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Lec 19 Fo  06 Culture
Lec 19 Fo  06 Culture
Lec 19 Fo  06 Culture
Lec 19 Fo  06 Culture
Lec 19 Fo  06 Culture
Lec 19 Fo  06 Culture
Lec 19 Fo  06 Culture
Lec 19 Fo  06 Culture
Lec 19 Fo  06 Culture
Lec 19 Fo  06 Culture
Lec 19 Fo  06 Culture
Lec 19 Fo  06 Culture
Lec 19 Fo  06 Culture
Lec 19 Fo  06 Culture
Lec 19 Fo  06 Culture
Lec 19 Fo  06 Culture
Lec 19 Fo  06 Culture
Lec 19 Fo  06 Culture
Lec 19 Fo  06 Culture
Lec 19 Fo  06 Culture
Lec 19 Fo  06 Culture
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Lec 19 Fo 06 Culture

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  • Transcript

    • 1. GEOG 101b Introduction to Human Geography Lecture 19 Week 12 CULTURAL LANDSCAPES Cultural systems and identities
    • 2. Contents:
      • Cultural Geography
      • The construction of cultural landscapes
      • Culture and diffusion
      • Geography and language
    • 3. 1. Cultural Geography
      • What is culture?
      • … human-made part of the environment ( Melville Jean Herskovitz)
      • … the learned patterns of thought and behaviour characteristic of a population or society (D.R. Harris)
    • 4.
      • Cultural trait
      • Cultural region
      • Cultural system
        • collective identity
        • ethnicity
    • 5. Culture and the environment
      • Environmental determinism:
      • Social Darwinism
        • “ Man is a product of earths surface” (Ellen Semple 1863-1932)
      • Challenge of Darwin's concept of 'natural selection
        • Nature as a dynamic whole that includes humans and that is always changing ( Peter Kropotkin 1842-1921)
    • 6. Main schools in Cultural Geography
      • The Berkeley School ( Landscape Geography)
        • (Carl Sauer, 1889-1975)
      • The ‘New’ Cultural Geography
        • (after the 1970s)
    • 7. The Berkeley School
      • Culture is the agent.
      • Culture uses nature to make meaning.
      • Cultural Landscape is the local outcome.
      • Cultural Region is the larger result .
    • 8. ‘ New’ Cultural Geography
      • Studies the inequality of groups and landscapes.
      • Studies symbolic (imaginary) and material landscapes.
    • 9. ??????
      • Do Canadians and Americans share the same culture?
      • Is there a North American culture or are there two cultures: Canadian and American?
    • 10. 2. The construction of cultural landscapes
      • … "the cultural landscape constitutes 'the forms superimposed on the physical landscape by the activities of men”
      • (Carl Sauer).
      • Imprints on:
        • rural landscapes
        • recreational natural landscapes
        • urban landscapes
    • 11. 3. Culture and diffusion
      • Cultural hearths
        • Focal points for innovation and invention
        • Region from which innovations originate and diffuse
      • Cultural diffusion ( Hagerstrand 1953)
        • Expansion diffusion
          • Hierarchical diffusion
          • Contagious diffusion
          • Stimulus diffusion
        • Relocation diffusion
    • 12. Folk and popular culture
      • Folk culture
        • emphasizes tradition, oral transmission of songs, local history;
        • integration of nature and culture;
        • often expressed through ritual.
      • Norton, W. 2000
    • 13. Popular culture
        • The way of life of ‘the people’ and the cultural products they consume.
        • Form of culture, which is adopted by a large mass of people (mass consumption).
        • Ordinary peoples’ culture (not the elite).
      • Stuart Hall 1981
    • 14. 4. Geography and language
      • Language: place-marking and place-making
      • Origin of our languages: proto-Indo-European (?)
      • Language classification
        • Language family = a group of languages descendent from a single, earlier tongue
        • Sub-families, branches, groups
    • 15. Language classification
      • Indo-European language families
        • Germanic group
        • Romance group
        • Indo-Iranian
        • Baltic-Slavic
    • 16.
      • Uralic-Altaic language family
        • Finnish, Estonian, Hungarian, etc.
        • Turkish group
      • Dravidian (Tamil etc.)
      • Afro-Asiatic
      • Japanese
      • Korean
      • Austro-Asiatic and Austronesian
      • Other languages
        • e.g. Euskara (Basque)
          • pre-Neolithic ?
    • 17. Language diffusion
      • Tracing back language diffusion
        • Sound shifts:
        • E.g.: vater - vader - father = represents a long period of westward divergence
      • Diffusion through:
        • colonisation
        • conquest
        • religious conversion
    • 18.
      • Physical barriers
      • Language divergence : language differentiation over time and space
      • Language replacement: loss of traditional and native languages
    • 19. Diffusion of Indo-European into the Americas
      • Greenbergs (1987) theory of 3 language families before European contact:
        • Amerindian
        • Na-Dene
        • Eskimo-Aleut
    • 20. Modern languages
      • Language and regional identity ( dialects )
      • Language as political instrument (e.g. the media shaping our vocabulary)
      • Multilingual states
        • Canada, Belgium, Switzerland, etc.
      • Minority languages
      • Toponomy: systematic study of place names
    • 21. The Top Twelve Languages (> 100 million)
      • If you knew all 12 of these, you could probably communicate with more than 2/3 of the world!
      • 1st/2nd: ◦ Mandarin Chinese (Putonghua) -- 1 billion ◦ English -- 1 billion (the world's most popular second language)
      • 3rd:  Hindu-Urdu (two dialects, each with a different alphabet) -- 900 million.
      • 4th:  Spanish -- 450 million.
      • 5th:  Russian -- 320 million.
      • 6th/7th (tie):Arabic -- 250 million. ◦ Bengali -- 250 million.
      • 8th:  Portuguese -- 200 million.
      • 9th:  Malay-Indonesian (two dialects) -- 160 million.
      • 10th:  Japanese -- 130 million.
      • 11th/12th (tie): ◦ French -- 125 million ◦ German -- 125 million
      • Source:h ttp://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/genpsyintrolang.html

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