Conserving Water and Money


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How to justify and begin a water loss reduction program at a water utility

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Conserving Water and Money

  1. 1. Conserving Water and Money<br />How to Begin and Justify a Water Loss Reduction Program<br />Bernie Bouman, PE and Dan Barr, PE<br />
  2. 2. 1978<br />Kent, Ohio<br />
  3. 3. Unaccounted For Water<br /> Billed Consumption<br /> Plant Production<br />
  4. 4. What is Missing?<br /> Unmetered Consumption<br />Public Facilities<br />Fire Protection<br />Flushing<br />Main Breaks<br />Theft<br />
  5. 5. What Else?<br />Benchmarking against other communities<br />Making a business case for a water loss reduction program<br />
  6. 6. What’s Next<br />
  7. 7. Modern AWWA Water Audit<br />
  8. 8. Modern AWWA Water Audit<br />System Input Volume <br /> The annual volume input to the water supply system<br />Authorized Consumption<br />The annual volume of metered and/or unmetered water taken by registered customers, the water supplier, and others who are authorized to do so.<br />Water Losses<br />The difference between the above:<br />System Input Volume – Authorized Consumption<br />
  9. 9. Modern AWWA Water Audit<br />
  10. 10. Modern AWWA Water Audit<br />Apparent Losses<br />Unauthorized Consumption, all types of customer metering inaccuracies and systematic data handling errors including theft.<br />Real Losses<br />The annual volumes lost through all types of leaks, breaks, and overflows up to the point of customer metering<br />
  11. 11. Modern AWWA Water Audit<br />
  12. 12. Modern AWWA Water Audit<br />Revenue Water<br />Those components of the System Input Volume that are billed and produce revenue.<br />Nonrevenue Water<br />The sum of Unbilled Authorized Consumption, Apparent Losses and Real Losses. <br />
  13. 13. Free AWWA Water Audit Spreadsheet<br />
  14. 14. Free AWWA Water Audit Spreadsheet<br />
  15. 15. Free AWWA Water Audit Spreadsheet<br />
  16. 16. Quantifying Unbilled Unmetered Authorized Consumption<br />Spreadsheet will assume 1.25 % of Water Supplied<br />Review following:<br />Fire fighting and training<br />Flushing mains, sewers<br />Street cleaning<br />Irrigation of Public Areas<br />Fountains<br />Swimming pools<br />Construction sites<br />Unmetered Public facilities<br />
  17. 17. Quantifying Unauthorized Consumption<br />Spreadsheet will assume 0.25 % of Water Supplied<br />Review following:<br />Illegal connections<br />Hidden meters<br />Misuse of hydrants<br />Bypassed or tampered with meters<br />Illegally opening closed curb stops<br />Uninstalled meters<br />
  18. 18. Begin a Program<br />
  19. 19. Accounting<br />Accounting Procedures<br />Manually check your processes from meter reading to customer billing<br />
  20. 20. Metering<br />
  21. 21. Metering<br />Large and Production Meters<br />Meters 2” and larger.<br />Up to 60% of consumption.<br />Calibrate annually.<br />
  22. 22. Metering<br />Residential Meters<br />Inventory and Sample<br />Average Customer Meter often needs replaced after 10 years.<br />
  23. 23. Leakage Reduction<br />Acoustic methods very cost effective<br />Start with pilot<br />Pressure Management<br />Area Master Meters<br />
  24. 24. Leakage Reduction<br />Canton, OH Case Study<br />Surveyed about 280 miles of water mains<br />Found 80 leaks<br /> 31 at hydrants<br />19 at services<br />23 on the main lines <br />
  25. 25. Leakage Reduction<br />Canton, OH Case Study<br />Estimated 773,520 gpd from identified leaks <br />Survey Cost $35,000<br />$100 to $150/mile<br />
  26. 26. Leakage Reduction<br />Erie County, OH Case Study<br />Surveyed 200 miles of water transmission main for a cost of $15,000<br /><ul><li>Located 36 leaks that were repaired
  27. 27. Reduction of 350,000 GPD of unaccounted for water!
  28. 28. Represents 12% of the water being purchased daily for Erie County!
  29. 29. Resulted in a savings of $500 daily or $182,500 per year!</li></ul>“Elimination of leaks paid for the survey.. and then some!”<br />
  30. 30. Summary<br />The AWWA M36 Water Audit Manual creates a business case and benchmarking tool. <br />Starting points for water loss reduction include:<br />Auditing your accounting procedures<br />A meter testing and replacement program<br />A leak detection survey<br />
  31. 31. Questions?<br />