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2013 Toy Safety Standard ASTM F963, 2013 Safety Academy
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2013 Toy Safety Standard ASTM F963, 2013 Safety Academy

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An overview of the federal toy safety standard ASTM F963, some examples, its recent updates, the example of one toy company, and emerging issues and hazards, as presented by a consumer advocacy group. …

An overview of the federal toy safety standard ASTM F963, some examples, its recent updates, the example of one toy company, and emerging issues and hazards, as presented by a consumer advocacy group. Info current as of September 2013. Safety Academy 2013


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  • 09/23/13 This presentation was prepared by CPSC staff, has not been reviewed or approved by, and may not reflect the views of, the Commission.
  • Transcript

    • 1. This presentation was prepared by CPSC staff, has not been reviewed or approved by, and may not reflect the views of, the Commission. 2013 CPSC Safety Academy Seattle, WA
    • 2. The BasicsThe Basics • ASTM F963 was adopted – and subsequently updated – as mandatory rule by CPSC, as required in the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 (CPSIA) – Copyright still owned by ASTM-International – copies must be purchased at www.astm.org – Read-only copies available for viewing online when ASTM proposes revisions to CPSC • F963 is one of the key requirements for children’s toys but other requirements also apply. (E.g. lead content, lead in paint, banned phthalates, small parts, hazardous substances….)
    • 3. History of the StandardHistory of the Standard • First version developed by toy industry and published by the National Bureau of Standards – 1976 • First version of ASTM F 963 developed by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) –1986 • ASTM F 963- 07e1 adopted as a mandatory standard by the CPSIA – 2008 • Most recent version (ASTM F 963-11) became effective June 12, 2012
    • 4. ASTM F 963 - OverviewASTM F 963 - Overview • Subcommittee members from industry, consumer groups, government • Requirements based on injury analysis • Covers toys for children under 14 years • Scope excludes products addressed by other standards • More than 40 sections of requirements • Annexes contain information and rationale
    • 5. Scope OverviewScope Overview • Addresses thermal, electrical, and mechanical hazards of toys, packaging, and toy chests • Sections for prevention of choking, lacerations, strangulation, impalement, suffocation, falls, burns, poisoning, eye injuries, etc. • Age Grading: Advice for matching toys to children of certain ages
    • 6. The Standard ItselfThe Standard Itself • List of other federal rules for toys • Definitions • Requirements • Test methods • Guidelines
    • 7. Where are we now?Where are we now? September 2013 • 2011 version added: – Lead requirements aligned with CPSIA – Heavy elements (8) in substrate • Compositing Procedure for Total Heavy Metal Analysis – Cadmium requirements – Bath toy projections – Seat overload testing – Acoustics testing aligned with international standard – Elastic tether toys testing – New figures
    • 8. Mandatory Standard Revision ProcessMandatory Standard Revision Process • ASTM F963 revisions sent to CPSC for review • CPSC may reject revisions within 90 days • Unless rejected, changes become mandatory 180 days after proposal • CPSC rejected removal of toy chest section from ASTM F963-08, so ASTM F963-07e1 toy chest requirements remain in use with current mandatory version, ASTM F963-11
    • 9. Partial List of RequirementsPartial List of Requirements ASTM F963 • Sound-Producing Toys • Battery-Operated Toys • Small Objects • Stuffed and Beanbag-type Toys • Projections • Marbles and Balls • Folding Mechanisms and Hinges • Hemispheric-Shaped Objects • Cords and Elastics in Toys • Yo-Yo Elastic Tether Toys • Bath Toy Projections • Wheels, Tires, and Axles • Magnets • Pacifiers • Balloons • Projectile Toys • Certain Toys with Spherical Ends • Rattles • Teethers and Teething Toys • Squeeze Toys • Toxicology: Heavy Elements in Paint and Substrate 9
    • 10. Third Party Testing RequiredThird Party Testing Required Except in the following circumstances: • Sections that address requirements for labeling, instructional literature, or producer’s markings; • Sections that involve assessments that are conducted by the unaided eye and without any sort of tool or device. • Sections that pertain to the manufacturing process and thus, cannot be evaluated meaningfully by a test of the finished product (e.g., the purified water provision at section 4.3.6.1); and • Sections that address food and cosmetics;
    • 11. How To Apply the Standard?How To Apply the Standard? • Age grading: – matches the attributes of the toy to the capabilities of the child; and – is used to determine the appropriate tests to which a product must comply. • The Commission considers: – the manufacturer’s labeling on the product, if it is reasonable; – whether the product is advertised, promoted, and marketed for that age child; – whether the product is recognized commonly by consumers as being intended for that age child; and – Age Determination Guidelines – September 2002.
    • 12. ExamplesExamples • Not All Sections of F963 Apply to Every Toy • Some Sections of F963 Require Third Party Testing, Some Sections Do NOT require Third Party Testing • Clear Examples – Robert von Goeben, Co-Founder, Green Toys
    • 13. ExamplesExamples • “Gray Area” Examples – Testing Laboratory: Pratik Ichhaporia, PhD, Intertek Consumer Goods
    • 14. www.intertek.com14 © Intertek 2013, o Classification  General use vs. Children’s products  Children’s products vs. children’s toys o Applicability of toy safety standard sections Interpretations
    • 15. Children’s Product?
    • 16. Toys?
    • 17. Toy Safety Standard: Applicability of Requirements Section 4.36 Hemispheric Shaped objects 4.18.1 Accessible Clearances for Moveable Segments
    • 18. www.intertek.com18 © Intertek 2013,  TIA Interpretation’s committee  Revision to standard to clarify gray areas  F15.22 Sub-committee on going work  Magnets  Projectiles  Certain other requirements including emerging hazards Standard Revision
    • 19. Where are we going?Where are we going? New Issues and Emerging Hazards • Nancy Cowles, KIDS in Danger • Working groups: – Batteries in toys (Lithium batteries, fire prevention) – Magnets in toys (Magnet strength, flux index, labeling) – Projectile toys (Kinetic energy, improvised projectiles) – Impaction hazards (Nail-shaped hazards) – Emerging hazards (Projection hazards) – Toy Chests
    • 20. Thank YouThank You Panelists: Robert von Goeben Co-Founder, Green Toys robert@greentoys.com Nancy Cowles KIDS in Danger nancy@kidsindanger.org Pratik Ichhaporia, PhD Intertek Consumer Goods pratik.ichhaporia@intertek.com Moderator: Neal S. Cohen Small Business Ombudsman, CPSC ncohen@cpsc.gov Twitter @CPSCSmallBiz www.slideshare.net/USCPSC www.cpsc.gov/Toysafety www.cpsc.gov/GettingStarted www.cpsc.gov/SmallBiz
    • 21. Safety & Compliance in a Hyper-Growth Eco Company Robert von Goeben President & Co-Founder, Green Toys Inc. robert@greentoys.com
    • 22. © 2010 Green Toys Inc. CONFIDENTIAL – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Green Toys Market Leader in Socially Responsible and Environmentally Friendly Children’s Products Solid in over 5,000 retail locations in USA Pottery Barn, Whole Foods, Amazon, CostPlus, Nordstrom's, Barnes & Noble, etc. Export products to 97 countries Average annual revenue growth 70%
    • 23. © 2010 Green Toys Inc. CONFIDENTIAL – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE
    • 24. © 2010 Green Toys Inc. CONFIDENTIAL – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE
    • 25. © 2010 Green Toys Inc. CONFIDENTIAL – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE
    • 26. © 2010 Green Toys Inc. CONFIDENTIAL – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE
    • 27. © 2010 Green Toys Inc. CONFIDENTIAL – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Corporate Goals 2007 1. Find “quantifiably green” plastic material • Afterlife (biodegradable, recyclable) • Proven environmental stats (greenhouse gas reductions, energy savings) 1. Made in SF Bay Area of USA • Find local manufacturers 1. Safe materials and processes • Find reliable trusted supplier • Work in absence of testing procedures • Find trusted labs
    • 28. © 2010 Green Toys Inc. CONFIDENTIAL – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE High-Density Polyethylene Safety #2 one of the safest plastics available No BPA, phthalates, PVC, etc. Wide Availability Curb-side collected Available in California Good Marketing Families understand Close the education loop Good connotation CHALLENGE: Manufacturability
    • 29. © 2010 Green Toys Inc. CONFIDENTIAL – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Our key to compliance: simplicity Limited raw materials Resin Colorant Limited suppliers GT knows all sub-suppliers All in USA Simple products No batteries No electronics No glues, screws, metal, paints, surface coatings, decals
    • 30. © 2010 Green Toys Inc. CONFIDENTIAL – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Challenge 1: Recycled Resin 1. Less material certifications 2. Inconsistent feedstock 3. “Cottage industry” suppliers
    • 31. © 2010 Green Toys Inc. CONFIDENTIAL – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Solution: Lot testing Lots manufactured and quarantined Independent 3rd party Chemical testing Release upon compliance
    • 32. © 2010 Green Toys Inc. CONFIDENTIAL – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Challenge: Manufacturing No screws No metal at all No glue No paint
    • 33. © 2010 Green Toys Inc. CONFIDENTIAL – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Challenge : Made in USA
    • 34. © 2010 Green Toys Inc. CONFIDENTIAL – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Initial and annual testing
    • 35. © 2010 Green Toys Inc. CONFIDENTIAL – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Product Safety Rigorous US-based testing program Raw Materials Lot testing of recycled resin Standard ASDTM F963 EN71 ISO8124 Additional FDA Food Contact BPA PVC
    • 36. © 2010 Green Toys Inc. CONFIDENTIAL – DO NOT DISTRIBUTE Corporate Goals 1. Find green material 1. Made USA 1. Safe materials and processes
    • 37. Robert von Goeben President & Co-Founder, Green Toys Inc. robert@greentoys.com
    • 38. 09/23/13 Toy Safety: The Consumer Perspective Presented by: © 2013 Kids In Danger, Inc. Nancy Cowles, Executive Director
    • 39. Nonprofit organization dedicated to protecting children by improving children’s product safety. © 2013 Kids In Danger, Inc. 39 Founded by parents Linda Ginzel and Boaz Keysar after the death of their son, Danny.
    • 40. Toy Safety 40© 2013 Kids In Danger, Inc. a. Shared toy box b. Supervision c. Age grading d. Real world use
    • 41. Choking © 2013 Kids In Danger, Inc. 41 Hazard Highlight: Build-A-Bear recalls “Sully” Character stuffed animal. Basic Beat BB201 standard egg Shaker recalled. Detachable metal conductor pin on light-up toy frogs and ducks.
    • 42. © 2013 Kids In Danger, Inc. Hazard Highlight: Lead Recall of "Soldier Bear” Toy sets due to lead Poisoning hazard. Various Thomas & Friends Wooden Railway Toys contain lead-based paint. “Dinosaur Epoch” toy dinosaurs recalled by Xtreme Toy Zone.
    • 43. Magnets © 2013 Kids In Danger, Inc. 43 Hazard Highlight: Kenny died after swallowing loose magnets that fell out of a magnetic toy. He was 21 months old. Toys R Us recalls Buckyballs High-power magnet sets. Magnetix Building Sets are a top recall item.
    • 44. Hazard Highlights: 44© 2013 Kids In Danger, Inc. Toxins Spin Master “Bindeez” or “Aquadots” contain a pharmacologically active sedative pro drug. Plush toys are found to be treated with Chlorinated Tris, a carcinogenic flame retardant. Not recalled.
    • 45. Emerging Hazards: 45© 2013 Kids In Danger, Inc. Water Balz Water-absorbing polymer beads Sold As: Water Balz, Growing Skulls, Growing Spider, H2O Orbs “Despicable Me,” Cosmo Beads, and Fabulous Flowers toys
    • 46. Emerging Hazards: 46© 2013 Kids In Danger, Inc. Water Balz Water-absorbing polymer beads Also non-toy marketing
    • 47. © 2013 Kids In Danger, Inc. 47 Lingering Hazards: Eyeball Toy The plastic eyeball contains kerosene, which if broken, presents a chemical hazard to children. Mike’s Story A toy ball filled with a dangerous liquid injured 5-year-old Mike when it cracked and leaked fluid into his eye.
    • 48. Solutions • Testing • Standards • Learning from past 48© 2013 Kids In Danger, Inc.
    • 49. © 2013 Kids In Danger, Inc. Kids In Danger 116 W Illinois Street Suite 4E Chicago IL 60654 Phone: 312-595-0649 Fax: 312-595-0939 Email: nancy@KidsInDanger.org www.KidsInDanger.org Facebook: www.facebook.com/KidsInDanger Facebook: www.facebook.com/KidsInDanger Twitter: www.twitter.com/KidsInDanger @KidsInDanger Twitter: www.twitter.com/KidsInDanger @KidsInDanger
    • 50. Thank YouThank You Panelists: Robert von Goeben Co-Founder, Green Toys robert@greentoys.com Nancy Cowles KIDS in Danger nancy@kidsindanger.org Pratik Ichhaporia, PhD Intertek Consumer Goods pratik.ichhaporia@intertek.com Moderator: Neal S. Cohen Small Business Ombudsman, CPSC ncohen@cpsc.gov Twitter @CPSCSmallBiz www.slideshare.net/USCPSC www.cpsc.gov/Toysafety www.cpsc.gov/GettingStarted www.cpsc.gov/SmallBiz