Reconstruction
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Reconstruction

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Reconstruction Reconstruction Presentation Transcript

  • Southern Reconstruction 1865-1877
  • Goals
    • To explain the problems of Reconstruction
    • To explain the three new amendments to the Constitution
    • To explain the changes in the North and the South after the Civil War
    • To describe the presidencies of Johnson and Grant
    • To describe the problems free African Americans faced
  • Terms to Know:
    • Amnesty
    • Assassination
    • Oath
    • Reconstruction
    • Black Codes
    • Freedmen
  • The Beginning
    • Lincoln begins his 2nd term
    • Hopes for rebuilding the South
    • Reconstruction Plan:
      • a state could rejoin the union when 10% of the people took an oath to support the Union
      • new governments could be formed
      • slavery laws would be obeyed
  • April 14, 1965
    • Ford’s Theater
    • John Wilkes Booth
    • Lincoln Assassinated
    • Johnson becomes
    • President
  • Problems in the South
    • Damage had been great
    • plantations ruined
    • $$ was worthless
    • roads blocked with rubble
    • railroads damaged
    • few police, no judges, no courts
    • no established governments
  • Reconstruction
    • Rebuilding the South
    • Andrew Johnson is the new President
    Johnson’s Plan Congress
    • - Wanted to follow Lincoln’s Plans
    • - pardoned southerners who took oath
    • - temporary governors
    • - Most states ratified the 13th Amendment - ended slavery
    • - “Radical Republicans” opposed the Reconstruction Plan
    • - “RR” wanted to punish the former Confederate States for the trouble they caused
    • - “RR” refused to recognized the new governments
  • Black Codes
    • New Southern Governments adopted “Black Codes”
      • applied to African Americans
      • “ Freedmen” were not allowed to vote, own land, work certain jobs
      • Congress felt the south did not intend to end slavery
  • Terms to Know
    • Due process
    • Civil rights
    • Impeach
    • Misconduct
    • Override
  • Civil Rights Act of 1866
    • Congress intended to reverse “Black Codes”
      • African Americans could
        • own property
        • bring lawsuits
        • marry legally
  • 14 th Amendment
    • Proposed by Congress
    • Gave citizenship to African Americans!
    • Made the Bill of Rights cover all Americans
    • “ deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law; nor deny to any person equal protection of the laws.”
    • Did not apply to American Indians
  • Freedmen’s Bureau
    • Started in 1865 as a temporary agency
    • Help formerly enslaved people and white southerners
    • establish hospitals
    • extended in 1866 to help freedmen find jobs.
    • opportunities for freedmen to go to school
    • Protect the CIVIL RIGHTS of African Americans
  • Reconstruction Act of 1867
    • passed over the VETO of the President
    • Military rule would be placed on those states that have not returned to the Union
    • To be readmitted:
      • Constitutional
    • Convention
      • Congress’ approval of the
    • state’s constitution
    • Accept the 14th Amendment
  • Tenure of Office Act
    • Required approval from the Senate before the President could fire an appointee.
    • Johnson vetoed
    • Congress Overrode the veto
  • Tenure of Office Act…Cont’d
    • President Johnson fired Edwin Stanton
      • a cabinet member
    • The House of Representatives charged Johnson with doing something wrong
      • Impeach
    • Senate failed to impeach Johnson
    • Johnson remained president
  • The Election of 1868
    • Republicans
      • General Ulysses S. Grant
        • No political experience
        • Famous General of the Civil War
    • Democrats
      • Horatio Seymour
    • CONGRATULATIONS PRESIDENT GRANT!!!
      • received 450,000 African American votes
  • Terms to Know
    • Carpetbaggers
    • Corruption
    • Scalawag
    • Sharecropper
    • Tenant Farmer
    • Segregate
  • Reshaping the South
    • Reconstruction Acts provided for political reorganization of the South
    • Confederate political leaders could not hold office
  • Scalawags
    • White Southerners
    • Controlled new politicians
      • African Americans put in state offices
  • Carpetbaggers
    • Northerner
    • Elected to political office in the South
    • Took advantage of people
    • Made money through
    • corruption
    • Carried their
    • belongings in bags
  • Plantations
    • Could no longer use slave labor
    • Paid LOW wages to their former enslaved people
    • Decreased the profits of the plantation owners
  • Tenant Farming
    • A farmer who pays rent to a plantation owner for the use of the land
    • Paid a set price
    • Sold crops to pay the landowner
    • Ended up with very little
    Farmer Buyer Landowner Crops
  • Sharecroppers
    • “ Shared their Crops”
    • Owner provided seed, tools, food and supplies
    • Crop was payment
    • Land owner sold the crops for high prices but paid the farmers low prices.
    • A NEW FORM OF SLAVERY HAD BEGUN
  • Other Changes to the South
    • Discovery of iron ore, coal and limestone
    • Lumber mills
    • Cotton Mills
    • Towns and cities grew
    • States required public education for children
    • Segregated School
      • Whites to one - - - Blacks to one
  • Terms to Know
    • Grandfather Clause
    • Suffrage
    • Ku Klux Klan
    • Scandal
    • Centennial
  • 15 th Amendment
    • February 1870
    • Gave African-American men the right to vote
    • Suffrage given to citizens
      • except Women and American Indians
    • Southerners opposed the new amendment
  • Grandfather Clause
    • African Americans kept from voting
    • Voting laws were passed that contained the “Grandfather Clause”
      • any adult male could vote IF AND ONLY IF his grandfather was a registered voter on January 1, 1867
  • Problems for Africans
    • Ku Klux Klan
      • secret group
      • keep African Americans from voting
      • punish scalawags
      • make carpetbaggers leave the South
      • used violence
  • Problems for Grant
    • little political training
    • appointed friends to government jobs
    • presidency hurt by several scandals
    • 1872 - Grant re-elected
    • country entered a depression
  • Election of 1876
    • Democrats:
      • Samuel J. Tilden
    • Republicans:
      • Rutherford B. Hayes
    • Tilden won popular vote
    • No one won majority of electoral votes
    • An Electoral Commission decided the election
  • Rutherford B. Hayes
    • Hayes made a political deal
    • Told Democratic leaders that he would end Reconstruction
    • Hayes took office in March of 1877
    • All federal troops were removed from southern states
    • RECONSTRUCTION WAS OVER!!!