Class8b

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Class8b

  1. 1. <ul><li>Boundaries and border disputes </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic political geography </li></ul><ul><li>Electoral geography: voting patterns </li></ul>Class 8b: Political geography II
  2. 2. National boundaries <ul><li>Limits of sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>Three-dimensional </li></ul><ul><li>14 miles of ocean; 200 miles of fishing rights </li></ul><ul><li>Frontier zones vs. boundaries </li></ul>
  3. 5. “ Natural” or physical boundaries <ul><li>Mountains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often a barrier anyway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ridgeline or watershed? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rivers or lakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not always stable; which side? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can unite as well as divide </li></ul></ul>
  4. 6. Figure 9.15 (Chile/Argentina)
  5. 8. “ Artificial” or cultural boundaries <ul><li>Geometric </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallels or meridians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically sparsely settled </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Religious or linguistic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criteria for dividing states </li></ul></ul>
  6. 12. Antecedent vs. subsequent <ul><li>Antecedent: drawn before dense settlement </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequent: after cultural landscape is established </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequent: take landscape into account </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superimposed: no regard for cultural landscape </li></ul></ul>
  7. 15. Figure 9.5 (Africa)
  8. 16. Boundaries as sites of conflict <ul><li>Landlocked states </li></ul><ul><li>Water as boundary </li></ul><ul><li>Rivers across boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Nations not matching state boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Resource access or use </li></ul>
  9. 17. Internal state structure <ul><li>Core area: historical center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Densest population, largest cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most economically developed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ex.: Moscow, London, eastern U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Not found in all countries </li></ul>
  10. 20. Unitary vs. federal states <ul><li>Unitary: highly centralized, homogeneous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong national identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralization in core area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European cores, newly independent states </li></ul></ul>
  11. 22. Unitary vs. federal states <ul><li>Federal: decentralized government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provinces or states have considerable responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital often deliberately created in core, or periphery </li></ul></ul>

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