amorphous products of complex
chemical na...
 Resins

and related resinous products are

produced in plants during normal growth
or secreted as a result of injury to ...
GENERAL PROPERTIES
Physical characters –
1. All resins are heavier than water , they
are usually amorphous ,hard, and brit...
3.Chemically, resins are complex mixtures
of resin acids, resin alcohols (resinols), resin
phenols

(resinotannols),

este...
5.By the action of heat they soften yielding
clear, adhesive fluids , Resins burn with a
characteristic, smoky flame.
6.Re...
CHEMICAL NATURE :
 Chemically

resins are not pure substances

but complex mixtures of several resinous
substances as res...
CLASSIFICATION OF RESINS


Resins are classified in three different
ways:

1.

Taxonomical classification, i.e. according...
3.Resins may be classified according to the
portion of the main constituents of the resin
or resin combination; e.g. resin...
CLASSIFICATION OF RESINS
1. Acid resins –
Here the resins occur along with their acids.
Examples –
Colophony – Abietic aci...
2. Ester resins –
This group contains esters as the chief
constituents of the resinsExamples
Benzoin and Storax ,
Benzoin ...
3.Resin alcohols –
They occurs as in free state or as esters ,
examples –
Balsam of peru with perru resino tannol
Guaiaccu...
They are also further classified into –
Resins: colophony, cannabis.
Oleoresins: copaiba, ginger.
Oleo-gum-resins: asafoet...
BALSAMS
 Balsams

are resinous mixtures that contain large

proportions of cinnamic acid, benzoic acid or
both or esters ...
PREPARATION OF RESINS
Two general classes of resinous substances are
recognized and this classification is based on
the me...
 Example

by

artificial

punctures

e.g.

mastic; or deep cuts in the wood of the
plant e.g. turpentine, or by hammering...
2.

Prepared resins;
Are obtained by different methods. The drug
containing resins is powdered and extracted
with alcohol ...
In the preparation of oleoresins; ether or
acetone having lower boiling point are
used. The volatile oil portion is remove...
Crude drugs containing resins
And resin combinations
DR.U.SRINIVASA, M.PHARMA,PH.D
CANNABIS
Synonym

– Ganja

Biological source –
It consists of dried flowering tops of the
cultivated female plant s of Can...
Diagnostic characters –
1.Trichomes – Numerous, both covering and
glandular trichomes are present.
Covering trichomesUnice...
1. Multiseriate and multicellur tongue shaped
stalk with a globular head.
2.Short one celled stalk and 8 celled head
Chemi...
The

resin

also

contains

cannabinol,

cannabidiol, cannabidiolic acid etc
Indian hemp seeds contains about 20% fixed
oi...
4.It has psychotropic properties due to 1,3,4
Tetra hydro cannabinol
5.Used as an antibacterial agent
PODOPHYLLUM
Synonym – Indian podophyllum
Biological source –
It consists of the dried rhizome and root of

Podophyllum hex...
Diagnostic characters –
1. Sclereids
In groups, uniformly thickened and
rectangular in shape
2. Wood elements
Large number...
3.Starch grains –
Abundant, simple ( Spherical to ovoid)
and compound ( 3-8)
4. Parenchyma –
Parenchyma fully loaded with ...
Chemical constituents –
It contains 7-15% of resin known as podophyllin .
Roots contain more resin than the rhizomes.
The ...
Uses –
Used in the treatment of cancer
Used as purgative
Used as bitter tonic
GINGER
Biological source –
It consists of the rhizomes of Zingiber

officinalae
Family – Zingiberaceae
Diagnostic characte...
3. Parenchyma –
Some of the cells contain yellowish brown
oleo- resinous cells which occur either in
fragments OR droplets...
5. Fibres and Vessels –
Fibres ( Non – lignified ) in groups associated
with vessels
Chemical constituents –
It contains 1...
Uses –
1. Used as stomachic
2. Used as an aromatic
3. Used as a carminative
4. Used as stimulant
5. Used as flavouring age...
CAPSICUM
Synonym – Chillies
Biological source –
It consists of the dried ripe fruits of

Capsicum frutescens or Capsicum a...
Diagnostic characters –
1. Oil globules –
Abundant and red colored
2. Sclerides –
From the endocarp evenly thickened and p...
Chemical constituents –
It contains an extremely pungent principle
Capsaicin,

red

colouring

matter

Capsanthin.
It also...
Uses –
1. Used as a spice
2. Used as carminative
3. Used as nervine stimulant
4. Used as a source of vitamin- C
5. Used as...
BENZOIN
Synonyms –
Gum benzoin, Luban, Loban, Sambrani, Lobana
(Sumatra benzoin)
Biological source- Benzoin is the balsami...
Chemical constituents –
It contains 23% of balsamic acids – Cinnamic
acid and benzoic acid
It contains 70-80% resin consis...
CHEMICAL TESTS 1.

Heat small amount of benzoin slowly in a
dry test tube --- melts and evolves white
fumes is produced. W...
3. Benzoin is extracted with alcohol and to the extract
add water --- milky white solution is formed.
*4. Digest benzoin w...
USES 1. Used as an antiseptic
2. Used as an expectorant
3. Used as a stimulant
4. It is used in the preparation of Compoun...
SIAM BENZOIN
Chemical constituents – It contains about 70%
crystalline

and

10%

amorphous

coniferyl

benzoate, 10% free...
ASAFOETIDA
Synonyms –

Heeng, hing, hingu

Biological source –
It is the oleo-gum-resin obtained by incising the
living rh...
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS It contains 4-20% of volatile oil, 45-60% of resin
and 20% of gum.
Volatile oil contains Pinene, org...
CHEMICAL TESTS 1. Powder triturated with water – yellowish
orange emulsion is produced.
*2. Combined umbelliferone test –
...
3. Drug is treated with few drops of 50% nitric
acid – Green colour is produced
4. Drug is treated with few drops of sulph...
COLOPHONY
Synonyms – Chir, long needle pine
Biological source –
Colophony is the solid residue obtained
after distilling t...
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTSIt contains resin acids – abietic acid , neutral
inert substance – resenes, esters of fatty acid.
Che...
2. An alcoholic solution of colophony is acidic
to litmus
3. Colophony is dissolved in light petroleum
and filtered. To th...
Uses –
Used in the preparation of plasters and
ointments.
Used in the manufacture of varnishes and
disinfecting liquids.
Questions –
1. Define resins and classify with examples (5M).
2.Give the physical and chemical properties of resins (5M).
...
7.Give the identification tests for Colophony and Benzoin
(5M)
8.Give

the

source,

diagnostic

characters,

active

cons...
12.Write the chemical structure and uses for Cinnamic
acid and Zingiberene (5M).
13.Differentiate by chemical tests Siam a...
17. What do you understand by the terms Resin,
Balsams, Oleo-resin, and glycol-resin? (5M).
18. Give the powder characters...
“Talk doesn’t cook rice”. - Chinese Proverb
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION
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Introduction, Properties, Classification etc., of Resin and Resin combination drugs by Dr.U.Srinivasa, Professor and Head, Srinivas college of Pharmacy, Mangalore- Karnataka

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Introduction, Properties, Classification etc., of Resin and Resin combination drugs by Dr.U.Srinivasa, Professor and Head, Srinivas college of Pharmacy, Mangalore- Karnataka

  1. 1. AND RESIN COMBINATIONS BY DR.U.SRINIVASA, M.PHARMA, PH.D
  2. 2. RESINS AND RESINS COMBINATION The term ‘resin’ is applied to more or less solid, amorphous products of complex chemical nature. These are amorphous mixtures of essential oils, oxygenated products of terpenes and carboxylic acids
  3. 3.  Resins and related resinous products are produced in plants during normal growth or secreted as a result of injury to the plants  They are usually occur in schizogenous or schizolysigenous cavities or ducts
  4. 4. GENERAL PROPERTIES Physical characters – 1. All resins are heavier than water , they are usually amorphous ,hard, and brittle solids. 2. They are insoluble in water and usually insoluble in petroleum ether but dissolve more or less completely chloroform and ether. in alcohol,
  5. 5. 3.Chemically, resins are complex mixtures of resin acids, resin alcohols (resinols), resin phenols (resinotannols), esters and chemically inert compounds known as resenes. 4.Many resins ,when boiled with alkalies yield soaps
  6. 6. 5.By the action of heat they soften yielding clear, adhesive fluids , Resins burn with a characteristic, smoky flame. 6.Resins are often associated with volatile oils (oleoresins), with gums (gum-resins) or with oil and gum (oleo-gum-resins). 7.Resins may also be combined in a glycosidal manner with sugars.
  7. 7. CHEMICAL NATURE :  Chemically resins are not pure substances but complex mixtures of several resinous substances as resin acids, resin alcohols, resin esters, and neutral resins.  Resins ( do not contain nitrogen elements Non nitrogenous compounds)
  8. 8. CLASSIFICATION OF RESINS  Resins are classified in three different ways: 1. Taxonomical classification, i.e. according to botanical origin, e.g. Berberidaceae resins. 2. Classification according to predominating chemical constituent; e.g. acid resins, resene resins, glycosidal resins; etc.
  9. 9. 3.Resins may be classified according to the portion of the main constituents of the resin or resin combination; e.g. resins, oleoresins, oleo-gum-resins, balsams.
  10. 10. CLASSIFICATION OF RESINS 1. Acid resins – Here the resins occur along with their acids. Examples – Colophony – Abietic acid Sandrac - Sandracolic acid Myrrh - Commiphoric acid Copaiba - Copaivic acid
  11. 11. 2. Ester resins – This group contains esters as the chief constituents of the resinsExamples Benzoin and Storax , Benzoin contains benzyl benzoate, Storax contains cinnamyl cinnamate
  12. 12. 3.Resin alcohols – They occurs as in free state or as esters , examples – Balsam of peru with perru resino tannol Guaiaccum resin with guaic resinol
  13. 13. They are also further classified into – Resins: colophony, cannabis. Oleoresins: copaiba, ginger. Oleo-gum-resins: asafoetida, myrrh. Balsams: balsam of Tolu, balsam of Peru. Glycoresins : jalap Resenes : Asafoetida, colophony
  14. 14. BALSAMS  Balsams are resinous mixtures that contain large proportions of cinnamic acid, benzoic acid or both or esters of these acids.  The term “balsam” is often wrongly applied to oleoresins and should be reserved for such substances as balsam of Peru, balsam of Tolu and storax, which contain a high proportion of aromatic balsamic acids.
  15. 15. PREPARATION OF RESINS Two general classes of resinous substances are recognized and this classification is based on the method used in preparing them: 1. Natural resins, occur as exudates from plants, produced normally or as result of pathogenic conditions
  16. 16.  Example by artificial punctures e.g. mastic; or deep cuts in the wood of the plant e.g. turpentine, or by hammering and scorching, e.g. balsam of Peru.
  17. 17. 2. Prepared resins; Are obtained by different methods. The drug containing resins is powdered and extracted with alcohol till exhaustion. The Concentrated alcoholic extract is either evaporated, or poured into water and the precipitated resin is collected, washed and carefully dried.
  18. 18. In the preparation of oleoresins; ether or acetone having lower boiling point are used. The volatile oil portion is removed through distillation. When the resin occurs associated with gum (gum-resins), the resin is extracted with alcohol leaving the gum insoluble.
  19. 19. Crude drugs containing resins And resin combinations DR.U.SRINIVASA, M.PHARMA,PH.D
  20. 20. CANNABIS Synonym – Ganja Biological source – It consists of dried flowering tops of the cultivated female plant s of Cannabis sativa Family - Cannabinaceae
  21. 21. Diagnostic characters – 1.Trichomes – Numerous, both covering and glandular trichomes are present. Covering trichomesUnicellur, slightly curved, pointed at one end and enlarged and contains cystolith (Dragger shaped) Glandular trichomes – Two types of glandular trichomes are present .
  22. 22. 1. Multiseriate and multicellur tongue shaped stalk with a globular head. 2.Short one celled stalk and 8 celled head Chemical constituents It contains 15-20% of resin, which contain major active principle 1,3,4 Tetra hydro cannabinol ( Commonly known as Δ THC)
  23. 23. The resin also contains cannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabidiolic acid etc Indian hemp seeds contains about 20% fixed oil. Uses – 1.Sedative 2. Narcotic analgesic 3.Hypnotic ( Induce sleep)
  24. 24. 4.It has psychotropic properties due to 1,3,4 Tetra hydro cannabinol 5.Used as an antibacterial agent
  25. 25. PODOPHYLLUM Synonym – Indian podophyllum Biological source – It consists of the dried rhizome and root of Podophyllum hexandrum ( Podophyllum emodi ) Family - Berberidaceae
  26. 26. Diagnostic characters – 1. Sclereids In groups, uniformly thickened and rectangular in shape 2. Wood elements Large number of vessels, either entire or fragments of the same showing reticulate thickening
  27. 27. 3.Starch grains – Abundant, simple ( Spherical to ovoid) and compound ( 3-8) 4. Parenchyma – Parenchyma fully loaded with starch grains
  28. 28. Chemical constituents – It contains 7-15% of resin known as podophyllin . Roots contain more resin than the rhizomes. The active principle in podophyllin resin is known as podophyllotoxin(40%) in Indian variety , alpha and β peltatins in the American podophyllum. It also contains Quercetin , Kaempferol, astragalin, essential oil
  29. 29. Uses – Used in the treatment of cancer Used as purgative Used as bitter tonic
  30. 30. GINGER Biological source – It consists of the rhizomes of Zingiber officinalae Family – Zingiberaceae Diagnostic characters – 1. Odour – Pleasant aromatic 2. Taste - Pungent
  31. 31. 3. Parenchyma – Some of the cells contain yellowish brown oleo- resinous cells which occur either in fragments OR droplets 4. Starch grains – Characteristic , abundant, simple, ovoid or sack shaped
  32. 32. 5. Fibres and Vessels – Fibres ( Non – lignified ) in groups associated with vessels Chemical constituents – It contains 1-2% of volatile oil, 5-8% pungent principle, resinous mass and starch The chief constituent of volatile oil is Zingiberine . It also contains gingerol and traces of shogaol
  33. 33. Uses – 1. Used as stomachic 2. Used as an aromatic 3. Used as a carminative 4. Used as stimulant 5. Used as flavouring agent 6.Ginger oil is used in mouth washes, ginger bevarages and liquors
  34. 34. CAPSICUM Synonym – Chillies Biological source – It consists of the dried ripe fruits of Capsicum frutescens or Capsicum annum or capsicum minimum Family – Solanaceae
  35. 35. Diagnostic characters – 1. Oil globules – Abundant and red colored 2. Sclerides – From the endocarp evenly thickened and pitted (in surface view) 3. Epidermis of the testa – Unevenly thickened and yellowish green in colour ( in surface view)
  36. 36. Chemical constituents – It contains an extremely pungent principle Capsaicin, red colouring matter Capsanthin. It also contains Ascorbic acid, carotin, red pigments etc
  37. 37. Uses – 1. Used as a spice 2. Used as carminative 3. Used as nervine stimulant 4. Used as a source of vitamin- C 5. Used as an appetizer 6 . Used as a stomachic 7.Externally rheumatism used as counter- irritant in
  38. 38. BENZOIN Synonyms – Gum benzoin, Luban, Loban, Sambrani, Lobana (Sumatra benzoin) Biological source- Benzoin is the balsamic resin obtained from the incised stem of Styrax benzoin, Styrax paralleloneurus Family – Styraceae Siam benzoin – It consists of balsamic resin of Styrax tonkinensis, Family - Styraceae
  39. 39. Chemical constituents – It contains 23% of balsamic acids – Cinnamic acid and benzoic acid It contains 70-80% resin consisting of triterpenoids, siaresinolic acid and suma resinolic acid It also contains vanillin, sterol, phenyl propyl cinnamate responsible for the aromatic smell
  40. 40. CHEMICAL TESTS 1. Heat small amount of benzoin slowly in a dry test tube --- melts and evolves white fumes is produced. Which on condensation form crystalline sublimate. 2. Benzoin heated with potassium permanganate solution --- odour of benzaldehyde ( Sumatra benzoin )
  41. 41. 3. Benzoin is extracted with alcohol and to the extract add water --- milky white solution is formed. *4. Digest benzoin with few drops of petroleum ether for 5 minutes . Pour 1ml of the etherial solution in a porcelain dish containing 2-3 drops of con. Sulphuric acid and rotate the dish --- reddish brown colour is produced ( Benzoin confirmed).
  42. 42. USES 1. Used as an antiseptic 2. Used as an expectorant 3. Used as a stimulant 4. It is used in the preparation of Compound benzoin tincture
  43. 43. SIAM BENZOIN Chemical constituents – It contains about 70% crystalline and 10% amorphous coniferyl benzoate, 10% free benzoic acid, 6% siaresinolic acid, vanillin, cinnamyl benzoate ( Absence of cinnamic acid) Uses – Antiseptic, expectorant, used in perfumery, cosmotics etc
  44. 44. ASAFOETIDA Synonyms – Heeng, hing, hingu Biological source – It is the oleo-gum-resin obtained by incising the living rhizomes and roots of Ferula foetida, Ferula asafoetida Family - Umbelliferae
  45. 45. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS It contains 4-20% of volatile oil, 45-60% of resin and 20% of gum. Volatile oil contains Pinene, organic disulphide (isobutylpropenyl disulphide responsible for alliaceous odour) Resin contains free asaresinotannaol and in combination with ferulic acid
  46. 46. CHEMICAL TESTS 1. Powder triturated with water – yellowish orange emulsion is produced. *2. Combined umbelliferone test – Drug is boiled with hydrochloric acid for 5minutes .It is filtered and ammonia is added to the filtrate – A blue fluorescence is produced .
  47. 47. 3. Drug is treated with few drops of 50% nitric acid – Green colour is produced 4. Drug is treated with few drops of sulphuric acid – red colour is produced which changes to violet on washing with water. Uses – As a carminative, an expectorant, an antispasmodic , as a laxative, nervine tonic
  48. 48. COLOPHONY Synonyms – Chir, long needle pine Biological source – Colophony is the solid residue obtained after distilling the oleo-resin from various species of pinus- pinus longifolia, pinus palustris, pinus maritima Family - Pinaceae
  49. 49. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTSIt contains resin acids – abietic acid , neutral inert substance – resenes, esters of fatty acid. Chemical tests – 1.Dissolve the powdered drug in 2-3ml of acetic anhydride in a test tube and a drop of con. Sulphuric acid – violet colour is produced
  50. 50. 2. An alcoholic solution of colophony is acidic to litmus 3. Colophony is dissolved in light petroleum and filtered. To the filtrate 2-3 times its volume , dilute copper acetate solution is added – emerald green colour is seen in the petroleum layer ( upper layer )
  51. 51. Uses – Used in the preparation of plasters and ointments. Used in the manufacture of varnishes and disinfecting liquids.
  52. 52. Questions – 1. Define resins and classify with examples (5M). 2.Give the physical and chemical properties of resins (5M). 3.Define resins and add a note on preparation of resins (5M). 4.Give the diagnostic characters for Ginger and Podophyllum (5M). 5.B.S/Family/A.C/Uses of Benzoin and Asafoetida (5M). 6.What is Cannabis? Give its active constituents and uses (5M).
  53. 53. 7.Give the identification tests for Colophony and Benzoin (5M) 8.Give the source, diagnostic characters, active constituents and uses of Capsicum (5M). 9.Give the chemical tests for the identification of Asafoetida (5M). 10.Give the source, active constituents and uses of Ginger and Podophyllum (5M) 11.Explain with neat labeled diagram macroscophy of Ginger rhizome (5M)
  54. 54. 12.Write the chemical structure and uses for Cinnamic acid and Zingiberene (5M). 13.Differentiate by chemical tests Siam and Sumatra benzoin (5M). 14.Write a note on Combined Umbelliferone test and its significances (5M). 15.Write a note on chemical nature and method of manufacture of resins (5M). 16.Compare the constituents of Ginger and Capsicum (5M).
  55. 55. 17. What do you understand by the terms Resin, Balsams, Oleo-resin, and glycol-resin? (5M). 18. Give the powder characters of Cannabis (2M). 19.Write the active constituents and uses of Benzoin (2M). 20. Give the chemical tests for Colophony (2M). 21. Define balsams with examples (2M). 22. Give the adulterants for Ginger and Cannabis (2M). 23. Give the source and uses of a balsam drug (2M).
  56. 56. “Talk doesn’t cook rice”. - Chinese Proverb THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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