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Class10a

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  • 1.
    • Race/ethnicity and territory
    • African-Americans and Africans
    • Apartheid and South Africa
    • Race and the Census
    Class 10a: Race and ethnicity
  • 2. Definitions
    • Race: A genetically distinct population
      • Traits are passed on biologically
      • Racism: based on biological inferiority
    • Ethnicity: A historically and culturally distinct population
      • Similar to nations
      • Usually describes minority groups
  • 3. Ethnicity in the U.S.
    • African-American (13%)
    • Hispanic (11%)
    • Asian-American (4%)
    • American Indian (1%)
  • 4.  
  • 5. African-Americans
    • Three migrations at three scales
    • Forced migration from Africa
      • 1619-1863: over 10 million Africans
      • Source of labor for plantations
      • Triangle trade
  • 6.  
  • 7. African-Americans: Great Migration
    • Push of poverty, cotton mechanization
    • Pull of jobs, tolerance
    • 1910s-1920s; 1940s-1950s
    • Followed main transportation routes
    • Maintained strong connections to home
  • 8. African-Americans: Great Migration
    • Push of poverty, cotton mechanization, segregation
    • Pull of jobs, tolerance
    • 1910s-1920s; 1940s-1950s
    • Followed main transportation routes
    • Maintained strong connections to home
  • 9.  
  • 10. African-Americans: Urban ghettos
    • Extreme overcrowding (100,000 per square mile, not 10)
    • Restrictive covenants
    • Redlining of black neighborhoods
    • City-within-a-city
    • White flight and blockbusting (after Brown vs. Board of Ed )
  • 11.  
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14. New Africans in America
    • Black ≠ African-American
    • Recent migrants from Africa, Caribbean
    • Tension between two groups
    • But seen as same by whites
  • 15.  
  • 16. South Africa and apartheid
    • Dutch, British colonists
    • Refusal of Afrikaners to allow black rule
    • Strict segregation by race (1948)
    • White (13%), black (76%), colored
    • Homes, school, jobs, stores, land, ambulances
  • 17. South Africa and apartheid
    • Blacks could not vote or run for office
    • Whites-only jobs, territories
    • Blacks needed papers to travel
    • Homelands or bantustans
  • 18.  
  • 19. South Africa and apartheid
    • Economic sanctions from 1978
    • Prohibitions on international competitions
    • 1984: some restrictions lifted
    • 1991: apartheid declared over
    • 1994: Nelson Mandela first black president
  • 20.  
  • 21. Race in the Census
    • Included since 1790 Census (3/5 Compromise)
    • 1850-1900: mulatto, quadroon, octoroon
    • 1930: Mexican
    • 1960-1980: Hispanic listed as white
    • 2000: multiple boxes allowed (7 million)
    • Long form includes “ancestry”
  • 22. Race in the Census
    • Asian = race
      • Multiple ethnicities within one race
    • African-American, black = race
      • Only one category
    • Hispanic = ethnicity
      • Multiple ethnicities, one race
  • 23. Caublindasian Morena Indio
  • 24.