Class13a

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Class13a

  1. 1. Class 13a: Services and transportation <ul><li>Tertiary economic activity </li></ul><ul><li>Central place theory </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation geography </li></ul><ul><li>Air pollution </li></ul>
  2. 2. What are services? <ul><li>No tangible product </li></ul><ul><li>“ Leftover” economic activity </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer vs. business vs. public </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retail vs. personal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Producer vs. transportation </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. What are services? <ul><li>Bifurcated wages, skills </li></ul><ul><li>Labor more important, but fewer unions </li></ul><ul><li>More women (“pink-collar” workers) </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary, quaternary, or quinary </li></ul>
  4. 5. Where are services? <ul><li>From local to global </li></ul><ul><li>More developed = more service jobs </li></ul><ul><li>“ Post-industrial” economies </li></ul>
  5. 9. Central place theory <ul><li>How are services distributed? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does a regular pattern exist? </li></ul><ul><li>How are large and small cities connected? </li></ul><ul><li>Central place: market center for region </li></ul>
  6. 10. Central place theory <ul><li>Range: how far are you willing to travel for a service? </li></ul><ul><li>Threshold: how many customers do you need? </li></ul><ul><li>Assume shortest distance possible </li></ul><ul><li>Threshold < range </li></ul><ul><li>Market area, not city size, matters </li></ul>
  7. 12. Central place theory <ul><li>Hexagonal market areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover all space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No overlap </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First order: largest threshold and range </li></ul><ul><li>Second order, etc. </li></ul>
  8. 13. First order Range
  9. 14. First order Range
  10. 15. First order New range
  11. 16. First order Second order
  12. 17. First order Second order
  13. 18. First order Second order New range
  14. 19. First order Second order Third order New range
  15. 20. First order Second order Third order
  16. 21. First order Second order Third order
  17. 22. -- 179.2 0 0-1 6 94.0 89.6 3 2-3 5 49.6 44.8 9 10 4 23.6 22.4 39 39 3 10.3 11.2 153 154 2 Actual spacing Theoretical spacing Actual number Theoretical number Order
  18. 23. Central place theory <ul><li>Accessibility based on time, not distance </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative principle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political boundaries affect consumers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower taxes, more permissive rules </li></ul></ul>
  19. 24. So what? <ul><li>Model for regional development </li></ul><ul><li>Explains decline as well as growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neighborhood or city scale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The point is not the hexagons, but the hierarchy and interconnectedness of places </li></ul>
  20. 26. Transportation <ul><li>Enables all other economic activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Derived demand </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Important in its own right </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility: existence of opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility: ability to get there </li></ul><ul><li>Equity of accessibility and mobility </li></ul>
  21. 28. Transportation geography <ul><li>Shrinking distance </li></ul><ul><li>Changing technology </li></ul><ul><li>Changing accessibility and mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on landscape </li></ul>
  22. 30. Transportation geography <ul><li>New technology: container shipping </li></ul><ul><li>No break-of-bulk </li></ul><ul><li>Less labor needed </li></ul><ul><li>Less “slippage” </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration on a few ports </li></ul>
  23. 31. Rotterdam
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