GEOG 101b  Introduction to Human Geography Lecture 19  Week 12 CULTURAL LANDSCAPES Cultural systems and identities
Contents: <ul><li>Cultural Geography </li></ul><ul><li>The construction of cultural landscapes </li></ul><ul><li>Culture a...
1. Cultural Geography <ul><li>What is culture? </li></ul><ul><li>… human-made part of the environment ( Melville Jean  Her...
<ul><li>Cultural trait </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural region </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>collectiv...
Culture and the environment <ul><li>Environmental determinism: </li></ul><ul><li>Social Darwinism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ ...
Main schools in Cultural Geography <ul><li>The Berkeley School  ( Landscape Geography) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Carl Sauer, ...
The Berkeley School <ul><li>Culture is the agent. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture uses nature to make meaning. </li></ul><ul><li...
‘ New’ Cultural Geography <ul><li>Studies the inequality of groups and landscapes. </li></ul><ul><li>Studies symbolic (ima...
?????? <ul><li>Do Canadians and Americans share the same culture? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a North American culture or a...
2.  The construction of cultural landscapes <ul><li>…  &quot;the cultural landscape constitutes 'the forms superimposed on...
3.  Culture and diffusion <ul><li>Cultural hearths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focal points for innovation and invention </li></...
Folk and popular culture <ul><li>Folk culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>emphasizes tradition, oral transmission of songs, loca...
Popular culture <ul><ul><li>The way of life of ‘the people’ and the cultural products they consume. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
4. Geography and  language <ul><li>Language:  place-marking and place-making </li></ul><ul><li>Origin of our languages:  p...
Language classification   <ul><li>Indo-European  language families </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germanic group </li></ul></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Uralic-Altaic  language family </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finnish, Estonian, Hungarian, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Language diffusion <ul><li>Tracing back language diffusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound shifts: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Physical barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Language divergence : language differentiation over time and space </li></ul><...
Diffusion of Indo-European into the Americas <ul><li>Greenbergs (1987) theory of 3 language families before European conta...
Modern languages <ul><li>Language and regional identity ( dialects ) </li></ul><ul><li>Language as political instrument (e...
The Top Twelve Languages (>  100 million) <ul><li>If you knew all 12 of these, you could probably communicate with more th...
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Lec 19 Fo 06 Culture

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  • Lec 19 Fo 06 Culture

    1. 1. GEOG 101b Introduction to Human Geography Lecture 19 Week 12 CULTURAL LANDSCAPES Cultural systems and identities
    2. 2. Contents: <ul><li>Cultural Geography </li></ul><ul><li>The construction of cultural landscapes </li></ul><ul><li>Culture and diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Geography and language </li></ul>
    3. 3. 1. Cultural Geography <ul><li>What is culture? </li></ul><ul><li>… human-made part of the environment ( Melville Jean Herskovitz) </li></ul><ul><li>… the learned patterns of thought and behaviour characteristic of a population or society (D.R. Harris) </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Cultural trait </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural region </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>collective identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ethnicity </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Culture and the environment <ul><li>Environmental determinism: </li></ul><ul><li>Social Darwinism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Man is a product of earths surface” (Ellen Semple 1863-1932) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenge of Darwin's concept of 'natural selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature as a dynamic whole that includes humans and that is always changing ( Peter Kropotkin 1842-1921) </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Main schools in Cultural Geography <ul><li>The Berkeley School ( Landscape Geography) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Carl Sauer, 1889-1975) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The ‘New’ Cultural Geography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(after the 1970s) </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. The Berkeley School <ul><li>Culture is the agent. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture uses nature to make meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Landscape is the local outcome. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Region is the larger result . </li></ul>
    8. 8. ‘ New’ Cultural Geography <ul><li>Studies the inequality of groups and landscapes. </li></ul><ul><li>Studies symbolic (imaginary) and material landscapes. </li></ul>
    9. 9. ?????? <ul><li>Do Canadians and Americans share the same culture? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a North American culture or are there two cultures: Canadian and American? </li></ul>
    10. 10. 2. The construction of cultural landscapes <ul><li>… &quot;the cultural landscape constitutes 'the forms superimposed on the physical landscape by the activities of men” </li></ul><ul><li>(Carl Sauer). </li></ul><ul><li>Imprints on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rural landscapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>recreational natural landscapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>urban landscapes </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. 3. Culture and diffusion <ul><li>Cultural hearths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focal points for innovation and invention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Region from which innovations originate and diffuse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural diffusion ( Hagerstrand 1953) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical diffusion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contagious diffusion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulus diffusion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relocation diffusion </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Folk and popular culture <ul><li>Folk culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>emphasizes tradition, oral transmission of songs, local history; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>integration of nature and culture; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>often expressed through ritual. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Norton, W. 2000 </li></ul>
    13. 13. Popular culture <ul><ul><li>The way of life of ‘the people’ and the cultural products they consume. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form of culture, which is adopted by a large mass of people (mass consumption). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ordinary peoples’ culture (not the elite). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stuart Hall 1981 </li></ul>
    14. 14. 4. Geography and language <ul><li>Language: place-marking and place-making </li></ul><ul><li>Origin of our languages: proto-Indo-European (?) </li></ul><ul><li>Language classification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language family = a group of languages descendent from a single, earlier tongue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-families, branches, groups </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Language classification <ul><li>Indo-European language families </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germanic group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romance group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indo-Iranian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baltic-Slavic </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Uralic-Altaic language family </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finnish, Estonian, Hungarian, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turkish group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dravidian (Tamil etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Afro-Asiatic </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese </li></ul><ul><li>Korean </li></ul><ul><li>Austro-Asiatic and Austronesian </li></ul><ul><li>Other languages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Euskara (Basque) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pre-Neolithic ? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Language diffusion <ul><li>Tracing back language diffusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound shifts: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g.: vater - vader - father = represents a long period of westward divergence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diffusion through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>colonisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conquest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>religious conversion </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>Physical barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Language divergence : language differentiation over time and space </li></ul><ul><li>Language replacement: loss of traditional and native languages </li></ul>
    19. 19. Diffusion of Indo-European into the Americas <ul><li>Greenbergs (1987) theory of 3 language families before European contact: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amerindian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Na-Dene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eskimo-Aleut </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Modern languages <ul><li>Language and regional identity ( dialects ) </li></ul><ul><li>Language as political instrument (e.g. the media shaping our vocabulary) </li></ul><ul><li>Multilingual states </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada, Belgium, Switzerland, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minority languages </li></ul><ul><li>Toponomy: systematic study of place names </li></ul>
    21. 21. The Top Twelve Languages (> 100 million) <ul><li>If you knew all 12 of these, you could probably communicate with more than 2/3 of the world! </li></ul><ul><li>1st/2nd: ◦ Mandarin Chinese (Putonghua) -- 1 billion ◦ English -- 1 billion (the world's most popular second language) </li></ul><ul><li>3rd:  Hindu-Urdu (two dialects, each with a different alphabet) -- 900 million. </li></ul><ul><li>4th:  Spanish -- 450 million. </li></ul><ul><li>5th:  Russian -- 320 million. </li></ul><ul><li>6th/7th (tie):Arabic -- 250 million. ◦ Bengali -- 250 million. </li></ul><ul><li>8th:  Portuguese -- 200 million. </li></ul><ul><li>9th:  Malay-Indonesian (two dialects) -- 160 million. </li></ul><ul><li>10th:  Japanese -- 130 million. </li></ul><ul><li>11th/12th (tie): ◦ French -- 125 million ◦ German -- 125 million </li></ul><ul><li>Source:h ttp://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/genpsyintrolang.html </li></ul>

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