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Turf
T rf Insect
Management:
Billbugs, Sod Webworms,
and White Grubs


                          Diane Alston
        Utah...
Utah Pests is a great
             resource!
◘ Entomology & Plant Pathology resources
  from USU Extension
◘ see this talk...
Utah Pests On-line Resources




     www.utahpests.usu.edu
Integrated Pest Management
IPM
◘ Plan ahead (use preventive strategies where
  possible)
      ibl )
◘ Accurately identify...
Proper Diagnosis!
Most plant health problems are not caused
by biotic factors (pests: insects, diseases),
but by abiotic f...
Identification of
                    Insect Problems
                         Identify type of injury:
                  ...
Time Treatments for
 “Weak Links” in Insect Life Cycle
White Grubs
May & June Beetles
          Spring           Summer   ...
Turf Cultural Care
◘ Good lawn care (fertilize, mow, aerate,
                   (fertilize mow aerate
  irrigation)
◘ Incr...
Mechanical
◘ Thatch management
       Organic matter production exceeds decomposition
   ◙
       Insulates soil temperatu...
Aeration

◘ Consider if thatch >½˝
                       ˝
  ◙ Soil should be moist, not saturated
  ◙ Turf should be act...
Water & Light

◘ Water management
  ◙ Water deeply and infrequently
  ◙ Stronger root system
  ◙ Avoid irrigation during e...
Turfgrass Variety Selection
◘ National Turfgrass Evaluation Program
  (NTEP) – Paul Johnson, USU
◘ Start with pest free so...
Predators and Parasites
◘ Can reduce larvae (caterpillars, grubs)
◘ Unreliable efficacy
◘ Can cause concern to people




...
Pathogens
◘ Bacteria, fungi, nematodes (entomopathogenic)
               g
◘ Commercially available
◘ May need multiple ap...
Major Turf Pests
◘ Surface / Thatch    ◘ Subsurface (root):
  Feeders (l f stem):
  Fd      (leaf, t )     • May & June be...
Billbug adults
◘ Weevils - snout beetle, elbowed
  antennae
◘ Wandering walkers - don’t fly
            g                 ...
Billbugs in UT
◘ Bluegrass billbug
      g           g
◘ Hunting billbug
◘ Denver billbug (Northern UT)




       Bluegra...
Billbug larvae
◘ White, legless with brown head
            g
  capsule
◘ 1-2nd instars found just below crown
  12
◘ 3-4t...
Billbug or grub?
Billbug life cycle
◘ 1 generation per year
◘ Overwinter as adults away from turf
  ◙ Mi
    Migrate b k t turf in spring
 ...
Billbug damage
◘ Similar to drought-stressed turf
◘ Adults feed on stems
◘LLarvae feed on roots, crowns, stems
          f...
Turfgrass research
 Dr. Erin Hodgson, USU Extension Entomologist

◘ USU collaboration with P. Johnson/K Kopp
             ...
Core sampling for billbugs in 2007 and
2008




    N
Observations in Cache Valley
• Denver billbug is most prominent
• Large larvae are active in April (
                     ...
Pitfall trapping for b bugs
    a app g o billbugs
in 2008




N
Observations in Cache Valley
• Adults were active April – October
• Peak adult activity mid to late June
Denver Billbug
◘ Life Cycle
  • Adults & large larvae
    overwinter t rf
    o er inter in turf
  • Begin feeding in spri...
Billbug Control
    Target small larvae (early summer)
◘
    Threshold: 1 larva/sq ft
◘
    Light irrigation to move mater...
Subterranean
Sod Webworm
◘ Lepidoptera (moth caterpillar)
              (moth,
◘ AKA Cranberry girdler
◘ Snout moth
  • Of...
Subterranean Sod Webworm
◘ Damage
 • Thi i
   Thinning t f
            turf
 • Larvae chew on crowns & roots
 • When sever...
Sub.
  Sub Sod Webworm Control
◘ Target young larvae (summer to early fall)
◘ Threshold: 10-15 larvae/sq ft
              ...
White Grubs
   May and June Beetles (Phyllophaga)

◘ Scarab beetle family
◘ C-shaped white larvae
  • Brown head, legs
  •...
White Grubs


◘ Damage:
   • Root feeding, plants wilt, yellow, thin
   • Irregular dead p
         g          patches
   ...
White Grubs
              1-3
              1 3 year life cycle
                       lif     l

              Spring    ...
White Grub Control
◘TTarget eggs & small l
       t            ll larvae (l t spring to early summer)
                    ...
Cutworms & Armyworms
• Lepidoptera (
    p    p      (Noctuid moths) )
• Healthy turf can resist attack
• Larvae feed on l...
Mites

• Banks Grass Mite
• Clover Mite
• Twospotted Spider Mite
  • Feed on leaves
  • Remove sap, chlorophyll
  • Cause ...
Mite Control
◘ Soap (1-2%)
◘ Stiff stream of water; irrigate
◘ Miti id
  Miticides:
  • Abamectin (Advantage™, Avid™)
  • ...
Where can you view this & other
    pest management slideshows?

  One-stop
  shopping for
  Utah pest
  management
  info...
Acknowledgement
◘ Dr Erin Hodgson USU Extension
  Dr.     Hodgson,
  Entomologist
  ◙ For sharing billbug & turfgrass rese...
Contact Information
              f     i
Diane Alston
Entomologist
Utah State University
(435) 797 2516
      797-2516
di...
Utah Turf Insect Management
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Transcript of "Utah Turf Insect Management"

  1. 1. Turf T rf Insect Management: Billbugs, Sod Webworms, and White Grubs Diane Alston Utah State University Extension Utah Pest Control & Lawn Care Association Annual Convention February 12, 2009
  2. 2. Utah Pests is a great resource! ◘ Entomology & Plant Pathology resources from USU Extension ◘ see this talk again (and many more!) ◘ fact sheets, advisories, newsletters ◘ how to submit a sample to the UPPDL ◘ photo gallery, FAQ’s, etc. go to www.utahpests.usu.edu
  3. 3. Utah Pests On-line Resources www.utahpests.usu.edu
  4. 4. Integrated Pest Management IPM ◘ Plan ahead (use preventive strategies where possible) ibl ) ◘ Accurately identify problem ◘ Monitor regularly ◘ Treat only if needed (thresholds) ◘ Time treatments for “weak links” in pest life cycle ◘ Use multiple pest management tools • Cultural (Variety selection/Turf mgmt.) • Mechanical (Aeration/Thatch reduction) ( ) • Biological (Conserve beneficials/Use biologicals) • Chemical (Effective/Least toxic) ◘ Keep records ◘ Environmentally, economically, and socially sound
  5. 5. Proper Diagnosis! Most plant health problems are not caused by biotic factors (pests: insects, diseases), but by abiotic factors (irrigation, environment, culture & care) Lawn with dry area suggestive of sprinkler pattern problem
  6. 6. Identification of Insect Problems Identify type of injury: Chewed leaves Short stems Stems break easily Sawdust-like frass S d t lik f Look for presence of insect: Spongy turf “Turf roll back” Turf roll-back Fat caterpillars Predator digging Brown moths Small, legless grubs Large C-shaped grubs
  7. 7. Time Treatments for “Weak Links” in Insect Life Cycle White Grubs May & June Beetles Spring Summer Fall/Winter Lay eggs late spring to summer – small larvae present in early summer Pupate t 3” to 12” deep
  8. 8. Turf Cultural Care ◘ Good lawn care (fertilize, mow, aerate, (fertilize mow aerate irrigation) ◘ Increase mowing height ◘ Amend soil (add OM) ◘ Select more tolerant turf species & varieties ◘ De-thatch
  9. 9. Mechanical ◘ Thatch management Organic matter production exceeds decomposition ◙ Insulates soil temperature changes ◙ Can reduce cold and drought tolerances ◙ Can reduce penetration of water & pesticides ◙ > ½ in.
  10. 10. Aeration ◘ Consider if thatch >½˝ ˝ ◙ Soil should be moist, not saturated ◙ Turf should be actively growing (30 days after) • Spring/after Labor day • May require herbicide? ◙P Power raking ki • Slicing and lifting thatch ◙C Core aeration prevents accumulation ti t l ti
  11. 11. Water & Light ◘ Water management ◙ Water deeply and infrequently ◙ Stronger root system ◙ Avoid irrigation during egg-laying periods ◘ Light management ◙ White grub adults attracted to lights ◙ Damage under street lights/athletic fields ◙ Use sodium vapor/yellow lights
  12. 12. Turfgrass Variety Selection ◘ National Turfgrass Evaluation Program (NTEP) – Paul Johnson, USU ◘ Start with pest free sod pest-free ◘ Extensive root systems ◘ Endophyte-enhanced ◙ Perennial ryegrasses and fescues ◙ Best for leaf and stem attacking insects ◙ Some tolerance to billbugsg
  13. 13. Predators and Parasites ◘ Can reduce larvae (caterpillars, grubs) ◘ Unreliable efficacy ◘ Can cause concern to people Ground beetle Tiger beetle
  14. 14. Pathogens ◘ Bacteria, fungi, nematodes (entomopathogenic) g ◘ Commercially available ◘ May need multiple applications ◘ May need 3-5 years to see effects Nematode Fungus
  15. 15. Major Turf Pests ◘ Surface / Thatch ◘ Subsurface (root): Feeders (l f stem): Fd (leaf, t ) • May & June beetles • Armyworm • Black turfgrass Ataenius • Cutworm • Masked chafer • Sod webworm • Japanese beetle • Mites ◘ Surface / Crown Feeders (burrow into stem, stem crown): • Billbugs • Subterranean webworm
  16. 16. Billbug adults ◘ Weevils - snout beetle, elbowed antennae ◘ Wandering walkers - don’t fly g y ◘ Will “play dead” if disturbed
  17. 17. Billbugs in UT ◘ Bluegrass billbug g g ◘ Hunting billbug ◘ Denver billbug (Northern UT) Bluegrass billbug Denver billbug
  18. 18. Billbug larvae ◘ White, legless with brown head g capsule ◘ 1-2nd instars found just below crown 12 ◘ 3-4th instars found just under thatch
  19. 19. Billbug or grub?
  20. 20. Billbug life cycle ◘ 1 generation per year ◘ Overwinter as adults away from turf ◙ Mi Migrate b k t turf in spring t back to t f i i ◘ Some overwinter as larvae in turf ◘ Mate and lay eggs in the spring ◘ Feed all summer
  21. 21. Billbug damage ◘ Similar to drought-stressed turf ◘ Adults feed on stems ◘LLarvae feed on roots, crowns, stems fd t t
  22. 22. Turfgrass research Dr. Erin Hodgson, USU Extension Entomologist ◘ USU collaboration with P. Johnson/K Kopp P Johnson/K. Greenville Farm, Logan UT ◙ Define life history information for billbugs ◙ Describe population dynamics ◙ Refine sampling protocols ◙
  23. 23. Core sampling for billbugs in 2007 and 2008 N
  24. 24. Observations in Cache Valley • Denver billbug is most prominent • Large larvae are active in April ( (suggests t overwintering) • Peak larval activity late J y – early August y July y g
  25. 25. Pitfall trapping for b bugs a app g o billbugs in 2008 N
  26. 26. Observations in Cache Valley • Adults were active April – October • Peak adult activity mid to late June
  27. 27. Denver Billbug ◘ Life Cycle • Adults & large larvae overwinter t rf o er inter in turf • Begin feeding in spring • Eggs laid in stems (spring to summer) ) • Overlap of old & new adults in summer ◘ Damage • Mid June to early August • Larvae feed within stems stems, crowns & on roots • Abundant frass • Stems break easily at crown • Dollar spots grow into larger patches
  28. 28. Billbug Control Target small larvae (early summer) ◘ Threshold: 1 larva/sq ft ◘ Light irrigation to move materials into crown zone ihii i ili ◘ Tolerant turfgrass varieties (endophyte) ◘ Insecticides: ◘ • Chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn™) • Clothianidin (Arena™) • Imidacloprid (MeritTM) • Halofenozide (Mach 2TM) • ScimitarTM, TalstarTM & TempoTM for adults • Chlorpyrifos (Dursban ProTM) • Carbaryl (SevinTM) • Beneficial Nematodes -Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (CruiserTM) & Steinernema carpocapsae (ScanmaskTM) • Fungus – Beauveria bassiana (BotanigardTM, NaturalisTM)
  29. 29. Subterranean Sod Webworm ◘ Lepidoptera (moth caterpillar) (moth, ◘ AKA Cranberry girdler ◘ Snout moth • Off-white to gray caterpillars • Larvae feed in crowns & roots • Larvae form silken tunnels in soil to spend the winter • Adults emerge in mid June, active 6-8 wk 68 • Buff to brown moths fly just above turf in zigzag pattern; especially near dusk ◘1 1generation per year ti
  30. 30. Subterranean Sod Webworm ◘ Damage • Thi i Thinning t f turf • Larvae chew on crowns & roots • When severe, sod becomes loosely attached t the soil tt h d to th il • Green frass accumulates at crowns • Secondary damage from birds y g pecking holes in turf
  31. 31. Sub. Sub Sod Webworm Control ◘ Target young larvae (summer to early fall) ◘ Threshold: 10-15 larvae/sq ft /q ◘ Increase mowing height • Bacillus thuringiensis (Deliver™) – must be ingested by small larvae • Spinosad (ConserveTM) • Azadirachtin (OrnazinTM) • Chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn™) • Clothianidin (Arena™) • Imidacloprid (MeritTM) • Halofenozide (Mach 2TM) • ScimitarTM, TalstarTM, TempoTM) • Acephate (OrtheneTM) • Carbaryl (SevinTM) • Diazinon • Chlorpyrifos (Dursban ProTM) • Beneficial Nematodes (Biosafe™, Biovector™Exhibit™)
  32. 32. White Grubs May and June Beetles (Phyllophaga) ◘ Scarab beetle family ◘ C-shaped white larvae • Brown head, legs • Eat roots • Turf roll-back ◘ 1-3 year life cycle y y
  33. 33. White Grubs ◘ Damage: • Root feeding, plants wilt, yellow, thin • Irregular dead p g patches • Turf not anchored to soil, “turf roll-back” • Invasion by broadleaf weeds • Secondary damage from small mammals & birds • Most apparent in late summer when grubs are larger
  34. 34. White Grubs 1-3 1 3 year life cycle lif l Spring Summer Fall/Winter Systemics Non-systemics Non systemics Pupate P t Can spend 1-2 years as 12 2nd-3rd instars move 3rd 2nd to 3rd instar larva 3” to 12” deep for winter
  35. 35. White Grub Control ◘TTarget eggs & small l t ll larvae (l t spring to early summer) (late i t l ) ◘ Target larvae before they dig deep for the winter (late summer to early fall) ◘ Thresholds: ◙ May/June beetles: 3-5 grubs/sq ft ◘ Irrigate to move materials to grubs in the upper root zone • Chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn™) • C Clothianidin (Arena™) ( ) • Imidacloprid (MeritTM) • Halofenozide (Mach 2TM) • Carbaryl (SevinTM) • Chlorpyrifos (Dursban ProTM) • Diazinon • Trichlorfon (DyloxTM) • Beneficial Nematodes -Heterorhabditis bacteriophora B fi i l N td Ht h bditi b t i h (CruiserTM), Steinernema carpocapsae (ScanmaskTM) • Fungus – Beauveria bassiana (BotanigardTM, NaturalisTM)
  36. 36. Cutworms & Armyworms • Lepidoptera ( p p (Noctuid moths) ) • Healthy turf can resist attack • Larvae feed on leaves & crown • Target young larvae in summer • Threshold: 5 larvae/sq yd
  37. 37. Mites • Banks Grass Mite • Clover Mite • Twospotted Spider Mite • Feed on leaves • Remove sap, chlorophyll • Cause speckling, silvering, bronzing speckling silvering • Dry conditions, drought stress • Spring to summer
  38. 38. Mite Control ◘ Soap (1-2%) ◘ Stiff stream of water; irrigate ◘ Miti id Miticides: • Abamectin (Advantage™, Avid™) • Dicofol (KelthaneTM) • Bifenthrin (TalstarTM) ◘ Predaceous mites
  39. 39. Where can you view this & other pest management slideshows? One-stop shopping for Utah pest management information www.utahpests.usu.edu
  40. 40. Acknowledgement ◘ Dr Erin Hodgson USU Extension Dr. Hodgson, Entomologist ◙ For sharing billbug & turfgrass research results
  41. 41. Contact Information f i Diane Alston Entomologist Utah State University (435) 797 2516 797-2516 diane.alston@biology.usu.edu g
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