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Lec 19 Fo  06 Culture
 

Lec 19 Fo 06 Culture

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Lec 19 Fo  06 Culture Lec 19 Fo 06 Culture Presentation Transcript

  • GEOG 101b Introduction to Human Geography Lecture 19 Week 12 CULTURAL LANDSCAPES Cultural systems and identities
  • Contents:
    • Cultural Geography
    • The construction of cultural landscapes
    • Culture and diffusion
    • Geography and language
  • 1. Cultural Geography
    • What is culture?
    • … human-made part of the environment ( Melville Jean Herskovitz)
    • … the learned patterns of thought and behaviour characteristic of a population or society (D.R. Harris)
    • Cultural trait
    • Cultural region
    • Cultural system
      • collective identity
      • ethnicity
  • Culture and the environment
    • Environmental determinism:
    • Social Darwinism
      • “ Man is a product of earths surface” (Ellen Semple 1863-1932)
    • Challenge of Darwin's concept of 'natural selection
      • Nature as a dynamic whole that includes humans and that is always changing ( Peter Kropotkin 1842-1921)
  • Main schools in Cultural Geography
    • The Berkeley School ( Landscape Geography)
      • (Carl Sauer, 1889-1975)
    • The ‘New’ Cultural Geography
      • (after the 1970s)
  • The Berkeley School
    • Culture is the agent.
    • Culture uses nature to make meaning.
    • Cultural Landscape is the local outcome.
    • Cultural Region is the larger result .
  • ‘ New’ Cultural Geography
    • Studies the inequality of groups and landscapes.
    • Studies symbolic (imaginary) and material landscapes.
  • ??????
    • Do Canadians and Americans share the same culture?
    • Is there a North American culture or are there two cultures: Canadian and American?
  • 2. The construction of cultural landscapes
    • … "the cultural landscape constitutes 'the forms superimposed on the physical landscape by the activities of men”
    • (Carl Sauer).
    • Imprints on:
      • rural landscapes
      • recreational natural landscapes
      • urban landscapes
  • 3. Culture and diffusion
    • Cultural hearths
      • Focal points for innovation and invention
      • Region from which innovations originate and diffuse
    • Cultural diffusion ( Hagerstrand 1953)
      • Expansion diffusion
        • Hierarchical diffusion
        • Contagious diffusion
        • Stimulus diffusion
      • Relocation diffusion
  • Folk and popular culture
    • Folk culture
      • emphasizes tradition, oral transmission of songs, local history;
      • integration of nature and culture;
      • often expressed through ritual.
    • Norton, W. 2000
  • Popular culture
      • The way of life of ‘the people’ and the cultural products they consume.
      • Form of culture, which is adopted by a large mass of people (mass consumption).
      • Ordinary peoples’ culture (not the elite).
    • Stuart Hall 1981
  • 4. Geography and language
    • Language: place-marking and place-making
    • Origin of our languages: proto-Indo-European (?)
    • Language classification
      • Language family = a group of languages descendent from a single, earlier tongue
      • Sub-families, branches, groups
  • Language classification
    • Indo-European language families
      • Germanic group
      • Romance group
      • Indo-Iranian
      • Baltic-Slavic
    • Uralic-Altaic language family
      • Finnish, Estonian, Hungarian, etc.
      • Turkish group
    • Dravidian (Tamil etc.)
    • Afro-Asiatic
    • Japanese
    • Korean
    • Austro-Asiatic and Austronesian
    • Other languages
      • e.g. Euskara (Basque)
        • pre-Neolithic ?
  • Language diffusion
    • Tracing back language diffusion
      • Sound shifts:
      • E.g.: vater - vader - father = represents a long period of westward divergence
    • Diffusion through:
      • colonisation
      • conquest
      • religious conversion
    • Physical barriers
    • Language divergence : language differentiation over time and space
    • Language replacement: loss of traditional and native languages
  • Diffusion of Indo-European into the Americas
    • Greenbergs (1987) theory of 3 language families before European contact:
      • Amerindian
      • Na-Dene
      • Eskimo-Aleut
  • Modern languages
    • Language and regional identity ( dialects )
    • Language as political instrument (e.g. the media shaping our vocabulary)
    • Multilingual states
      • Canada, Belgium, Switzerland, etc.
    • Minority languages
    • Toponomy: systematic study of place names
  • The Top Twelve Languages (> 100 million)
    • If you knew all 12 of these, you could probably communicate with more than 2/3 of the world!
    • 1st/2nd: ◦ Mandarin Chinese (Putonghua) -- 1 billion ◦ English -- 1 billion (the world's most popular second language)
    • 3rd:  Hindu-Urdu (two dialects, each with a different alphabet) -- 900 million.
    • 4th:  Spanish -- 450 million.
    • 5th:  Russian -- 320 million.
    • 6th/7th (tie):Arabic -- 250 million. ◦ Bengali -- 250 million.
    • 8th:  Portuguese -- 200 million.
    • 9th:  Malay-Indonesian (two dialects) -- 160 million.
    • 10th:  Japanese -- 130 million.
    • 11th/12th (tie): ◦ French -- 125 million ◦ German -- 125 million
    • Source:h ttp://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/genpsyintrolang.html