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URBACT Summer University 2013 - Masterclass - Catalin Berescu "Roma Ghettos in European Cities: Who Made Them?"

URBACT Summer University 2013 - Masterclass - Catalin Berescu "Roma Ghettos in European Cities: Who Made Them?"



Presentation given by Catalin Berescu during the URBACT Summer University 2013 in Dublin

Presentation given by Catalin Berescu during the URBACT Summer University 2013 in Dublin



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  • Negotiating the margins of the cathegories – criteria vs standards / principles vs indicators

URBACT Summer University 2013 - Masterclass - Catalin Berescu "Roma Ghettos in European Cities: Who Made Them?" URBACT Summer University 2013 - Masterclass - Catalin Berescu "Roma Ghettos in European Cities: Who Made Them?" Presentation Transcript

  • Roma Ghettos in European Cities: Who Made Them? Cătălin Berescu architect, PhD
  • What is a ghetto? • Who are the Roma? » Are Romanies migrants? What is a Gadje? » What is the difference between Romanians and Roma? • Who did the first ghetto? • Are we still building ghettos? – What about the illegal camps? • Who’s in, what and when are we going to do something? • EU to local – good practices? • Who is discriminating and on what grounds? • Social housing vs. forced evictions 2Roma Ghettos in European Cities:
  • Ghetto • Venice, Florence – segregation, political control • Shtetl – The Jewish Pale of settlements – teritorial segregation, prostitution, estreme poverty • Jadabwne, Dorohoi – neighbourhood pogrom • Iasi, Odessa – military pogrom • Budapest – urban planning operation, Holocaust / Shoah / Samudaripen • Chicago – hidden violence » Holocaust City - Tim Cole; Bodies and Souls – Isabel Vincent; Making the Second Ghetto – Arnold Hirsch; Neighbours – Jan Gross;
  • Ghetto • ghetto / slum / banlieu / barriada / mahala / varos / bidonville / șatră / țigănie / campo nomadi / platz / kampung » Urban Outcasts - Loic Wacquant; Planet of Slums – Mike Davis; Shadow Cities – Robert Newirth; Architecture for the Poor – Hassan Fathy » Global – local – glocal » Multiple determinations, intersectionality » Segregation, self-segregation, gated communities (ghettos chics) » Les ghettos du Gotha – Michel Pincon; Le ghetto francais – Eric Maurin
  • slum New Poverty Ghetto Historical Ghetto Jewish Ghetto in Venice, Warsaw, Budapest, etc. Rich black ghetto Ethno-Camp Non conflictual Ethnic neighbourghood (recent migrant areas, war refugee camps) subsidiarity, diminished ethnical dimension Residential segregation, Exposure to improper housing conditions, Exposure to hazard conditions (Environmental racism), Forced evictions, rent refusal, acces problems Ethno Park “Purely” ethnic areas mahala, igănie, atră,ț ș sat, new development zones with a strong ethnic dimension Substandard housi Discrimination Poverty Cultural Difference Ethnicity, Race, sexual orientation etc relative poverty banlieu poverty neighborghood severe poverty extreme poverty slum
  • Rosia Montana
  • Roma Ghettos in European Cities: SECOND PART: How to make a CV for a Ghetto researcher Catalin Berescu
  • CV: recycle / common space
  • CV: recycle - tradition Jurilovca – Dolosman Cape ADOBE 2006-2010
  • Dolosman
  • Adobe houses, floodings and Roma communities
  • CV: recycle - stereotypy Venice Architecture Biannual 2008
  • CV: recycle - stereotypy
  • CV: (re)cycle - science
  • CV: mapping the invisible Bucharest – Peisajului St. – informal Roma settlement in a flooding area - 2005 Forced evictions + residential segregation
  • CV: mapping the opinions
  • CV: mapping the toilets
  • CV: mapping poverty
  • CV: mapping the fear
  • CV: mapping the elections
  • CV: recycle ghettos
  • Roma Ghettos in European Cities: THIRD PART: Europe – State of the Art Catalin Berescu
  • Roma in Eastern Europe Who is a Roma? Where? How many?
  • Romania Romania has the largest number of Roma inhabitants in Europe. The economy of transition produced a decline in their housing condition, leading to an acute social exclusion. The racist attitude that forms the background of urban decisions can be seen today in the alarming development of the shantytowns surrounding the Romanian towns. The post revolution era reversed the process that defined the communist period – after the forced settlement of the nomads, the gypsies were the first to loose their jobs and to be evicted.
  • Romania Tirgu Mures – Cold Valley
  • Serbia • Gazela Bridge » Municipality relocation plan, Vladimir Macura - Holcim Awards, UNHABITAT, Roma Decade, Belville, Orlovsko Naselje
  • Slovakia “Some 14 walls segregating predominantly Roma neighbourhoods have popped up across the country since 2008, the latest erected in the country’s second largest city earlier this month. The walls differ in size and scope, but all are designed to segregate the poorer Roma communities from their neighbours. While such walls exist elsewhere in Europe the Slovak trend is exponentially stronger than anything underway elsewhere, said Dezideriu Gergely, executive director of the Budapest-based European Roma Rights Centre (ERRC). “This reflects and ‘us and them’ rhetoric that says there needs to be a clear distinction,” he said.” (The Economist, 25.07.2013) Nalepkovo (photo Marek Hojsik)
  • Hungary
  • Bulgaria
  • Greece
  • Greece
  • Roma in Western Europe
  • • Italy – Rome / Castel Romano Roma in Western Europe
  • Italy Castel Romano – Villagio della Solidarita (Walter Veltroni) 6 mil Euro
  • Napoli Via del Reposo
  • Napoli Scampia Casa Rosa
  • Napoli
  • France • Paris St. Denis / Aubervilliers / Bobigny • National Action Plan against Substandard Housing – Substandard, indecent (logement indigne), insalubrious, dangerous – Political vs. Technical vocabulary
  • Paris • St Denis
  • Paris
  • Paris
  • UK http://www.standard.co.uk
  • UK
  • Roma Ghettos in European Cities: FOURTH PART: Roma by Gadje Catalin Berescu
  • Nomad / settled • Are Roma nomads? • Are nomads Roma? • Roma vs. Gipsy Rudari/baiesi Lehliu - Romania
  • Roma Palaces Buzescu Foto:IoifKiraly
  • Roma Palaces Foto:IoifKiraly
  • Foto:IoifKiraly
  • Ciurea, Iasi Photo Serban Bonciocat Photo Peter Velciov Soroca, Moldova
  • Cluj – Pata Rat - Dallas
  • Cluj – Pata Rat – Garbage Pit
  • Roma Ghettos in European Cities: FINAL PART: The making-of a Ghetto Catalin Berescu
  • The Making of a Ghetto • Housing discrimination – Water » The European Roma Rights Centre is concerned by reports that municipal authorities in Torino, Italy, have cut the water supply of a public fountain providing water for approximately 300 Roma, including children and women. The Roma live in a nearby semiformal camp, Corso Tazzoli. The public fountain, the closest source of safe drinking water for the Roma, has been out of use since 29 July 2013. The ERRC is calling for the tap to be reconnected immediately. » Last week a Hungarian local authority cut public water supplies, affecting thousands of Roma. We are deeply concerned by these repeated incidents, and urge public authorities to allow Roma access to safe drinking water and to develop positive, proactive solutions for Roma communities and their inclusion. ( http://www.errc.org/article/italy-torino-municipality-shuts-off-water-supply-near- ) 59Title of Your Presentation
  • Orăştie – Mecanica Stadium Sorinel shows us the well proudly. It is the only water source for the 20 families that live here. They have been moved in the lockers under the Mecanica Stadium tribunes, from a delapidated block of flats with no utilities. Even if water is pouring from the ceilings whenever it rains, they succeeded in keeping the place clean. Medicinal plants grow here and there on the former football pitch; people look after a garden near the entrance, and there were several attempts to breed a swine, but the town hall denied it because they would "damage the pitch". Dampness and mould, chilliness and the garbage produced by "the dirty ones” lead to a high level of morbidity.
  • Orăştie – Mecanica Stadium
  • Orăştie – Mecanica Stadium
  • Orăştie – Mecanica Stadium
  • Miercurea Ciuc (Csikszereda) • Social housing for Roma
  • Municipality Ghetto
  • No intervention ghetto
  • No intervention ghetto
  • No intervention ghetto
  • NGO intervention
  • Dorohoi
  • Dorohoi Minimal apartment 5-6 people 3 rooms 13.500 Euro
  • Dorohoi
  • Roma Ghettos in European Cities: Who Made Them? Cătălin Berescu architect, PhD
  • Thank you!