Experiences and Lessons Learned in Sanitation Marketing
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Experiences and Lessons Learned in Sanitation Marketing

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Presenters Scott Morris and Morris Israel of USAID/HIP discuss their experiences in sanitation marketing and answer questions from participants.

Presenters Scott Morris and Morris Israel of USAID/HIP discuss their experiences in sanitation marketing and answer questions from participants.

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  • Sanitation markets offer a self-sustaining dynamic – a household has no incentive to wait for the next subsidized sanitation campaign. Socio-cultural pressure and desire for status and health motivate households to improve santiation. The market brings them information on how they can afford to purchase what they want.
  • In sanitation marketing, households are no longer beneficiaries, but are treated as consumers Consumers have the freedom to step onto the sanitation ladder wherever they wish and improve their sanitation status at a pace that they can afford. There are cultures where a nice toilet/latrine is a status symbol, offered for the use of guests, but not used by the household. Obviously there are promotion challenges in these situations
  • The Hygiene Improvement Framework (HIF) was developed some years ago in the USAID Environmental Health Project as a conceptual framework for designing programs that improve hygiene behaviors in individuals and populations. These can include water provision and treatment, handwashing, sanitation, etc. Programmers need to ensure that each of these sectors is addressed in some fashion as overlooking gaps in a particular area can undermine investments in another.
  • There is an existing framework in place – some kind of demand, some kind of supply and some kind of enabling environment, no matter how weak they might be We study each of these areas in detail: what is the nature of the demand, what motivates people to address sanitation, what messages touch them, what are their aspirations; what are the existing products and services, the potential for new ones, the market linkages, etc.; what kind of access to credit exists, role of local, regional, national government, development programs, et We design a program to fill gaps in the current functions of the market and to build capacity in market actors to assume these functions, and we figure out how to nudge the market forward to get consumers to begin making purchases and the money (incentives) flowing We implement our activities and where supply, demand, and the enabling market meet – we’ve a santiation market
  • This Diagram, (taken from HIP’s Sanitation Marketing for Managers – Guidance and Tools for Program Development), does a good job of mapping out the key actors in the sanitation market, their functions, and their inter-relationships.
  • Refer to notes on previous animated slide
  • HIP has worked closely with numerous donors, NGOs, and individual consultants on these efforts…
  • HIP hygiene improvement activities began in 2006… and Sanitation Marketing in 2008. Supply-side of market received most attention.
  • Currently 21 SanPlat producers and 67 sales points operate in four of Madagascar’s six principle cities. One Bloc Sanitaire has been operating and five more are coming on line.
  • Program kicked-off with detailed Opportunities Assessment that concluded that, yes, conditions in Uganda are conducive and supportive of a Sanmark initiative. GoU’s Financing Strategy for Improving Sanitation and Hygiene (ISH) key supporting policy at national level, whilke local by-laws further support and focus attention on increasing access to sanitation.
  • In-Depth Interviews with consumers and suppliers; communication and financial assessments conducted. Demonstrated interest from government leaders in neighboring Districts; bodes well for replication PLAN/Uganda continuing to fund activities to support linking CLTS and sanitation marketing, in support of District SanMark strategy.
  • Districts – Pachacutec in Callao (Lima); peri-urban; ADRA Peru NGO implementer Chinchero in Cusco; rural communities and secondary city; ADRA Peru is NGO Implementer Independencia in Huaraz; rural communities and secondary city; CARE Peru is implementer - Namora in Cajamarca; rural and secondary city; CARE Peru is implementer - Belen in Iquitos; peri-urban and secondary city; CARITAS Peru implementer
  • Demand assessment showed that health messages not motivators – status is important Already demand for sanitation – but articulated for a high rung option – pour flush toilet No CLTS, but intensive marketing assessment and campaigns In Chinchero, a key actor turned out to be a financial institution who saw profit in making home improvement loans for sanitation Independencia a hardware store came up with its own low-cost flush toilet product to market Pachacutec developed a low cost toilet and superstructure option that fit better with the location and building materials employed there Cajamarca experimented with village banks for credit, market leadership was assumed by rural hardware stores, market accessed state funding through a poverty alleviation program. Looking at the water and santiaton utility of Lima, the mining industry, and others to implement santiation marketing activities in new geographies
  • Multi-faceted approach – needs not only interdisciplinary team but experienced professionals. Approach is about understanding, targeting, building capacity, facilitating, the actors and their market functions, and strategically nudging the market toward self-sustaining status Social marketing of sanitation is inherently complex – the investment for a household is substantial, the hardware requires site-specific design, construction; the market segments are varied and multi-dimensional, working with demand supply and enabling environment brings in business, finance, engineering, marketing, communication, governance, etc.: interventinos are multi-disciplinary and integrating them a challenge Old habits - Paradigm change – from supply side approaches to market-building Programmatically (no hardware subsidies, no status quo) Professionally (engineers, public health practitioners, marketers think differently) Moving from beneficiaries to consumers Expect the unexpected…market directions are hard to define, they will grow organically to best serve the needs of participants; need to be ready to respond and react to these positive developments
  • This materials can be downloaded by clicking on the link provided on this slide. You can also send an email to one of the contact listed and we will send you the CD containing this materials.   We hope you will find it useful. Feel free to adapt it, copy and paste in your training manual or in any other materials as you see fit.   Please let us know how it works. Also 2010 productions from WSP: Reports on Global Scaling up Sanitation Project: Progress Report: Indonesia, Tanzania, and the States of Himachal Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, India July1 – December 31 2009 Building the Capacity of Local Government to Scale Up Community-Led Total Sanitation and Santiation Marketing in Rural Areas… April 2010 Case Study on sustainability of Rural Sanitation Marketing in Vietnam… April 2010 And from the WSP Sanitation Global Practice Team a Technical Paper on; Financing On-Site Sanitation for the Poor: A Six Country Comparative Review and Analysis… January 2010
  • Sarah Fry on HIP/ Madagascar Sanitation Marketing Malva Baskovitch on WSP /Peru Sanitation Marketing

Experiences and Lessons Learned in Sanitation Marketing Experiences and Lessons Learned in Sanitation Marketing Presentation Transcript

  • June 17, 2010 Welcome to HIP’s Webinar on Experiences and Lessons Learned in Sanitation Marketing Programs – 2008 to 2010
    • Presenters: Scott Tobias and Morris Israel, ARD, Inc.
  • The Contents of this Presentation …
    • Broad overview of Sanitation Marketing
    • HIP experiences in Madagascar, Uganda and Peru
    • Take-aways
    • Topics that require future investigation
  • Why the Urgency?
    • To reach the sanitation MDG, some 500 million households require reliable sanitation by 2015
    • And we must meet minimum standards for infrastructure
    • And we need solutions that reach the poorest
    • Requires an investment of some US$150 billion in capital costs
    • Traditional supply-side approaches cannot mobilize these kinds of resources
    • Traditional approaches have not worked
  • Why Sanitation Marketing?
    • Markets can mobilize the massive resources found in millions of households rather than depending on donors and governments
    • Markets supply the quality products and services that consumers want
    • Markets are financially sustainable as opposed to approaches that rely on external funds
    • Marketing is cost-effective and can be taken to scale
    • A toilet purchased is a toilet properly used and maintained…
  • The Hygiene Improvement Framework (HIF) for a Sanitation Market HARDWARE GOODS and SERVICES PROMOTION MARKETING and PROMOTION ENABLING ENVIRONMENT POLICY and LAWS HYGIENE IMPROVEMENT HH SANITATION
    • SUPPLY (Hardware)
    • Designs
    • Hardware
    • Construction services
    • Raw materials
    • Training
    • DEMAND (Promotion )
    • Behavior, social change
    • Community mobilization
    • Social marketing
    • ENABLING ENVIRONMENT
    • Policy, regs and codes
    • Financing, cost recovery
    • Partnerships
    • Inst. strengthening
  •  
  • What Do We Need to Do…
    • Assess and understand the market
    • Build capacity and facilitate relationships
    • Strengthen incentives
    • Nudge the market into “ignition” by supporting key market functions:
    • Develop appropriate products and services that respond to consumer preferences (including finance)
    • Create appropriate marketing messages and plans for promotion and communication to market the products and services to consumers
  • HIP Sanitation Marketing Activities
    • Madagascar
    • Uganda
    • Peru
    • HIP leads sanitation marketing activities in Madagascar and Uganda and provides support in Peru, working closely with appropriate government and non-government entities …
  • Madagascar
    • Objectives
    • Privately owned public pay-for-service toilet/shower/laundry facilities appropriate for urban areas, and sanitation/hygiene stores or product lines for hardware stores financed through specially designed bank loans
    • Context
    • Ongoing activities in hygiene improvement prior to sanitation market project
    • Coup changed partnership situation. HIP moved from national government to community and NGO focus
    • Sanitation marketing initiated in 2008 in four activity areas
    • Partners
    • Funding from USAID/Madagascar with Ministries of Health, Water, Diorano WASH Coordination Group, WaterAid, UNICEF, Scout Federation, Red Cross
  • Madagascar
    • Results
    • CLTS activities implemented by Scouts and faith-based NGOs.
    • HIP trains local masons to make SanPlat slabs and build quality latrines. Masons receive slab molds, start a business, work for the commune or NGOs.
    • Sanitation products point of sales. Small-scale production workshops produce the improved SanPlat latrine slab for resale in hardware stores.
    • Public private partnerships for urban neighborhood toilet/shower facilities. Renovated public toilets owned by the commune; facilitated a partnership between the commune and a privately contracted facility manager.
  • Uganda
    • Partners
    • Plan/Uganda, National Sanitation Working Group and UWASNET
    • Objectives
      • Develop Sanitation Marketing program in Tororo District
      • Field test approach and tools for rural sanitation marketing
    • Context
    • Supportive enabling environment
    • Largely rural setting
    • Previous demand creation through CLTS
  • Uganda
      • Results
      • Systematic approach with significant market research
      • Program implementation focused on sanitation products, esp. the slab
      • Introduced new product in response to expressed demand (dome slab)
      • Trained supply side actors in production techniques, supported by manuals and options catalogue
      • District-wide implementation with key partnerships
      • Developed Sanitation Marketing Strategy for Tororo District; platform for replicability and scale-up
  • Peru
    • Partners
    • WSP/Peru is lead implementer with support from multiple donors, including USAID Peru
    • Objectives
      • WSP/Peru learns how to establish self-sustaining sanitation markets by investigating 5 districts/demographics with 3 NGO implementers
      • Coordinate at national level with private sector and GoP to build buy-in for approach
    • Context
    • HIP provides technical support to WSP/Peru in program design, sustainability, M&E, etc.
    • Significant investment in up-front market and supply chain studies
    • Fully developed demand and supply side approaches
  • Peru
    • Results
    • Distinct demographics and more mature markets than Uganda and Madagascar
    • Consumers desire high-rung solutions – pour flush toilets
    • Government regulations impact ability to apply intermediate technologies
    • Markets established in 4 of the 5 districts – each evolved differently
    • Different actors emerge to perform key market functions – marketing and promotion is key function
    • Final year to consolidate, learn, build replication capacity in Peruvian organizations
  • Significant Take-Aways
    • Complex process that requires specialized skills, resources and commitment
    • Don’t underestimate what it takes to “understand” the market
    • Old habits die hard, on several levels
    • There is no ONE sanitation market
    • Expect the unexpected
    • Begin implementing the exit strategy on day 1
    • Government and a supportive enabling environment are critical
    • Financing coping strategies require focused attention and creativity
  • And Now What? …Addressing Gaps and Challenges
    • Need to understand how to establish sanitation markets in different demographics
    • How are essential market functions sustained, replicated and scaled up?
      • Need post-project evaluations to understand short-term and long-term dynamics
      • Manuals, guides, policies , and support for low-cost replication, expansion
    • Reaching the poorest
      • Creative financing, organizing bulk purchases, targeted subsidies
    • Developing the public sector role in the sanitation market
      • Environmental issues, leveraging public sector resources, M&E, quality control
    • Integrating objectives of sanitation marketing with public health approaches
  • Sanitation Marketing Resources
    • Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) : www.wsp.org
      • Cairncross, S (2004) The Case for Sanitation Marketing . WSP/World Bank Field Note
      • Jenkins, M (2004) Who Buys Latrines, Where and Why . WSP/World Bank Field Note
      • Frias, J and Mukerjee N (2005) Private Sector Sanitation Delivery in Vietnam: Harnessing Market Power for Rural Sanitation. WSP/World Bank Field Note
        • Sanitation Marketing for Managers: Guidance and Tools for Program Development (HIP), forthcoming – July 2010
        • HIP website : Go to : http://www.hip.watsan.net/page/4388
  • Contact Information
        • Scott Tobias [email_address]
        • Morris Israel [email_address]
        • Sandy Callier [email_address]
        • Sarah Fry sfry@aed.org
        • Malva Baskovitch [email_address]
    • THANK YOU
  • Question 1
    • In what districts in Peru did you implement the program, and what are the demographic differences you found? Which NGOs participated?
  • Question 2
    • Did you find the marketing of SanPlats in rural areas, particularly in Madagascar, effective or challenging due to lack of large populations?
  • Question 3
    • In urban environments, did you find challenges with land tenure where latrines were constructed?
  • Question 4
    • In urban settings, were there any particular models works better? Sanitation marketing, SanPlats, or other alternatives?
  • Question 5
    • Most sanitation markets are driven by NGOs.
    • Do governments get and want to drive the markets themselves?
  • Question 6
    • Are there any examples of how you’ve segmented market strategy according to market characteristics for products and services?
  • Question 7
    • In the Peru program, were there specific challenges with the pilot, why did the market not take off?
  • Question 8
    • What percentage of their income are people willing to pay for sanitation?
  • Question 9
    • Could you comment on the challenges you faced in terms of implementing sanitation marketing in the three countries where you worked?
  • Question 10
    • How can I be actively involved in the field?
  • Question 11
    • Do you have any plans to bring sanitation marketing to Haiti?
  • Question 12
    • What is the role of government as a purchaser
    • in terms of the economy of scale?
  • Question 13
    • It seems like sanitation marketing approaches require different sets of indicators than those used for conventional approaches.
    • What research has been done into which indicators and M&E methodologies will be most appropriate for sanitation marketing?
  • Question 14
    • I work in one of the most remote places in Bhutan. It is difficult to get sanitary hardware transported to the villages, and few are keen to sell it the village due to its location and sanitary materials are not seen as profitable.
    • How can I make sanitation improvement accessible to this community?