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Conquer the Code Conquer the Code Presentation Transcript

  • Conquer the Code: Sounds, Symbols, and Syllables IDA Florida Branch Conference - May 1, 2006 E. Judith Cohen, Ed.D. Florida International University
  • Reading . . .
    • an extraordinary ability,
    • peculiarly human and yet
    • distinctly unnatural.
    • Dr. Sally Shaywitz, Overcoming Dyslexia , 2003
  • Literacy . . .
    • Begins at birth,
    • and
    • is a lifelong process!
  • Unfortunately,
    • Children are not born with this insight, nor does it develop naturally without instruction.
    • Reid Lyon, 1997, NICHD
  • In today’s world,
    • learning to read well is a key to the future success of our children. Not only is reading fluently and with comprehension by third grade a legislated priority, it is an ethical and professional imperative.
    • (Wolfe and Nevills, 2004)
  • In fact,
    • teaching reading is
    • Rocket Science!
    • (See Teaching Reading Is Rocket Science: What Expert Teachers of Reading Should Know and Be Able to Do by Louisa C. Moats, AFT, June 1999)
  • Research Practice
    • National Research Council: Committee on National Research Council: Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children (1998)
    • National Research Council - Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success (1999)
    • National Reading Panel: Teaching Children to Read (2000)
    • Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read (2001)
    • Scientific Research in Education (2002)
  • Reading and the Brain
    • “ If we provide intervention at an early age, then we can improve reading fluency and facilitate the development of the neural systems that underlie skilled reading.”
    • ( Sally and Bennett Shaywitz,
    • Educational Leadership , March 2004, p. 10)
  • Language Components
    • Receptive Expressive
    • Oral Listening Speaking
    • Written Reading Writing
  • “The Big Five”
    • Phonemic Awareness
    • Phonics
    • Vocabulary
    • Fluency
    • Text Comprehension
  • Reading Components and the “Big Five”
    • Means
    • DECODING
    • Phonemic Awareness
    • Phonics
    • End
    • COMPREHENSION
      • Vocabulary
      • Text Comprehension
    Fluency
  • Lesson Plan Format
    • Preread Schema
    • Read it Story grammar
    • Reread it Fluency
    • Discuss it Vocabulary
    • React to it Comprehension
    • Code it Alphabetic code
    • Apply it Practice
    • Transfer it Generalization
  • Read with “ H u G s”
    • u niting
    • H olistic & G raphophonic
    • s trategies
  • Reading is the union of
    • Comprehension + Decoding
    • (Holistic) (Graphophonic)
    • Pre-read it Code it:
    • Read it Hear it
    • Reread it See it
    • Discuss it Associate it
    • React to it Expand it
  • Code it: Alphabetic Code
    • Hear it
    • See it
    • Associate it
    • Expand it
    • Phonological: sound
    • Print: symbol
    • Sound/symbol
    • Structural analysis
  • Conquer the Code: Sounds, Symbols, and Syllables
    • Sounds
      • Phonological Awareness
      • Phonemic Awareness
    • Symbols
      • Print Awareness
      • Alphabet knowledge
    • Syllables
      • Vowel Patterns
      • Syllabication
  • Oral Language
    • Listening and Speaking
    • Literacy Events
    • “Grand Conversations”
    • Phonological Awareness: sensitivity to the sounds of language
  • Phonology: Sounds
    • Phonological awareness
    • Phonemic awareness
    • 44 phonemes (speech sounds)
    • Oral / auditory
    • Related to reading and writing
  • How many sounds?
    • in the word box
    • in the word enough
    • in the word precious
  • 44 Sounds of the English Language
    • Vowels (10)
      • /ă/ /ā/
      • /ĕ/ /ē/
      • /ĭ/ /ī/
      • /ŏ/ /ō/
      • /ŭ/ /ū/
    • Consonants (18)
    • /b/ /j/ /s/
    • /k/ /l/ /t/
    • /d/ /m/ /v/
    • /f/ /n/ /w/
    • /g/ /p/ /y/
    • /h/ /r/ /z/
  • 44 Sounds of the English Language
    • Vowel Diphthongs (2)
    • /ou/
    • /oi/
    • Vowel Variants (3)
      • /au/
      • /oo/ (moon)
      • /oo/ (book)
    • Schwa (1)
      • / ə /
    • Consonant Digraphs(7)
    • /sh/ /ch/ /wh/
      • /th/ / th / /zh/
      • /ng/
    • r-controlled (3)
      • /ar/ /or/ /er/
  • Phonological Awareness
    • “ Funnel – ogical” awareness
    • Sensitivity to the sounds of language
      • words, syllables, and sounds
    • Includes phonemic awareness
    • Necessary for understanding the alphabetic principle and how sounds match print
  • Phonological Awareness
    • Word awareness
    • Rhyming words
    • Syllable awareness
    • Alliteration
    • Onset-rime
    • Phonemic segmentation and blending
    • Phonemic manipulation
  • Phonological Activities
    • Clapping, standing, using body motions
    • Manipulatives, e.g., linking blocks, puzzles, objects, chips or tokens
    • Pictures, books, posters
    • Music and rhyme
    • “ Feel it in your mouth!”
    • Elkonin (sound) boxes
  • Written Language
    • Reading and writing
    • Print awareness
    • Reading: decoding + comprehension
    • Sound – symbol connection [phonics]
    • Writing: spelling, handwriting, written expression [writing process]
  • Orthography: Symbols
    • Alphabet (26 letters)
    • Represent speech sounds
    • Written / visual
    • Spelling patterns
  • Print Awareness
    • Concepts of Print
      • Book concepts
      • One-to-one correspondence
      • Directionality
    • Alphabet Knowledge
      • Recognition
      • Identification
      • Formation
  • How do children develop print awareness?
    • Read alouds
    • Shared reading
    • Print rich environment
    • Big Books, little books, lots of books
    • Hearing poems, nursery rhymes
    • Seeing charts, signs, lists, “Morning Message” and “Sign in”
  • Alphabet Activities
    • Sort plastic or magnetic letters
    • Use letter cards with the ABC song
    • Match environmental print labels to alphabet letter cards
    • Locate target letter by using highlighter tape
    • Write letters in the air, using large muscle movements
    • Write letters in shaving cream, sand, or
    • rice trays
  • Pre-Phonics
    • Phonological Awareness
      • Oral
      • Sounds
    • Print Awareness
      • Visual
      • Symbols
  • Phonics
    • “ refers to instructional practices that emphasize how spellings are related to speech sounds in systematic ways.”
    • (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998)
  • What is the Alphabetic Principle?
    • the systematic and predictable relationship between the letters of written language and the sounds of spoken language
    • the way print matches speech
    • the relationship between phonology and orthography
    • also known as the alphabetic code
  • Why learn the Alphabetic Code?
    • It provides the understanding for the internal structure of words.
    • It helps children recognize familiar words and decode new words.
    • It connects reading and writing.
    • It enables children to read with fluency and comprehension.
  • Phonics
    • Synthetic Phonics
      • Part to whole
    • Analytic Phonics
      • Whole to part
      • Word families (rimes)
    • Vowel Patterns
      • 6 Syllable types
      • 85-88% regularity
    • Structural Analysis
      • Root words, prefixes & suffixes
      • Compound words
      • Contractions
      • Syllabication
  • Color-Code Blends bl- cr- st- -nd -mp etc. Digraphs sh ch th wh ph Vowels a e i o u -y -w
  • Orthography: Syllables
    • Six basic syllable types
    • 85 – 88% of English language
    • Vowel Patterns (syllable types)
    • Structure of our language
    • Alphabetic code
  • Vowel Patterns
    • Regular
    • Reliable
    • Research-based
    • Effective
    • Efficient
    • Easy to use
  • Vowel Pattern Chart C+le 2 Vowels Talkers Whiners Bossy r Silent e Open Closed
  • Vowel Pattern Chart C+le t a - ble b u b - ble t u r - tle 2 Vowels Talkers Whiners b oa t b oy m ea t cl ow n Bossy r c a r g i rl t u r- Silent e r i d e c a p e h o p e Open m e g o t a - Closed c a t f i sh b u b-
  • Vowel Patterns
    • Closed:
    • A word or syllable that contains only one vowel followed by one or more consonants;
    • the vowel is short.
    • “ One lonely vowel squished in the middle,
    • says its special sound just a little.”
    • s a t b e d f i n t o p g u m
    • s a nd b e st pr i nt sh o p l u nch
    • a t E d i n o n u p
  • Vowel Patterns
    • Open:
    • A word or syllable that ends with one vowel; the vowel is long.
    • “If one vowel at the end is free, it pops way up and says its name to me.”
    • m e sh e h i g o fl u fl y
  • Vowel Patterns
    • Silent e [Magic e]:
    • A word or syllable that ends in e, containing one consonant before the final e and one vowel before that consonant; the vowel is long.
    • “ The magic e is quiet, but it has a claim to fame;
    • it makes the vowel before it say its real name.”
    • The magic e is so powerful, it gives all its strength to the other vowel so that it can say its real name.
    • m a k e St e v e r i d e h o p e c u b e
  • Vowel Patterns
    • Bossy r [r-controlled]:
    • A word or syllable containing a vowel followed by r; the vowel sound is altered by the r.
    • The letter r is so bossy, it tells the vowel that it can’t say its real name (long vowel) or its special sound (short vowel), but must say the r sound (as in car, for, her).
    • c a r h e r g i rl f o r c u rl
  • Vowel Patterns
    • Double Vowel Talkers: [vowel digraphs]
    • A word or syllable containing two adjacent vowels; the first one is long.
    • “ When two vowels go walking, the first one does the talking and says its name.”
    • r ai n d ay s ee m ea t p ie
    • b oa t t oe sl ow s ui t bl ue
  • Vowel Patterns
    • Double Vowel Whiners :[diphthongs and variants]
    • A word or syllable that contains two adjacent vowels; the vowels say neither a long or short vowel sound, but rather a very different sound.
    • Sometimes when two vowels are next to each other, they make a funny whining sound, like when you fall down and say “ow,” “aw,” “oy,” and get a “boo-boo.”
    • f au lt s aw f oi l b oy l ou d c ow m oo n n ew b oo k
  • Vowel Patterns
    • C+le: [ c onsonant + le]
    • This syllable ends with “le” preceded by a consonant, and occurs in two-syllable words.
    • When a word ends with a consonant and “le,” the “le” grabs the consonant before it, and the word breaks into two parts right before that consonant.
    • b u b–ble c a –ble ea –gle p oo –dle p u r-ple
  • Vowel Pattern “Prediction Power” The prediction power of the patterns ranges from 77 to 89%, each of which is much better than predictions on the basis of chance alone. Teaching children vowel patterns can make a difference in their fluency and comprehension (May, 2002). C+le 2 Vowels Talkers Whiners 77% Bossy r Silent e 81% Open 77% Closed 86 – 89%
  • Irregular / “Memory” Words
    • About 12 – 15% of English words do not conform to the regular patterns
    • Can be taught through context, repetition, multisensory techniques, and learning games, e.g., Word Wall activities, VAAKT (associative word cards), BINGO
  • Structural Analysis
    • Root words and affixes
    • Compound words
    • Contractions
    • Syllabication
  • Root Words and Affixes
    • Prefix Root Suffix
    • un friend ly
    • re heat ed
    • in spect or
    • Color-highlight or draw a box around affixes (prefix = green; suffix = red)
    • Make charts for similar affixes
  • Compound Words
    • Begin with whole word, e.g., doghouse
    • Segment and blend
    • Use fists, puzzles, linking blocks
    • Make lists of compound words
    • Use color-coding ( dog house )
    • Practice deletion (say doghouse without dog)
  • Contractions
    • Compare “long” and “short” forms, e.g., do n o t (long – 2 words)
          • don ’ t (short – contraction)
    • Highlight apostrophe (use elbow macaroni) and deleted letter/s in red
    • Use a rubberband to show long and shortened forms (same meaning)
    • Make lists of contractions from stories
  • Syllabication Patterns
    • C+le turtle tur – tle
    • VC/CV rabbit rab – bit
    • V/CV tiger ti – ger
    • VC/V camel cam – el
    • V/V lion li - on
  • Strategy for Syllabication
    • “ Spot and dot” the vowels
    • Connect the dots
    • Look at the number of consonants between the vowels
    • If 2 – break between the consonants
    • If 1 – break before the consonant; if it doesn’t sound right, move over one letter
  • Apply and Transfer
    • Provide many opportunities to use these skills and strategies, both in isolation and in connected text
      • Fiction and non-fiction
      • Poetry and songs
      • Decodable text
      • Learning games and activities
  • Why?
    • When students have the MEANS to conquer the code,
    • they will reach the GOAL , and
    • master the meaning!
  • The End
    • Remember . . .
    • Teach a child to read,
    • Give a gift for life!!
    • Thank you for your
    • kind attention!
    • Happy Teaching!
  • Contact information
    • E. Judith Cohen, Ed.D.
    • [email_address]
    • 305-348-6668
    • For more information, see:
    • Focus on Phonics: Assessment and Instruction,
    • Wendy Cheyney & E. Judith Cohen (1999)
    • The Wright Skills Program (PreK – Grade 3)
    • Fast Track Reading
    • Wright Group/ McGraw-Hill www.wrightgroup.com
  • Websites of Interest
    • www.aft.org American Federation of Teachers
    • www.ascd.org Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development
    • www.educationworld.com Education World
    • www.fcrr.org Florida Center for Reading Research
    • www.idafla.org Florida Branch - IDA
    • www.interdys.org International Dyslexia Association
    • www.nifl.gov National Institute for Literacy
    • www.nationalreadingpanel.org National Reading Panel
    • www.reading.org International Reading Association
    • www.readingrockets.org Reading Rockets