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University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics          Department of Emergency Medicine                 Optimizing Seat Design ...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics          Department of Emergency Medicine                   All-Terrain Vehicles ...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics          Department of Emergency Medicine                                Single-P...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics          Department of Emergency Medicine                                      Lo...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics          Department of Emergency Medicine                                Objectiv...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics          Department of Emergency Medicine                                        ...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics          Department of Emergency Medicine                      INCLINE/DECLINE ST...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics          Department of Emergency Medicine                                Incline/...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics          Department of Emergency Medicine                                Incline/...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics           Department of Emergency Medicine                                      S...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics           Department of Emergency Medicine                                    Pas...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics           Department of Emergency Medicine                Preliminary Conclusions...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics           Department of Emergency Medicine                       ATV MEASUREMENTS...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics            Department of Emergency Medicine                                      ...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics           Department of Emergency Medicine                                       ...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics           Department of Emergency Medicine                 ATV MEASUREMENTS WITH ...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics           Department of Emergency Medicine                                       ...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics           Department of Emergency Medicine                          Methodology V...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics           Department of Emergency Medicine  Seat lengths on adult ATVs are highly...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics           Department of Emergency MedicineSports ATVs have longer seats than util...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics           Department of Emergency MedicineSports ATVs have longer seats than util...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics           Department of Emergency Medicine             Seat Length and Engine Siz...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics           Department of Emergency Medicine                Seat Length by Wheelbas...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics           Department of Emergency Medicine            Seat Length by Wheelbase an...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics           Department of Emergency Medicine                        Seat Placement-...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics           Department of Emergency Medicine                             Seat Place...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics           Department of Emergency Medicine                                  Summa...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics           Department of Emergency Medicine                                     Ov...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics           Department of Emergency Medicine                             Conclusion...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics           Department of Emergency Medicine                             Conclusion...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics           Department of Emergency Medicine            Questions?Slide 31
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics           Department of Emergency Medicine                           Photoshop™ M...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics           Department of Emergency Medicine                           Photoshop™ M...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics           Department of Emergency Medicine                                       ...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics           Department of Emergency Medicine                           Measurer 1 v...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics           Department of Emergency Medicine                        Measurements at...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics           Department of Emergency Medicine                          Photoshop™ vs...
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics           Department of Emergency MedicineAdult ATVs have longer seats than youth...
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ATV Safety Summit: Vehicle Tech Innovations - Optimizing Seat Design to Reduce Risk of All-Terrain Vehicle Crashes

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Gerene Denning, of the University of Iowa Department of Emergency Medicine presented this at CPSC's ATV Safety Summit Oct. 12, 2012. Objectives: Determine the variability of seat design for adult single-person ATVs. Methods: We measured seat placement and length for 77 ATV models (sports and utility) at dealerships and using a novel image-based method. Results: Seat lengths varied from 20-37 inches with significant differences between sport and utility models and between manufacturers. 75% of all seat backs ended near/over the rear axle. Longer seats generally resulted in shorter distances from the handle grips to the front of the seat (distance range 3.3-19 inches). An incline/decline study showed that a rider going downhill should shift his seat to near the rear axle with fully extended arms to avoid a forward rollover. Leaning forward from a normal seated position is sufficient to keep the center of gravity ahead of the rear tires and prevent a backward rollover when riding uphill. Conclusions: A wide variability in seat length was observed. Seats starting closer to the handle grips allow smaller children to be in front of adult drivers, or allow younger drivers. A shorter seat starting further from the handlebars and not extending beyond the rear axle would reduce the space available for passengers. Seat design is a potentially valuable approach to ATV-related injury prevention.

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  • All-terrain vehicles have 3, 4, or 6 wheels. Some side-by-sides have roll cages and safety harnesses.
  • Transcript of "ATV Safety Summit: Vehicle Tech Innovations - Optimizing Seat Design to Reduce Risk of All-Terrain Vehicle Crashes"

    1. 1. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Optimizing Seat Design To Reduce Risk Of All-Terrain Vehicle Crashes Charles Jennissen, MD Daniel McGehee, PhD Gerene Denning, PhD Thomas Schnell, PhD Nathan Miller Jonathon Marsico, BS Kaiyang Tang John Steffen, MS Department of Emergency Medicine University of Iowa College of Engineering University of Iowa Carver College of MedicineSlide 1
    2. 2. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) Utility ATV Sports ATVSlide 2
    3. 3. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Single-Person Design Most ATVs are designed and recommended for use by only one person at a time.Slide 3
    4. 4. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Long ATV Seats  However, many ATVs have long seats that appear large enough to accommodate passengers.  The presence of extra riders increases the likelihood of a crash, especially rollovers and ejections.  31% of victims in fatal crashes are operators with passengers or passengers themselves.Slide 4
    5. 5. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Objectives of Study  To define the characteristics of ATV seat size and placement for existing makes and models.  To determine whether there was a design that would allow for proper “active riding” while reducing the likelihood of: • Multiple riders. • Age-inappropriate operationSlide 5
    6. 6. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Methods  Analyzed ATV seat dimension requirements in a 26 degree incline/decline study  Performed measurements for a convenience sampling of ATV models at several dealerships.  Developed and validated a Photoshop™-based measurement method.Slide 6
    7. 7. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine INCLINE/DECLINE STUDY RESULTS  2006 John Deere Trail Buck 650 cc ATV.  6.0 ft. (183 cm) maleSlide 7
    8. 8. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Incline/Decline Study  When going downhill, a rider must: • Fully extend arms • Move bottom back on the seat  Result= Moving body back on seat keeps center of gravity behind the front tires to avoid a front rollover.Slide 8
    9. 9. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Incline/Decline Study  When going uphill, a rider must: • Lean forward while bending their arms. • No shifting forward on the seat is normally required.  Result = Leaning forward sufficiently shifts center of gravity ahead of the rear tires to prevent a backward rollover.Slide 9
    10. 10. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Steeper Inclines  With significant uphill inclines, many experts suggest standing and leaning forward to position your weight towards the front wheels.Slide 10
    11. 11. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Passengers  Passengers prevent these weight shifting requirements  A passenger in front of the rider, like a child, will not allow the rider to lean forward when going uphill. rockyroostmx.com  A passenger behind the rider will prevent the rider to move back on the seat when heading downhill.  Both scenarios increase the probability of a roll-over.Slide 11
    12. 12. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Preliminary Conclusions/Hypotheses  Active riding requires shifting the operator’s center of gravity on inclines/declines.  The rear edge of the seat should be near the rear axle (prevent forward rollover).  The seat does not need to extend forward toward the handle grips beyond what will comfortably accommodate an adult rider (prevent backward rollover).Slide 12
    13. 13. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine ATV MEASUREMENTS AT DEALERSHIPS- PILOT STUDY RESULTSSlide 13
    14. 14. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Results  The seats of fourteen adult-sized utility and sport ATV models from five major distributors were measured. Engine Size Handle Stem to Front Seat Handle Stem to Back Make Model Year (cc) of Seat (in.) Length (in.) of Seat (in.) Utility Bombardier John Deere Buck 2006 650 14 29 43 Polaris Trail Boss 2010 330 9 35 44 Polaris Sportsman 2010 500 11 29.5 40.5 Polaris Sportsman 2010 800 11 29.5 40.5 Polaris Sportsman 2010 850 10 31 41 Yamaha Grizzly 2010 350 17 23 40 Yamaha Grizzly 2010 450 17 22 39 Yamaha Grizzly 2010 700 19 22 41 Honda Rancher 2010 420 14 24 38 Honda Rubicon 2010 499 17 26 43 Honda Ricon 2010 675 16 27 43 Kawasaki BruteForce 2010 750 14 31 45 Sport Yamaha Raptor 2010 700 12 31 43 Yamaha YFZ450R 2010 450 10 32 43Slide 14
    15. 15. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Pilot Results  Seat lengths varied from 22-35 inches in length.  The back of the seats ended fairly consistently at 38- 45 inches away from the handlebar attachment.  Most of the difference in seat lengths was accountable by the distance from the handlebar attachment to the front of the seat which varied from 9-19 inches.Slide 15
    16. 16. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine ATV MEASUREMENTS WITH A ADOBE PHOTOSHOP™-BASED METHODOLOGYSlide 16
    17. 17. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Methods  Developed a novel Adobe Photoshop™-based methodology to measure lengths and distances.  Performed measurements on 77 new ATV models from 8 manufacturers using downloaded images. 6 X XSlide 17
    18. 18. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Methodology Validation  This methodology was validated by:  Comparison with direct measurements at dealerships (N=12, Pearson correlation coefficient 0.95 )  Comparison of results from two independent measurers (N=20, Pearson correlation coefficient Enter 0.96). wheelbase dimension  The average error ± SD in in “Length” box. calculated vehicle length was 1.8% ±1.2%.Slide 18
    19. 19. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Seat lengths on adult ATVs are highly variable. Polaris has the longest seats. Arctic Cat has the shortest seats.Slide 19
    20. 20. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency MedicineSports ATVs have longer seats than utility ATVs. N=21 N=46 Sports ATV Utility ATVSlide 20
    21. 21. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency MedicineSports ATVs have longer seats than utility ATVs. Polaris Trail BossSlide 21
    22. 22. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Seat Length and Engine Size (No Correlation)Slide 22
    23. 23. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Seat Length by Wheelbase and ATV Style Weak Positive CorrelationSlide 23
    24. 24. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Seat Length by Wheelbase and ATV Maker Weak is >0 to <0.3 Moderate is 0.3 to <0.7 Strong is 0.7 and higher Make Pearson r Correlation Polaris -0.54 moderate negative correlation Arctic Cat -0.37 moderate negative correlation Can Am -0.31 weak negative correlation Honda -0.08 no correlation Yamaha +0.17 weak positive correlation Kymco +0.44 moderate positive correlation Suzuki +0.74 strong positive correlation Kawasaki +0.87 strong positive correlation Correlations varied greatly.Slide 24
    25. 25. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Seat Placement-Arctic CatSlide 25
    26. 26. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Seat Placement-PolarisSlide 26
    27. 27. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Summary of Results  Seat lengths for adult-sized vehicles ranged from 20-37 inches.  75% of all seat backs ended near or over the rear axle.  Shorter distances from the handle grips to the front of the seat generally resulted in longer seats.  This distance ranged from 3.3-19 inches.Slide 27
    28. 28. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Overall Results  Our results demonstrate that there are no industry-wide standards for seat length and placement.  No apparent consistency in ATV seat design safety consideration. electricmoto.comSlide 28
    29. 29. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Conclusions/Hypotheses  Passengers and use by under-age operators are major risk factors for ATV-related deaths and injuries.Slide 29
    30. 30. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Conclusions/Hypotheses  Standardized criteria for seat length and model-appropriate seat placement should be implemented. • Starting seats further from handle grips. • Ending seats not further than the rear axle.  Such steps could improve safety by: • Reducing likelihood of passengers. • Reducing likelihood of age-inappropriate operation.  Regulations may be needed to ensure seat design changes are incorporated throughout the industry.Slide 30
    31. 31. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Questions?Slide 31
    32. 32. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Photoshop™ Methodology Vanishing Point First steps: •Download quality image •Mark near hubs 6 •Identify vanishing point X X •Connect vanishing point and near hubs Next steps: • Identify and mark far hubs (circle method) • Find center of axlesSlide 32 Midpoints
    33. 33. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Photoshop™ Methodology  Final steps: • Create plane through center of axles. • Set scale by entering manufacturer wheelbase dimension. • Draw vertical lines in plane. • Measure between vertical lines. • Total = 77 models • Measurer 1 vs. Measurer 2 (20 models) • Photoshop vs. In-field Enter wheelbase dimension inSlide 33 (12 models) “Length” box.
    34. 34. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Error  [Absolute (Measured vehicle length-Manufacturer vehicle length)]/Manufacturer vehicle length] expressed as %.  97 measurements (77 Measurer 1 + 20 Measurer 2)  The average error ± SD in calculated vehicle length was 1.8% ±1.2%.Slide 34
    35. 35. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Measurer 1 vs. Measurer 2 40 Pearson r = 0.95 = Strong positive p<0.0001 36 32 28 24 20 20 24 28 32 36 40 Seat Length (Measurer 1)Slide 35
    36. 36. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Measurements at Dealerships  N = 12 models also done by the Photoshop™ Method Build measuring device. Lengths and distances • Left end of device placed at leftmost point. • Keeping level, right end of device placed at rightmost point. • Clamps tightened and ruler used to provide measurement.Slide 36
    37. 37. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency Medicine Photoshop™ vs. In-field 40 Pearson r = 0.95 = Strong positive p<0.0001 36 32 28 24 20 20 24 28 32 36 40 Seat Length (Photoshop)Slide 37
    38. 38. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Department of Emergency MedicineAdult ATVs have longer seats than youth ATVs. However, both have seats long enough to accommodate a passenger. Adult Youth N 67 10 Mean (SD) 27.8 (3.9) 24.5 (2.5) 95% CI 26.8, 28.7 22.7, 26.2 Median 28.1 24.2 Min 19.8 21.1 Max 37.0 29.2 t test P = 0.013Slide 38
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