Southern  Reconstruction 1865-1877
Goals <ul><li>To explain the problems of Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>To explain the three new amendments to the Const...
Terms to Know: <ul><li>Amnesty </li></ul><ul><li>Assassination </li></ul><ul><li>Oath </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstruction </l...
The Beginning <ul><li>Lincoln begins his 2nd term </li></ul><ul><li>Hopes for rebuilding the South </li></ul><ul><li>Recon...
April 14, 1965 <ul><li>Ford’s Theater </li></ul><ul><li>John Wilkes Booth </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln Assassinated </li></ul...
Problems in the South <ul><li>Damage had been great </li></ul><ul><li>plantations ruined </li></ul><ul><li>$$ was worthles...
Reconstruction <ul><li>Rebuilding the South </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Johnson is the new President </li></ul>Johnson’s Plan...
Black Codes <ul><li>New Southern Governments adopted “Black Codes” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>applied to African Americans </li...
Terms to Know <ul><li>Due process </li></ul><ul><li>Civil rights </li></ul><ul><li>Impeach </li></ul><ul><li>Misconduct </...
Civil Rights Act of 1866 <ul><li>Congress intended to reverse “Black Codes” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African Americans could ...
14 th  Amendment <ul><li>Proposed by Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Gave citizenship to African Americans! </li></ul><ul><li>M...
Freedmen’s Bureau <ul><li>Started in 1865 as a temporary agency </li></ul><ul><li>Help formerly enslaved people and white ...
Reconstruction Act of 1867 <ul><li>passed over the VETO of the President </li></ul><ul><li>Military rule would be placed o...
Tenure of Office Act <ul><li>Required approval from the Senate before the President could fire an appointee. </li></ul><ul...
Tenure of Office Act…Cont’d <ul><li>President Johnson fired Edwin Stanton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a cabinet member </li></ul...
The Election of 1868 <ul><li>Republicans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General Ulysses S. Grant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No ...
Terms to Know <ul><li>Carpetbaggers </li></ul><ul><li>Corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Scalawag </li></ul><ul><li>Sharecropper...
Reshaping the South <ul><li>Reconstruction Acts provided for political reorganization of the South </li></ul><ul><li>Confe...
Scalawags <ul><li>White Southerners </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled new politicians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African Americans p...
Carpetbaggers <ul><li>Northerner </li></ul><ul><li>Elected to political office in the South </li></ul><ul><li>Took advanta...
Plantations <ul><li>Could no longer use slave labor </li></ul><ul><li>Paid LOW wages to their former enslaved people </li>...
Tenant Farming <ul><li>A farmer who pays rent to a plantation owner for the use of the land </li></ul><ul><li>Paid a set p...
Sharecroppers <ul><li>“ Shared their Crops” </li></ul><ul><li>Owner provided seed, tools, food and supplies </li></ul><ul>...
Other Changes to the South <ul><li>Discovery of iron ore, coal and limestone </li></ul><ul><li>Lumber mills </li></ul><ul>...
Terms to Know <ul><li>Grandfather Clause </li></ul><ul><li>Suffrage </li></ul><ul><li>Ku Klux Klan </li></ul><ul><li>Scand...
15 th  Amendment <ul><li>February 1870 </li></ul><ul><li>Gave African-American men the right to vote </li></ul><ul><li>Suf...
Grandfather Clause <ul><li>African Americans kept from voting </li></ul><ul><li>Voting laws were passed that contained the...
Problems for Africans <ul><li>Ku Klux Klan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>secret group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>keep African Amer...
Problems for Grant <ul><li>little political training </li></ul><ul><li>appointed friends to government jobs </li></ul><ul>...
Election of 1876 <ul><li>Democrats:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Samuel J. Tilden </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Republicans:  </li></ul...
Rutherford B. Hayes <ul><li>Hayes made a political deal </li></ul><ul><li>Told Democratic leaders that he would end Recons...
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Reconstruction

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Reconstruction

  1. 1. Southern Reconstruction 1865-1877
  2. 2. Goals <ul><li>To explain the problems of Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>To explain the three new amendments to the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>To explain the changes in the North and the South after the Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>To describe the presidencies of Johnson and Grant </li></ul><ul><li>To describe the problems free African Americans faced </li></ul>
  3. 3. Terms to Know: <ul><li>Amnesty </li></ul><ul><li>Assassination </li></ul><ul><li>Oath </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Black Codes </li></ul><ul><li>Freedmen </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Beginning <ul><li>Lincoln begins his 2nd term </li></ul><ul><li>Hopes for rebuilding the South </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstruction Plan: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a state could rejoin the union when 10% of the people took an oath to support the Union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>new governments could be formed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>slavery laws would be obeyed </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. April 14, 1965 <ul><li>Ford’s Theater </li></ul><ul><li>John Wilkes Booth </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln Assassinated </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson becomes </li></ul><ul><li>President </li></ul>
  6. 6. Problems in the South <ul><li>Damage had been great </li></ul><ul><li>plantations ruined </li></ul><ul><li>$$ was worthless </li></ul><ul><li>roads blocked with rubble </li></ul><ul><li>railroads damaged </li></ul><ul><li>few police, no judges, no courts </li></ul><ul><li>no established governments </li></ul>
  7. 7. Reconstruction <ul><li>Rebuilding the South </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Johnson is the new President </li></ul>Johnson’s Plan Congress <ul><li>- Wanted to follow Lincoln’s Plans </li></ul><ul><li>- pardoned southerners who took oath </li></ul><ul><li>- temporary governors </li></ul><ul><li>- Most states ratified the 13th Amendment - ended slavery </li></ul><ul><li>- “Radical Republicans” opposed the Reconstruction Plan </li></ul><ul><li>- “RR” wanted to punish the former Confederate States for the trouble they caused </li></ul><ul><li>- “RR” refused to recognized the new governments </li></ul>
  8. 8. Black Codes <ul><li>New Southern Governments adopted “Black Codes” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>applied to African Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Freedmen” were not allowed to vote, own land, work certain jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress felt the south did not intend to end slavery </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Terms to Know <ul><li>Due process </li></ul><ul><li>Civil rights </li></ul><ul><li>Impeach </li></ul><ul><li>Misconduct </li></ul><ul><li>Override </li></ul>
  10. 10. Civil Rights Act of 1866 <ul><li>Congress intended to reverse “Black Codes” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African Americans could </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>own property </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bring lawsuits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>marry legally </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 14 th Amendment <ul><li>Proposed by Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Gave citizenship to African Americans! </li></ul><ul><li>Made the Bill of Rights cover all Americans </li></ul><ul><li>“ deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law; nor deny to any person equal protection of the laws.” </li></ul><ul><li>Did not apply to American Indians </li></ul>
  12. 12. Freedmen’s Bureau <ul><li>Started in 1865 as a temporary agency </li></ul><ul><li>Help formerly enslaved people and white southerners </li></ul><ul><li>establish hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>extended in 1866 to help freedmen find jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>opportunities for freedmen to go to school </li></ul><ul><li>Protect the CIVIL RIGHTS of African Americans </li></ul>
  13. 13. Reconstruction Act of 1867 <ul><li>passed over the VETO of the President </li></ul><ul><li>Military rule would be placed on those states that have not returned to the Union </li></ul><ul><li>To be readmitted: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitutional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Convention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress’ approval of the </li></ul></ul><ul><li>state’s constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Accept the 14th Amendment </li></ul>
  14. 14. Tenure of Office Act <ul><li>Required approval from the Senate before the President could fire an appointee. </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson vetoed </li></ul><ul><li>Congress Overrode the veto </li></ul>
  15. 15. Tenure of Office Act…Cont’d <ul><li>President Johnson fired Edwin Stanton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a cabinet member </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The House of Representatives charged Johnson with doing something wrong </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impeach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Senate failed to impeach Johnson </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson remained president </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Election of 1868 <ul><li>Republicans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General Ulysses S. Grant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No political experience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Famous General of the Civil War </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Democrats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horatio Seymour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CONGRATULATIONS PRESIDENT GRANT!!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>received 450,000 African American votes </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Terms to Know <ul><li>Carpetbaggers </li></ul><ul><li>Corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Scalawag </li></ul><ul><li>Sharecropper </li></ul><ul><li>Tenant Farmer </li></ul><ul><li>Segregate </li></ul>
  18. 18. Reshaping the South <ul><li>Reconstruction Acts provided for political reorganization of the South </li></ul><ul><li>Confederate political leaders could not hold office </li></ul>
  19. 19. Scalawags <ul><li>White Southerners </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled new politicians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African Americans put in state offices </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Carpetbaggers <ul><li>Northerner </li></ul><ul><li>Elected to political office in the South </li></ul><ul><li>Took advantage of people </li></ul><ul><li>Made money through </li></ul><ul><li>corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Carried their </li></ul><ul><li>belongings in bags </li></ul>
  21. 21. Plantations <ul><li>Could no longer use slave labor </li></ul><ul><li>Paid LOW wages to their former enslaved people </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased the profits of the plantation owners </li></ul>
  22. 22. Tenant Farming <ul><li>A farmer who pays rent to a plantation owner for the use of the land </li></ul><ul><li>Paid a set price </li></ul><ul><li>Sold crops to pay the landowner </li></ul><ul><li>Ended up with very little </li></ul>Farmer Buyer Landowner Crops
  23. 23. Sharecroppers <ul><li>“ Shared their Crops” </li></ul><ul><li>Owner provided seed, tools, food and supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Crop was payment </li></ul><ul><li>Land owner sold the crops for high prices but paid the farmers low prices. </li></ul><ul><li>A NEW FORM OF SLAVERY HAD BEGUN </li></ul>
  24. 24. Other Changes to the South <ul><li>Discovery of iron ore, coal and limestone </li></ul><ul><li>Lumber mills </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton Mills </li></ul><ul><li>Towns and cities grew </li></ul><ul><li>States required public education for children </li></ul><ul><li>Segregated School </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whites to one - - - Blacks to one </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Terms to Know <ul><li>Grandfather Clause </li></ul><ul><li>Suffrage </li></ul><ul><li>Ku Klux Klan </li></ul><ul><li>Scandal </li></ul><ul><li>Centennial </li></ul>
  26. 26. 15 th Amendment <ul><li>February 1870 </li></ul><ul><li>Gave African-American men the right to vote </li></ul><ul><li>Suffrage given to citizens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>except Women and American Indians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Southerners opposed the new amendment </li></ul>
  27. 27. Grandfather Clause <ul><li>African Americans kept from voting </li></ul><ul><li>Voting laws were passed that contained the “Grandfather Clause” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>any adult male could vote IF AND ONLY IF his grandfather was a registered voter on January 1, 1867 </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Problems for Africans <ul><li>Ku Klux Klan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>secret group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>keep African Americans from voting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>punish scalawags </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make carpetbaggers leave the South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used violence </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Problems for Grant <ul><li>little political training </li></ul><ul><li>appointed friends to government jobs </li></ul><ul><li>presidency hurt by several scandals </li></ul><ul><li>1872 - Grant re-elected </li></ul><ul><li>country entered a depression </li></ul>
  30. 30. Election of 1876 <ul><li>Democrats: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Samuel J. Tilden </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Republicans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rutherford B. Hayes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tilden won popular vote </li></ul><ul><li>No one won majority of electoral votes </li></ul><ul><li>An Electoral Commission decided the election </li></ul>
  31. 31. Rutherford B. Hayes <ul><li>Hayes made a political deal </li></ul><ul><li>Told Democratic leaders that he would end Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Hayes took office in March of 1877 </li></ul><ul><li>All federal troops were removed from southern states </li></ul><ul><li>RECONSTRUCTION WAS OVER!!! </li></ul>
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