ATV Safety Summit: Vehicle Tech Roll-Over Protection - Rollover Crash Performance Testing
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ATV Safety Summit: Vehicle Tech Roll-Over Protection - Rollover Crash Performance Testing

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Raphael Grzebieta, Professor of Transport and Road Safety (TARS) Research, University of New South Wales presented this at CPSC's ATV Safety Summit Oct. 12, 2012. Results of a previous major study in ...

Raphael Grzebieta, Professor of Transport and Road Safety (TARS) Research, University of New South Wales presented this at CPSC's ATV Safety Summit Oct. 12, 2012. Results of a previous major study in Australia examining Quad Bike (ATV) safety, measures for improved stability and the feasibility of fitting effective occupant rollover protection system (ROPS), will be presented. Around 50% of Australian ATV fatalities and injuries were caused by the vehicle rolling on top of the rider with resultant crush injuries and/or pinning them down causing asphyxia. Computer modelling demonstrates it is possible to design a practical ROPS that prevents such deaths and injuries. Also discussed will be analyses revealing fundamental flaws in basic assumptions and validation of the method used by industry to reject ROPS fitment, the ISO 13232 methodology. The paper also outlines a research program to develop a New Quad Assessment Program (NQAD) consumer tests ranking ATV stability and crush protection. Experience from the past 30 years in automotive safety has demonstrated a dramatic increase in safety of passenger vehicles resulting mainly from the well-publicised IIHS, NCAP, ANCAP and EuroCAP consumer testing. From a position of significant resistance by most automotive manufacturers in the 1980’s, there has been an almost complete reversal in industry activity resulting in improved vehicle safety. A similar program for ATV’s would hopefully result in a similar effect.

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    ATV Safety Summit: Vehicle Tech Roll-Over Protection - Rollover Crash Performance Testing ATV Safety Summit: Vehicle Tech Roll-Over Protection - Rollover Crash Performance Testing Presentation Transcript

    • Transport and Road Safety (TARS) Research Rollover Crash Performance Testing Quad Bikes (ATV’s) Raphael Grzebieta and George Rechnitzer Transport and Road Safety (TARS) Research, UNSWContact:Prof. Raphael Grzebieta, r.grzebieta@unsw.edu.auDr. George Rechnitzer, g.rechnitzer@unsw.edu.au
    • Overview of down-under work carried out • All Terrain Vehicle Injuries and Deaths, Monash University Study, Australia, March 2003, Rechnitzer G., Day L., Grzebieta R.H., Zou R. and Richardson S. • Study carried out at request of Victorian State Government WorkCover Authority and State Coroner • 7 rollover crush and asphyxiation cases were linked by Coroner
    • Overview of down-under work carried out • ATV rollovers a major cause of fatalities in Australia - crushing of rider by the ATV or ejection with impact with the ground or objects. • Most serious incidents occur in agricultural settings. Now around 30 deaths per year. Around 50% are rollovers (Lower T, Herde E, Fragar L. Quad bike deaths in Australia 2001 to 2010. Journal of Health, Safety & Environment 2012;28:7-24.) • This compares to 65% rollovers in the US identified by CPSC (Garland S. All-terrain vehicle deaths database. US Consumer Product Safety Commission, 2011.)
    • Overview of down-under work carried out • Aims of Monash study were: - A review of ATV related fatalities and serious injuries in Australia, USA, UK and New Zealand; - review of previous research of ATV fatalities and serious injuries - examine feasibility of fitting effective occupant rollover protection system
    • Overview of down-under work carried out • Method: - Investigation of ATV Stability Factors And Overturn Angle (static and active riding) HONDA TRX 350
    • Overview of down-under work carried out • Method: - Investigation of ATV Stability Factors And Overturn Angle (static and active riding)
    • Overview of down-under work carried out • Method: - Investigation of ATV Stability Factors And Overturn Angle (static and active riding)
    • Overview of down-under work carried out
    • Overview of down-under work carried out • Method: - Structural and dynamic computer analysis of ATV rollover protective structure Baseline MADYMO model HONDA TRX 350
    • Overview of down-under work carried out • Method: - Structural and dynamic computer analysis of ATV rollover protective structure MADYMO model HONDA TRX 350 with ROPS and seat belts
    • Overview of down-under work carried out • Method: - Structural and dynamic computer analysis of ATV rollover protective structure Cross over seat belt system used for Cases 2 & 4 & 6
    • Overview of down-under work carried out • Method: - Structural and dynamic computer analysis of ATV rollover protective structure
    • Overview of down-under work carried out • Results:
    • Overview of down-under work carried out • Study findings: - ATVs although based on motorcycle structures with two extra wheels added, have significant differences in handling, usage and collision modes. Despite these major differences, ATV safety philosophy retains and promotes, quite inappropriately, a motorcycle based and rider- centred perspective on safety, rather than a vehicle one. That is, ATV safety is considered to depend on rider separation from the vehicle and the addition of protective clothing and helmet. Simply put, such safe philosophies are ill conceived and dangerous for ATV riders. They do not offer any protection in the most common modes of injury with ATVs – rollovers, nor collisions.
    • Overview of down-under work carried out • Study findings: - The design of ATVs in terms of their short wheel base, relatively narrow track and high centre of gravity positions, and lack of a differential, result in adverse handling characteristics, which are intended to be compensated by active-riding techniques. Such techniques require shift in position of the rider’s body to increase stability during manoeuvring. Stability analyses of the benefits of active riding show these to have quite limited benefit (about 20% or less), and overall would appear to be overrated as a means of enhancing the control of ATVs.
    • Overview of down-under work carried out • Study findings: - Virtually all of the previous international research on fitting Rollover Protective Systems on ATVs to date has been predicated on having an unrestrained (or ineffectively restrained) rider so as to maintain active riding. This has led to protective structure designs with very poor effectiveness and in many cases designs that could well increase severe injury risk. Similarly, the Protective Structure designs suggested through the NZ ROPS guide and those of UK HSE are ill-conceived, totally inadequate, indeed dangerous, as they provide inadequate survival space and do not require proper restraint systems.
    • Overview of down-under work carried out • Study findings: - Three crash scenarios were modelled, with and without the Rollover Protective System. Scenario 1 was an ATV travelling at 7km/h across a 30-degree slope in which the ATV rolls due to hitting a rock. Scenario 2 involved the ATV travelling at 30km/h across a 30-degree slope and rolling due to hitting a rock. Scenario 3 was the same as the second, but with the ATV travelling at 20km/h. In Scenario 1, the ATV without ROPS rolled onto the rider, and in scenarios 2 & 3 the rider was ejected striking the ground resulting in severe injury levels (fatal in the 2nd scenario). In the three scenarios where the ATV was fitted with the Rollover Protective System, the occupant received low injury levels.
    • Overview of down-under work carried out • Study findings: - It is possible to design a practical rollover protection system for an ATV that will protect a rider against serious injury in a rollover, and other collision modes. Such a system requires a lightweight but high strength structure that protects the occupant survival space, together with a high backed seat with side bolsters, and seatbelt system to effectively restrain the occupant within the protected zone.
    • Overview of down-under work carried out • The Monash study outcomes is what we thought in 2003. However, that perspective has since changed particularly after carrying out an analysis of the QuadBar described in the next few slides. • Consideration of harm minimization must be applied here • Because of this new project we are starting from a clean sheet of paper almost – we are focusing on performance testing and let industry instead develop their own systems to mitigate rollover casualties
    • Overview of down-under work carried out • SECOND STUDY - Quadbar comparing it to the baseline and MUARC ROPS for 9 cases
    • Overview of down-under work carried out • SECOND STUDY - Quadbar comparing it to the baseline and MUARC ROPS for 9 cases
    • Overview of down-under work carried out • Study findings: - Addition of the Quad-bar to an ATV would help mitigate the injuries resulting from most rear rollover scenarios and some low speed, low slope scenarios. It does not appear to influence the outcome of higher speed cases as it provides no occupant restraint. It appears to be an increased risk in frontal rollovers as the Quad-bar may come into contact with the rider when the full weight of the ATV is behind it. - The Quad-bar’s extension helps to stop the ATV from continuing to roll down the slope, restricting it to one quarter turn in cases where the slope is 20 degrees or less and in rearward rollovers and power takeoff cases
    • Current work • $1 million dollar applied research and testing project being undertaken at TARS, UNSW, aimed at improving the safety of Quad Bikes (ATVs) from a stability and rollover crush protection perspective. • Project funded by WorkCover NSW, and strongly supported by the NSW State Government. The test work will be carried out at CRASHLAB in Sydney (http://www.rta.nsw.gov.au/roadsafety/crashlab/index.html). • Tilt table to be developed at Crashlab. • Table will be capable of allowing a tilt and also slide and then tilt tests
    • Current work • Evaluation of quad bike stability loaded with after market products (e.g. spray tanks, tow trailers, etc.) • Development of quad bike anti crush performance tests that will consider asphyxiation • Evaluation and ranking of current commercially available potential rollover protection systems Project Reference Group with all stakeholders represented – State Government OH&S, Farmers Representatives, Manufacturers, Aftermarket manufacturers, Workers Union, Universities (US and Aus), National and International researchers. Assess project outcomes and provide feedback
    • Current work • Evaluation and ranking of 10 quad bikes (ATVs) for stability • Evaluation of quad bike stability loaded with after market products (e.g. spray tanks, tow trailers, etc.) • Develop quad bike anti crush performance tests that will consider asphyxiation • Evaluate and rank current commercially available potential rollover protection systems Essentially Star Rating Quad Bikes (ATVs) for stability and crush protection similar to IIHS or NCAP. This could be linked back to injury outcomes.
    • NZ Land Corporation Farming Tests Source: Al McCone, mcconea@landcorp.co.nz Landcorp Farming Ltd (New Zealand)
    • NZ Land Corporation Farming Tests Source: Al McCone, mcconea@landcorp.co.nz Landcorp Farming Ltd (New Zealand)
    • NZ Land Corporation Farming Tests Source: Al McCone, mcconea@landcorp.co.nz Landcorp Farming Ltd (New Zealand)
    • Questions?