Constructing Paragraphs  for an Essay University of the Sacred Heart Department of Humanities Center for Language Developm...
Objective <ul><li>To construct effective paragraphs for an essay  </li></ul>
Before Starting to Write <ul><li>Choose a topic to write about </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm </li></ul><ul><li>Research the...
Focusing on Content
Writing with Attitude <ul><li>Identify your audience </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who will read your essay? </li></ul></u...
The Basics of Writing <ul><li>When writing, you must do three basic things: </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce your topic (introd...
Outlining <ul><li>Prepare an outline to: </li></ul><ul><li>Determine which information is related to the topic </li></ul><...
Introductory Paragraphs <ul><li>Capture your reader’s interest through an attention getter  by using   </li></ul><ul><li>I...
Introductory Paragraphs <ul><li>State  the main idea </li></ul><ul><li>Establish the organization of the essay </li></ul><...
Developing Your Topic <ul><li>Present the ideas that will support your  thesis statement </li></ul><ul><li>Develop one par...
Connecting Ideas <ul><li>Use transitional words or phrases to move from one idea to another. </li></ul><ul><li>(for exampl...
Examples of Transitional  Words and Phrases <ul><li>First, second, third… </li></ul><ul><li>Next, next step… </li></ul><ul...
Conjunctions <ul><li>Coordinating  </li></ul><ul><li>And </li></ul><ul><li>But </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>Nor ...
Subordinating Conjunctions <ul><li>While </li></ul><ul><li>So that </li></ul><ul><li>Because </li></ul><ul><li>Whenever </...
Conjunctions <ul><li>Subordinating </li></ul><ul><li>After </li></ul><ul><li>Although </li></ul><ul><li>As </li></ul><ul><...
Conjunctive   Adverbs <ul><li>Accordingly </li></ul><ul><li>Also </li></ul><ul><li>Besides </li></ul><ul><li>Consequently ...
Concluding Arguments <ul><li>The conclusion may: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarize the main points discussed  </li></ul></ul...
For More Information… <ul><li>You can visit the following web sites: </li></ul><ul><li>The Unicorn Pen.  http://www.anitra...
Center for Language Development Across the Disciplines Prepared by: Thalia N. Nazario-Santiago   Coordinator for the Cente...
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Constructing Paragraphs in an Essay

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Constructing Paragraphs in an Essay

  1. 1. Constructing Paragraphs for an Essay University of the Sacred Heart Department of Humanities Center for Language Development Across the Disciplines LAD
  2. 2. Objective <ul><li>To construct effective paragraphs for an essay </li></ul>
  3. 3. Before Starting to Write <ul><li>Choose a topic to write about </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm </li></ul><ul><li>Research the topic you selected, and make sure you keep track of your references </li></ul><ul><li>Review all the information before starting to write </li></ul><ul><li>Organize the ideas in a logical way </li></ul>
  4. 4. Focusing on Content
  5. 5. Writing with Attitude <ul><li>Identify your audience </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who will read your essay? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify the purpose and tone of your writing </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Objective / Subjective </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Casual / Formal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Persuasive / Informative </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expository / Argumentative </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Basics of Writing <ul><li>When writing, you must do three basic things: </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce your topic (introduction) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide details that support your topic (body) </li></ul><ul><li>Write an appropriate conclusion </li></ul>
  7. 7. Outlining <ul><li>Prepare an outline to: </li></ul><ul><li>Determine which information is related to the topic </li></ul><ul><li>Organize your ideas (order of importance, chronological order, spatial…) </li></ul><ul><li>Structure your essay (Introduction-Body-Conclusion) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Introductory Paragraphs <ul><li>Capture your reader’s interest through an attention getter by using </li></ul><ul><li>Incidents </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Vivid </li></ul><ul><li>descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Unusual or </li></ul><ul><li>interesting facts </li></ul><ul><li>Quotes </li></ul><ul><li>Anecdotes </li></ul>
  9. 9. Introductory Paragraphs <ul><li>State the main idea </li></ul><ul><li>Establish the organization of the essay </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce important terms or situations relevant to your writing </li></ul>
  10. 10. Developing Your Topic <ul><li>Present the ideas that will support your thesis statement </li></ul><ul><li>Develop one paragraph for each supporting idea </li></ul><ul><li>Explain each supporting idea as much as you can, even if it seems too obvious </li></ul>
  11. 11. Connecting Ideas <ul><li>Use transitional words or phrases to move from one idea to another. </li></ul><ul><li>(for example, first, next, moreover, finally…) </li></ul><ul><li>You can do this by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using coordinating conjunctions, subordinating conjunctions, and conjunctive adverbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeating key words or phrases </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Examples of Transitional Words and Phrases <ul><li>First, second, third… </li></ul><ul><li>Next, next step… </li></ul><ul><li>Then…, </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, last… </li></ul><ul><li>Before, after… </li></ul><ul><li>Meanwhile </li></ul><ul><li>Three hours later… </li></ul><ul><li>In the morning, in the evening… </li></ul><ul><li>For example </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover… </li></ul>
  13. 13. Conjunctions <ul><li>Coordinating </li></ul><ul><li>And </li></ul><ul><li>But </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>Nor </li></ul><ul><li>For </li></ul><ul><li>Yet </li></ul><ul><li>Correlative </li></ul><ul><li>Either...or </li></ul><ul><li>Neither…nor </li></ul><ul><li>Whether…or </li></ul><ul><li>Not only…but (also) </li></ul><ul><li>both…and </li></ul>
  14. 14. Subordinating Conjunctions <ul><li>While </li></ul><ul><li>So that </li></ul><ul><li>Because </li></ul><ul><li>Whenever </li></ul><ul><li>Since </li></ul><ul><li>As though </li></ul><ul><li>When </li></ul><ul><li>Provided that </li></ul><ul><li>As soon as </li></ul><ul><li>Until </li></ul><ul><li>In order that </li></ul><ul><li>As long as </li></ul><ul><li>Unless </li></ul><ul><li>If </li></ul><ul><li>As if </li></ul><ul><li>Though </li></ul><ul><li>Even though </li></ul><ul><li>As </li></ul><ul><li>Than </li></ul><ul><li>Even if </li></ul><ul><li>Although </li></ul><ul><li>That </li></ul><ul><li>Before </li></ul><ul><li>After </li></ul>
  15. 15. Conjunctions <ul><li>Subordinating </li></ul><ul><li>After </li></ul><ul><li>Although </li></ul><ul><li>As </li></ul><ul><li>As if </li></ul><ul><li>As long as </li></ul><ul><li>As soon as </li></ul><ul><li>As though </li></ul><ul><li>Because </li></ul><ul><li>Before </li></ul><ul><li>Even if Though </li></ul><ul><li>Even though Unless </li></ul><ul><li>If Until </li></ul><ul><li>In order that When </li></ul><ul><li>Provided that Whenever </li></ul><ul><li>Since While </li></ul><ul><li>So That </li></ul><ul><li>That </li></ul><ul><li>Than </li></ul>
  16. 16. Conjunctive Adverbs <ul><li>Accordingly </li></ul><ul><li>Also </li></ul><ul><li>Besides </li></ul><ul><li>Consequently </li></ul><ul><li>Finally </li></ul><ul><li>Furthermore </li></ul><ul><li>However </li></ul><ul><li>Indeed </li></ul><ul><li>Instead </li></ul><ul><li>Later </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless </li></ul><ul><li>Otherwise </li></ul><ul><li>Still </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore </li></ul><ul><li>Thus </li></ul>
  17. 17. Concluding Arguments <ul><li>The conclusion may: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarize the main points discussed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions that will make a reader think </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer a solution for a problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make a recommendation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make a prediction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restate the main idea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invite the audience to take action in the solution </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. For More Information… <ul><li>You can visit the following web sites: </li></ul><ul><li>The Unicorn Pen. http://www.anitraweb.org/write/unicorn/essays.html </li></ul><ul><li>Index English Grammar and Composition </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/index2.htm </li></ul>
  19. 19. Center for Language Development Across the Disciplines Prepared by: Thalia N. Nazario-Santiago Coordinator for the Center for Languages and Cultures April-June 2003 Revised by: Patricia Kidd Administrative Assistant Revised by: Prof. Delia Serrano January 2005 Thank you!

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