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WASH Friendly Schools

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The desire to address the critical need for water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in schools is gaining momentum worldwide. The lack of clean drinking water, toilet facilities for girls and boys and …

The desire to address the critical need for water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in schools is gaining momentum worldwide. The lack of clean drinking water, toilet facilities for girls and boys and good hygiene practices in schools has a negative impact on the health and cognitive abilities of the entire school population, leads to absenteeism and affects girls especially hard.

This webinar highlights HIP's experience fostering a supportive environment and models for WASH-Friendly Schools in Madagascar and Ethiopia and materials developed to help schools become WASH-friendly.

Presentation by Sarah Fry, USAID-HIP Senior Hygiene Programming Advisor, followed by a Q&A with Sarah and Julia Rosenbaum, USAID-HIP Deputy Director. Moderated by Patricia Mantey, USAID-HIP Knowledge Management Specialist.

More information on USAID-HIP is available at http://www.hip.watsan.net

Published in: Health & Medicine

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  • BY WAY OF SETTING THE CONTEXT, LET’S REVIEW WHY WATER, SANITATION AND HYGIENE or WASH IS SO IMPORTANT
  • THE PUBLISHED RESULTS OF KEY STUDIES HAVE PROVEN THE IMPACT OF KEY WASH INTERVENTIONS ON HEALTH
  • VAL CURTIS AND COLLEAGUES AT THE LONDON SCHOOL OF HYGIENE AND TROPICAL MEDICINE SHOWED THAT HWS CAN CUT THE RISK OF HAVING DIARRHEA NEARLY IN HALF
  • getting to the subject of our presentation, we need to ask ourselves why wash in schools is important and why we should pay attention and invest time and resources in this areathe school community is healthier schools tend to be densely populated and just as the flu can be contagious so can health improvements affect everyonestudents perform better because healthier children stay in school and are better learnersexcellent opportunity for parent involvementwash provides so many opportunities for parents to participate – from helping to build latrines to managing a clean water source to making sure that food is handled safely, and much morepromotes gender equity girls who have access to safe, clean toilets or latrines are more likely to stay in school when menstruation startsinvests in life-long positive skills wash skills are life skills that can be instilled at an early age and that is an investment in the current as well as future generations as the youngsters grow up and teach good wash habits such as using latrines and washing hands with soap to their own children
  • However, wash in schools is far from a reality across the world. unicef tried to compile data from 60 country reports on the state of water and sanitation in primary schools , and only 33 had any information. This information is not good. under half of all schools have adequate water supply and even fewer have sanitation facilities.We have to all join together and advocate for wash in schools. UNICEF has even issued a call to action for WASH IN SCHOOLS called “raising clean hands”. Here is information that we can use to advocate to decisionmakers
  • Change these covers to the newest onesHIP’s NEWLY PUBLISHED GUIDES PRESENT A DETAILED HOW-TO FOR CREATING WASH FRIENDLY SCHOOLS USING A TOTAL SANITATION AND HYGIENE APPROACH THEGUIDE SHOWN ON THE LEFT GIVES BASIC STEP BY STEP INFORMATION FOR SCHOOLS WITH TOOLS FOR EACH STEP INCLUDED IN ANNEXESTHE OTHER GUIDE SHOWN ON THE RIGHT IS A TRAINING GUIDE FOR GROUPS OF PARENTS, STUDENT LEADERS AND TEACHERS COMING TOGETHER FROM A SAME AREA WHERE A WASH FRIENDLY SCHOOLS PROGRAM IS BEING IMPLEMENTED. THE STRENGTH OF THIS TRAINING APPROACH IS THAT IT GROUPS ALL THREE TOGETHER RATHER THAN SEGREGATE THEM. THE ACTION DECISIONS MADE BY THE TRAINEES ARE MADE AND SHARED BY ALL.
  • HIP DID NOT INVENT THE “WASH FRIENDLY SCHOOLS” CONCEPT AND APPROACH, BUT WE DID EXPAND AND TEST IT IN 2 COUNTRIES AND USED THESE EXPERIENCES AS THE BASIS FOR THE GUIDES
  • SO WE ARE ALL ON THE SAME PAGE ABOUT WASH FRIENDLY SCHOOLS HERE IS OUR DEFINITION
  • FROM HERE ON IN WE ARE GOING TO PRESENT AN OVERVIEW OF THE 13 STEPS FOR BECOMING WASH FRIENDLY THAT ARE DETAILED IN THE GUIDESASA MENTIONED, EACH STEP HAS ITS OWN ANNEX WITH THE RIGHT TOOL FOR THE JOB. WE WILL SHOW A FEW TOOLS BUT MANY ARE TOO LONG AND YOU CAN FIND THEM IN THE GUIDES THAT ARE POSTED ON THE HIOP WEBSITE. WE’LL GIVE YOU THE ADDRESS AT THE END.BTW, ALL THE ILLUSTRATIONS IN THIS PRESENTATION ARE TAKEN FROM THE GUIDES
  • PHASE 1 IS A PREPARATORY PHASE FOR LAUNCHING THE INITIATIVE, CATALYZING PARTNERS AND PLANNING ACTIONTraining CHAMPIONS of WASH –… awareness, skills, and commitment …., that they further develop later in the processTo do this,Step One - quick and dirty surveyWould be carried out by local officials, NGO or other leaders of the initiative to provide a general idea of WASH conditions in local schoolsStep Two ---- stakeholders can include local leadership from education, health, water, NGOs, religious groups, local businesses, school administrators, tourism groups, women’s groups and many more. This stakeholders meeting can result in a common action agenda for a wash friendly schools initiative where each stakeholder has a role and a job to doStep Three -- is the training of WASH champions, namely students, teachers, parents from a cluster of schools learn and plan TOGETHER. The end Product is a plan of action for their school that they will share and refine once back home
  • PHASE 2 are Action Steps to be carried out at the school level after trainingStep 4 is what we call the ignition step, where the school community goes through a process to identify defecation practices using these tools:“Walk of Shame” – here we identify where open defecation is practiced.The whole group walks together, and the facilitator intentionally stands and engages conversation at the stinkiest, most fly infested spots… people hold their nose, they swat flies, they are embarrassed and horrified.. School Mapping –shows the school as a connected community… the open defecation points are mapped, by asking.. Where do boys go? Girls? How about the teachers?? any latrines, water sources, litter bins, classrooms and offices, animals, and so on.. All items are put on an informal map, either constructed together on the ground, on paper or other meansFeces calculation- the group continues to examine defecation practices at the school, and now they actually calculate how much feces the school generates… a day, then a week, and a month… it’s first measured in grams, then in donkey carts or wagon loadsFeces Flow Diagram – in this next exercise, the group starts to think about where all that feces goes, especially if not contained in a latrine… what happens when it rains, when the wind blows, when kids and animals step in it and track it all over … where do those 17 donkey carts full of feces go? The inevitable conclusion leads to … in our food and water… which leads to the final exercise … Glass of water exercise …. The facilitator shows a glass of water that looks clean.. Then runs a broom straw or hair through a bit of feces and stirs it into the glass of water. The water stays clear looking, but when the facilitator asks who wants to drink this? Everyone is horrified and disgusted. The facilitator makes the point… well that’s what we are doing.. Eating and drinking each others feces even if we can’t actually see it.
  • STEP 5: ONCE THE PROBLEM HAS BEEN CLEARLY UNDERSTOOD BY ALL,THE SCHOOL MAKES A FORMAL COMMITMENTTHIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF A PLEDGE FORM INCLUDED IN THE GUIDE, BUT PLEDGINGCAN TAKE MANY OTHER FORMS
  • THE SURVEY FORM IS QUITE COMPLETE AND COVERS ALL ASPECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL HYGIENE TO ANSWER THE QUESTION “WHERE ARE WE NOW”? IT CAN BE ADAPTED TO DIFFERENT SETTINGS AND NEEDS.
  • A KEY PRODUCT OF THE TRAINING LAID OUT IN THE OTHER GUIDE IS A SCHOOL LEVEL PLAN OF ACTION DEVELOPED BY THE REPRESENTATIVES FROM EACH SCHOOL. THIS PLAN SHOULD BE VETTED WITH OTHERS ONCE THE SMALL TRAINEE GROUP RETURNS HOME.STEP EIGHT IS THE ACTUAL IMPROVEMENT WORK BUT IT DOES NOT REQUIRE HIGH FINANCE OR COMPLEX TECHNOLOGIES. OUR APPROACH FOCUSES ON ‘SMALL DOABLE ACTIONS’… IMPROVEMENTS TO WASH THAT CAN HAPPEN TODAY OR TOMORROW WITH EXISTING RESOURCES. YOU DON’T NEED TO WAIT FOR THE GOVERNMENT OR UNICEF TO INSTALL A PUMP. YOU CAN SET UP A TIPPY TAP STAND, IMPROVE THE PRIVACY OF THE LATRINE BY HANGING A CURTAIN OR FIXING THE WALL. ADD A MIRROR AND INDOOR WASHING STATION FOR MENSTRUATING GIRLS. THESE ARE SMALL DOABLE ACTIONS…
  • THIS CHECKLIST BY WHO AND UNICEF HAS BEEN INCLUDED TO GUIDE ACTIONS AND MONITORING OF SCHOOL FACILITY IMPROVEMENTSHERE ARE SOME EXAMPLES OF SIMPLE TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS TO WASH PROBLEMS IN SCHOOLS
  • THE TIPPY TAPS ARE MADE FROM EMPTY WATER BOTTLES STRUNG ONTO A YOKE WITH LITTLE SOAP HOLDERS – IDEAL FOR MULTIPLE USERSSODIS STANDS FOR SOLAR DISINFECTION, A SIMPLE METHOD FOR TREATING DRINKING WATER BY EXPOSING CLEAR BUT UNSAFE WATER TO THE UNLTRAVIOLET RAYS OF THE SUN FOR 6 HOURS OR LONGER IF THE DAY IS CLOUDYTHIS IS A SODIS STAND MADE FOR MULTIPLE BOTTLES FOR CLASSROOM USE
  • THIS TIPPY TAP WAS MADE FROM A GOURD WITH A TUBE AS A FAUCET. THE TUPE CAN BE A HOLLOW STEM OR A BALLPOINT PEN CASINGON THE RIGHT IS A CLEAN IMPORVED LATRINE WITH VENTILATION, DOORS THAT LOCK AND WIPING AND CLEANING SUPPLIES, WITH A TIPPY TAP HANDWASHING STATION NEXT TO IT. NOTE THE STONES FOR DRAINAGE TO PREVENT WATER FROM POOLING AND PUDDLING
  • BUILDING NEW WASH FACILITIES IS AN OPPORTUNITY FOR EVERYONE TO GET INVOLVED, STUDENTS AND PARENTS AND COMMUNITY MEMBERS ALIKE
  • EXAMPLES OF LESSONS ARE INCLUDED IN THE GUIDE. SOME OF THEM COME FROM THE EXERCISES IN THE TRAINING GUIDE AND FROM THE IGNITION PROCESS (FOR EXAMPLE, FECES CALCULATION IS A GREAT WASH EXERCISE FOR MATH CLASS)
  • THIS COMMITTEE CAN HAVE ANY NUMBER OF WASH-RELATED TASKS – BUILDING, OVERSIGHT, MAINTENANCE, MANAGEMENT, FUNDRAISING AND MORE IN PLACES LIKE ETHIOPIA, THE PARENTS ACTUALLY BUILD THE SCHOOLS… NOW THEY ADD THE WASH FUNCTION TO THEIR RESPONSIBILITIES … AND ASSURE A LATRINE THAT MEETS MINIMUM STANDARDS, AVAILABILITY OF WATER FOR WASHING AND DRINKING AND MORE
  • HERE YOU CAN SEE THE WASH CLUB TEAM IN A SACK RACE CHEERED ON BY PARENTS AND COMMUNITY MEMBERSSPORTS CLUBS ARE ESPECIALLY MOTIVATED BECAUSE PLAYIONG IN A FIELD WHERE PEOPLE DEFECATE IS GROSSTHIS IS JUST ONE EXAMPLE OF MANY WASH CLUB ACTIVITIES SPELLED OUT IN THE GUIDE
  • THESE CAN BE OBTAINED FROM UNICEF AND LOCAL NGOS, BUT WHY NOT MAKE IT AN ACTIVITY FOR WASH CLUBS OR CLASSROOMS TO PRODUCE NICE POSTERS OR CARTOONS OR OTHER CREATIVE ITEMS TO PROMOTE GOOD HYGIENE PRACTICES?
  • WASH FRIENDLY SCHOOLS SHOULD BE A NATIONAL OR REGIONAL UNDERTAKING FOR COVERAGE AND MOMENTUM. PRIOR TO LAUNCHING, SCHOOL AND OTHER OFFICIALS SHOULD AGREE ON THE CRITERIA AND EVALUATION TOOLS FOR SCHOOLS WHO ASPIRE TO BE WASH FRIENDLY.THERE IS A SAMPLE EVALUATION TOOL IN THE GUIDEWHEN A SCHOOL IS CERTIFIED AS WASH FRIENDLY, IT’S TIME FOR A BIG CELEBRATION. SOME SCHOOLS PUT A PLAQUE IN FRONT OF THE SCHOOL. SOME FLY THE WASH FRIENDLY FLAG.
  • Transcript

    • 1. September 16, 2010
      Welcome to HIP’s Webinar on
      WASH Friendly SchoolsPresenters: Sarah Fry and Julia RosenbaumUSAID Hygiene Improvement Project
    • 2. Why WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) Matters
      Most diarrhea and worm infestation is caused by unsafe water, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene
      • Simple hygiene practices can dramatically reduce diarrhea and worms
    • Treatment and safe storage of drinking water at point of use reduces the risk of diarrhea by 30–40% (USAID 2004)
    • 3. Hand washingwith soap can reduce the risk of diarrhea by 42-44%
      (Curtis et al. 2003)
      Hand Washing
    • 4. Latrine use/safe feces disposal can reduce the risk of diarrhea by 32% (Fewtrell et al. 2005)
    • 5. Why is WASH in SCHOOLS important?
      The school community is healthier
      Students perform better
      Excellent opportunity for parent involvement
      Promotes gender equity
      Invests in life-long positive skills
    • 6. We have a BIG PROBLEM…
    • 7. FACT: WASH in schools improves children’s health
      • WASH reduces diarrhea and worm infestation
      • 8. 40% of diarrhea transmission happens in school
      • 9. 400 million school children have worms
      • 10. Worms affect growth and intellectual development
      Source: UNICEF Raising Clean Hands
      and Children Without Worms, www.childrenwithoutworms.org (2010)
    • 11. FACT: WASH in Schools increases attendance and achievement
      • In western Kenya schools, worms contributed to 25% of absenteeism and
      • 12. Improved WASH led to 50% reduction in ascaris infection
      • 13. In China, school handwashing with soap program reduced absentee days by 54%
      Source: UNICEF Raising Clean Hands (2010)
    • 14. FACT: WASH in Schools promotes gender equality
      • Clean, safe toilets encourage girls to stay in schools when menstruation starts
      • 15. In Kenya, WASH reduced girls’ absenteeism by 39%
      • 16. For every 10% increase in female literacy, economy can grow by 0.3%
      Source: UNICEF Raising Clean Hands (2010)
    • 17. FACT: WASH involves parents and community
      Children are effective change agents
      Parents are an untapped resource
      PTAs can get involved in school WASH improvements
      School WASH clubs can host school-community WASH activities
    • 18. HIP offers 2 new Guides for WASH Friendly Schools
    • 19. The Model for WASH Friendly Schools emerged from HIP’s work in:
      Madagascar
      Ethiopia
    • 20. What is a WASH Friendly School?
      Provides sustainable, child friendly latrine and handwashing facilities and adequate safe drinking water
      Offers hygiene education on using latrines, washing hands with soap and drinking safe water
      Organizes school to home and community outreach activities for improved WASH
    • 21. 13 Steps to Becoming WASH Friendly
      BASIC GUIDE
      Each step in the pathway is accompanied by tools found in the annexes…
    • 22. PHASE 1: LAUNCH, CATALYZING, PLANNING
      Step 1: Survey or rapid assessment of area schools
      Step 2: Stakeholders meeting at district or local level to prepare for action
      Step 3: WASH training for teachers, parents, and student leaders identified as potential school WASH champions
    • 23.  PHASE 2: ACTION
      Step 4: School ignition—bringing the school community to awareness and a commitment to action
      Uses CLTS ignition tools:
      “Walk of Shame” – where is
      open defecation practiced?
      School mapping
      Feces calculation
      Feces Flow Diagram
      Glass of water exercise
      RESULT: “Oh NO!!! We’re eating and drinking each other’s poop!”
    • 24. WASH-Friendly School Pledge
      We the undersigned have assessed the hygiene and sanitation conditions at  
      Name and Location of School______________________
      and we agree to participate in the WASH-Friendly School Initiative. We understand that we must assure adequate hygienic toilets for all, a place or places to wash hands with soap, a safe drinking water supply for the school community, and a clean and welcoming school environment; and carry out in-class and after-school activities to teach and practice improved hygiene.
      Start date:
      End date:
      School Year: 
      Signed:
      School Director_____________________
      Education Official___________________
      PTA Head_________________________
      Health Official______________________
      Date_____________________________ Place_____________________________
      Step 5:
    • 25. Step 6: “Where are we now?”
      The school conducts a more complete baseline assessment of their current WASH-friendly status, if required
      Annex E of the Guide is a School WASH Survey Form
    • 26. Step 7: Director, teachers, parents, and students vet the Wash-Friendly Action Plan that the school representatives made during training
      Step 8: Improve water, sanitation, hand washing facilities
    • 27. Checklist for Minimum Standards for School Sanitation and Hygiene Facilities 
      • Separate latrines for boys and girls
      • 28. “Child-friendly” facilities
      • 29. Latrines for male and female teachers
      • 30. 1 latrine per 25 girls and 1 for female staff
      • 31. 1 latrine + 1 urinal per 50 boys and 1 for male staff
      • 32. Hand washing stations next to latrines
      Latrines should have:
      • Walls and roof
      • 33. Ventilation
      • 34. Doors that lock from the inside, not the outside
      • 35. Washable slabs
      • 36. Anal cleansing material (paper, leaves, water)
      • 37. Wastebasket for used wiping material
      • 38. A place to wash hands after use
      • 39. Cleaning items such as broom, scrub brush, etc.
      Hand washing stations should have (at least):
      • Source of running water for rinsing (tap, jug)
      • 40. Soap, ash, clean sand, or mud
      • 41. Soak pit to avoid standing water
      See: Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Standards for Schools in Low-cost Settings (WHO, UNICEF 2009)
    • 42. Simple low-cost handwashing and water treatment methods
      A stand for SODIS bottles
      A Tippy Tap “yoke” for multiple users
    • 43. More simple technologies
    • 44. Carrying out the Plan of Action with parent and student involvement
    • 45. Step 9: Teachers add WASH to lessons on a regular basis (at least once a week)
    • 46. Step 10: PTA or school forms a school WASH committee
    • 47. Step 11: Students form an after school WASH club or add a WASH element to existing health, girls, sports and other clubs
    • 48. Step 12: School puts up posters or other educational materials
    • 49. Step 13: School leaders invite a WASH assessment team to visit school and assess its progress toward becoming WASH-friendly
    • 50. Don’t forget to celebrate Global Handwashing Day on October 15th And download this year’s tools from www.globalhandwashingday.org
    • 51. THANK YOU!
    • 52. WASH in Schools Resources
      You can find the WASH-Friendly School guides and other resources at:
      http://www.hip.watsan.net/page/4086
    • 53. Question 1:
      Regarding the baseline survey, and I imagine several participants are from other NGOs, and many of us work in the same regions, for example in Ethiopia. I’d like to know if HIP baseline surveys or other NGOs are left with the local district governments, so that we aren’t duplicating resources for conducting these assessments, which are part of the key process outlined in the guide here.
    • 54. Question 2:
      I have a question for you about access to the latrines. Are they available for use when school is closed?
    • 55. Question 3:
      Does exposure to solar energy for 5-6 hours destroy OVA?
    • 56. Question 4:
      Would the presentation be available on the website?
    • 57. Question 5:
      Are these materials available in Spanish?
    • 58. Question 6:
      How do you build the second water station you told us about? [NOTE: the second one is the tippy-tap with the gored and the straw]
    • 59. Question 7:
      How can the national commitment be made a reality and not a mere paperwork?
    • 60. Question 8:
      How many schools were involved? What was the failure rate as compared to the success?
    • 61. Question 9:
      How does wash in schools address the need to empty the latrines when they fill up? When you say funding ends, who in practice ends up paying for this expense?
    • 62. Question 10:
      Question about designs for younger children. Have you seen in low income countries school latrines with designs adapted for younger children, especially below 7, for whom privacy is not an issue, and who rather fear being alone in a closed super structure? If yes, what did it look like? And do you know where to find technical resources on designing school latrines that target younger children?
    • 63. Question 11:
      What has been learned about specific changes in the school systems that facilitate girls menstrual management in school?
    • 64. Question 12:
      The CLTS approach defines feces as a disgusting product in order to promote the end of open defecation and the establishment of sanitary latrines and sanitary hygenic practices. However, some approaches, primarily ecological sanitation methods, promote fecal matter as a valuable agricultural resources. Are there studies or other sources of evidence that show that feces as a disgusting product is better or worse as a method of sanitation promotion than feces as a valuable resource?
    • 65. Question 13:
      Do you keep statistics of the sanitation solutions and how successful are they? How do you measure success?
    • 66. Question 14:
      I am sure, other aspects such as barriers related to Water and Sanitation are also largely addressed in the WASH friendly school Initiatives. Barriers are largely includes 'Individual, Environmental, Institutional, Social'. Sometimes, even if the facilities available they are not inclusive (gender, disability), facilities are not hygienic due to lack of maintenance, structure are narrow which become difficult for the care givers to assist (for those who needs special support).
    • 67. Question 15:
      Is there any experience of behavior change communication strategy for schools? And also does any one members have any study done on the impact of school children on the community?
    • 68. Question 16:
      Are there are many types of latrines? What is best for use in a school?
    • 69. Question 17:
      Do you have any guidance on communicating the financial responsibilities of the school community to maintain the school water and sanitation facilities?