Determining Rider-Vehicle Dynamics     Utilizing an ATV Simulator                        Charles Jennissen, MD            ...
Background University of Iowa and the College of Engineering has very  strong computer modeling and simulator programs.  ...
Virtual Soldier Santos, a high fidelity avatar Biomechanical musculoskeletal  modeling along with predicative  dynamics ...
Center for Computer Aided Design                                   4
Hank Virtual Environments Lab Focuses on using virtual  environments to study human  perception and action.   Understand...
National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS) One of the two most sophisticated  driving simulators in the world.           ...
MiniSim Harnesses the technological sophistication of NADS in a  compact, customizable configuration. Can be rapidly dep...
NADSLooking at the role of cognitive development in safe tractor operation.                                              ...
3D Bio-Motion Research LabPerforms applied and basic research in human motion and biomechanics.Moog ECU-624-1800 Electri...
3D Bio-Motion Research LabMoog Electric Motion SystemState of the art motion tracking equipment including a Vicon system...
ATV simulatorBought a non-functioning Yamaha Bruin 4x4 ATV.Stripped the tires and modified it so that the ATV could be s...
ATV simulatorCreated a padded protective structure around the ATV that could be secured to the motion platform.          ...
ObjectiveDetermine inter-individual variability in the biomechanical parameters of experienced adult operators with regar...
Subjects6 adult males18-45 years of ageWithin one standard deviation of mean height and weight for an average adult mal...
Methods Reflective markers were placed on the  subjects (24) and on the vehicle (4). Accelerometers placed on helmet and...
MethodsSubjects were video recorded from the back and side.Vicon motion capture system recorded motion of the subject fr...
Pitching Motion - Video
Pitching Motion – Motion Capture
Pitching Motion – Motion Capture
Pitching – At Time of Largest MotionSubject 1 & Repeat   Subject 2 & Repeat   Subject 3 & Repeat
Pitching – At Time of Largest MotionSubject 4 & Repeat   Subject 5 & Repeat   Subject 6 & Repeat
Pitching – Angle Between Torso and ATV                                                    AVERAGE 4 Point: C7 to Pelvis to...
Rolling Motion - Video
Rolling Motion – Motion Capture
Rolling Motion – Motion Capture
Rolling – At Time of Largest MotionSubject 1 & Repeat   Subject 2 & Repeat   Subject 3 & Repeat
Rolling – At Time of Largest MotionSubject 4 & Repeat   Subject 5 & Repeat   Subject 6 & Repeat
Rolling – Angle Between Torso and ATV                                                                                  AVE...
Roll Motion – Accelerations at C7
Roll Motion – Change of Force at C7
Future Studies Will add pressure sensors on the handle grips, seat, and footrests to provide additional biomechanical mea...
Conclusions Our preliminary data provides proof-of-  principle for using our simulator to study  “active riding.” Future...
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ATV Safety Summit: Vehicle Tech Innovations - Determining Rider-Vehicle Dynamics Utilizing an ATV Simulator

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Dr. Charles Jennissen, with the University of Iowa's Department of Emergency Medicine presented this at CPSC's ATV Safety Summit Oct. 12, 2012.
The Safety Information and Guidance Provided to Parents by All-Terrain Vehicle Dealers and Sales Representatives' Objective: To determine the practice of ATV dealers and salespersons with respect to providing safety information since enactment of the 2009 U.S. Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act. Methods: A "secret buyer" method was utilized to evaluate seller practices. Results: 50 dealerships from 4 states were studied. 35 subjects (70%) were willing to show and discuss selling an adult-sized ATV when told that the purchase was for a 12 year old. Seven (14%) responded that ATVs should not have extra riders when the investigator made statements about the adequacy of a seat being long enough for a child to give a sibling rides. Only one subject, when prompted, informed the investigator about the need for a 12 year old to complete ATV safety training to drive in a public ATV park. Conclusions: Most ATV sellers in this study failed to follow requirements regarding age recommendations or to provide other safety information. Those who did often voiced concerns about possible negative repercussions from violations. Dealership compliance would likely benefit from increased enforcement, training, and resources. However, a "don't ask, don't tell" relationship between seller and buyer was alluded to during the study. This practice would predictably limit the impact of regulation enforcement.

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ATV Safety Summit: Vehicle Tech Innovations - Determining Rider-Vehicle Dynamics Utilizing an ATV Simulator

  1. 1. Determining Rider-Vehicle Dynamics Utilizing an ATV Simulator Charles Jennissen, MD Gerene Denning, PhD Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine Salam Rahmatalla, PhD Environment and Civil Engineering, Jonathan DeShaw, MSE Biomedical Engineering University of Iowa College of Engineering 1
  2. 2. Background University of Iowa and the College of Engineering has very strong computer modeling and simulator programs. 2
  3. 3. Virtual Soldier Santos, a high fidelity avatar Biomechanical musculoskeletal modeling along with predicative dynamics technology Can deliver feedback on how a certain type of task or combination of movements will impact a humans level of fatigue, speed, strength and torque over a period of time. 3
  4. 4. Center for Computer Aided Design 4
  5. 5. Hank Virtual Environments Lab Focuses on using virtual environments to study human perception and action.  Understand how children and adults negotiate traffic-filled intersections in our virtual environment.  Understand how people perceive and adapt to virtual environments. Factors that put children at risk for getting hit by motor vehicles when crossing intersections 5
  6. 6. National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS) One of the two most sophisticated driving simulators in the world. 6
  7. 7. MiniSim Harnesses the technological sophistication of NADS in a compact, customizable configuration. Can be rapidly deployed for off-site or multi-sited research, population-specific assessment, or driver training. 7
  8. 8. NADSLooking at the role of cognitive development in safe tractor operation. 8
  9. 9. 3D Bio-Motion Research LabPerforms applied and basic research in human motion and biomechanics.Moog ECU-624-1800 Electric Motion System  A tilt/vibration platform that is capable of acceleration of up to 15 m/s² in the longitudinal, lateral, and vertical directions. (Simulate Speed)  Can generate angular motion of at least 20 degrees in the roll, pitch and yaw directions. (Simulate Sloped Terrain)  Can vary vibration frequncies. (Simulate Rough Terrain) 9
  10. 10. 3D Bio-Motion Research LabMoog Electric Motion SystemState of the art motion tracking equipment including a Vicon system with 12 SV cameras and a Motion Analysis system with 16 Eagle-4 cameras. 10
  11. 11. ATV simulatorBought a non-functioning Yamaha Bruin 4x4 ATV.Stripped the tires and modified it so that the ATV could be secured to the motion platform. 11
  12. 12. ATV simulatorCreated a padded protective structure around the ATV that could be secured to the motion platform. 12
  13. 13. ObjectiveDetermine inter-individual variability in the biomechanical parameters of experienced adult operators with regards to operator/vehicle dynamics using an adult sized ATV simulator 13
  14. 14. Subjects6 adult males18-45 years of ageWithin one standard deviation of mean height and weight for an average adult male≥100 hours of ATV operating experience 14
  15. 15. Methods Reflective markers were placed on the subjects (24) and on the vehicle (4). Accelerometers placed on helmet and at C7 A series of seven programs were performed by each participant with changes at a variety of accelerations.  2 identical pitch programs (incline/decline)  2 identical roll programs (side hill/side to side)  2 identical vertical change programs (hole/bump)  1 program with all elements Small vibrational motion in 6 degrees of freedom used as physical distraction and to mimic normal vehicle vibration Movie of ATV riding through wooded area used as mental distraction 15
  16. 16. MethodsSubjects were video recorded from the back and side.Vicon motion capture system recorded motion of the subject from the pelvis and aboveMotion data analyzed with Visual 3D™ Software which is NIH approved 16
  17. 17. Pitching Motion - Video
  18. 18. Pitching Motion – Motion Capture
  19. 19. Pitching Motion – Motion Capture
  20. 20. Pitching – At Time of Largest MotionSubject 1 & Repeat Subject 2 & Repeat Subject 3 & Repeat
  21. 21. Pitching – At Time of Largest MotionSubject 4 & Repeat Subject 5 & Repeat Subject 6 & Repeat
  22. 22. Pitching – Angle Between Torso and ATV AVERAGE 4 Point: C7 to Pelvis to 4 Wheeler Angle 80 Sub1 Sub1 Repeat Side View 70 Sub 2 Sub 2 Repeat Sub3 Sub3 Repeat 60 Sub 4 Sub 4 Repeat Sub5 Sub5 Repeat 50 Sub 6 Angle - (Degrees) Sub 6 Repeat 40 30 20 10 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Cycle, Time = 2 Seconds
  23. 23. Rolling Motion - Video
  24. 24. Rolling Motion – Motion Capture
  25. 25. Rolling Motion – Motion Capture
  26. 26. Rolling – At Time of Largest MotionSubject 1 & Repeat Subject 2 & Repeat Subject 3 & Repeat
  27. 27. Rolling – At Time of Largest MotionSubject 4 & Repeat Subject 5 & Repeat Subject 6 & Repeat
  28. 28. Rolling – Angle Between Torso and ATV AVERAGE 4 Point: C7 to Pelvis to 4 Wheeler Angle 40 Sub1 Sub1 Repeat Sub 2 Sub 2 Repeat Front View Back View 30 Sub3 Sub3 Repeat Sub 4 Sub 4 Repeat Sub5 Sub5 Repeat 20 Sub 6 Sub 6 Repeat 10 Angle - (Degrees) 0 -10 -20 *Measured degrees from verticalAngle from C7 to the center of the pelvis to the ATV -30 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Cycle, Time = 2 Seconds
  29. 29. Roll Motion – Accelerations at C7
  30. 30. Roll Motion – Change of Force at C7
  31. 31. Future Studies Will add pressure sensors on the handle grips, seat, and footrests to provide additional biomechanical measurements.
  32. 32. Conclusions Our preliminary data provides proof-of- principle for using our simulator to study “active riding.” Future studies include determining how factors such as gender, age, inexperience, and passengers influence rider-vehicle dynamics. Simulator-based technology is a powerful and safe tool to address research questions related to ATV operation that cannot be tested using other methods.
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